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27 March 2017 | 12:00

Industry >> Electric Equipment - General

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ISIN No INE117A01022 52Week High 1434 Book Value (Rs.) 159.73 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 09/05/2017 52Week Low 931 EPS 17.76 P/E 66.75
Market Cap. 25113.26 Cr. P/BV 7.42 Div Yield (%) 0.00 Market Lot 1.00


You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2015-12 
1. Corporate information

ABB India Limited ('the Company') has served utility and industry customers for over six decades with the complete range of engineering, products, solutions and services in areas of Automation and Power technology. The Company has extensive installed base for manufacturing and a countrywide marketing and service presence. Besides catering to Indian domestic market, the Company is also playing an increasing role in the global market.

2.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India (Indian GAAP). The Company has prepared these financial statements to comply in all material respects with the accounting standards notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules 2014. The financial statements have been prepared on an accrual basis and under the historical cost convention except certain derivative financial instruments which have been measured at fair value.

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of financial statements are consistent with those used in the previous year.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities as at the date of the financial statements and reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision to accounting estimates is recognized prospectively in current and future periods.

2.3 Change in useful lives of assets

Pursuant to the requirements of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act"), the management has reassessed and changed, wherever necessary the useful lives to compute depreciation from January 1, 2015, which is the effective date for application of Schedule II for the Company. Accordingly, the carrying amount as at January, 1 2015 is being depreciated over the revised remaining useful life of the assets. The carrying value of Rs, 8.94 crores (net of deferred tax of Rs, 4.73 crores), in case of assets with nil revised remaining useful life as at January 1, 2015 is reduced from the retained earnings. Further, had the Company continued with the previously assessed useful lives, charge for depreciation for the year would have been lower and the profit for the year would have been higher by Rs, 37.96 crores.

2.4 Tangible and intangible assets

Fixed assets are stated at the cost of acquisition, less accumulated depreciation / amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Cost of fixed assets comprises purchase price, duties, levies and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Own manufactured assets are capitalized at cost including an appropriate share of overheads. Borrowing costs related to the acquisition or construction of the qualifying fixed assets for the period up to the completion of their acquisition or construction are capitalized, if capitalization criteria are met. Cost of fixed assets not ready for their intended use before balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work in progress.

Subsequent expenditure related to an item of fixed asset is added to its book value only if it increases the future benefits from the existing asset beyond its previously assessed standard of performance. All other expenses on existing fixed assets, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of fixed assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

Capitalized software includes costs on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Project and other costs relating to software, which provide significant future economic benefits. ERP Project costs comprise license fees and cost of system integration services. All costs relating to up gradations / enhancements are generally charged off as revenue expenditure unless they bring significant additional benefits of lasting nature.

2.5 Depreciation / amortization

Depreciation on assets (except those described below) is provided on the straight-line method at the rates and in the manner given in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013, which management considers as being representative of the useful economic lives of such assets. Depreciation is provided from the date of capitalization till the date of sale of assets.

The following assets are depreciated / amortized on the straight line method over a period of their estimated useful lives:

- Leasehold land and leasehold improvements over the period of the lease. - Technical know-how fees over the period of three to six years. - Capitalized software costs over a period of five years.

Goodwill on business acquisition is not amortized but tested for impairment.

2.6 Impairment of assets

The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date if there is any indication of impairment based on internal / external factors. An impairment loss is recognized wherever the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the greater of the asset's net selling price and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risks specific to the assets. In determining net selling price, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. Impairment losses, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. After impairment, depreciation is provided on the revised carrying amount of the assets over its remaining useful life.

A previously recognized impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset's recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognized. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

2.7 Investments

Investments that are readily realizable and intended to be held for not more than a year are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long-term investments. Current investments are carried at lower of cost and fair value determined on an individual investment basis. Long-term investments are carried at cost. However, provision for diminution in value is made to recognize a decline other than temporary in the value of the investments.

On disposal of an investment, the difference between its carrying amount and net disposal proceeds is charged or credited to the statement of profit and loss.

2.8 Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of various categories of inventories is arrived at as follows:

- Stores, spares, raw materials, components and traded goods - at rates determined on the moving weighted average method. - Goods in Transit - at actual cost.

- Work-in-progress and finished goods - at full absorption cost method which includes direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overheads. Cost is determined on weighted average method. Excise duty is included in the value of finished goods inventory.

Provision for obsolescence is made wherever necessary.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

2.9 Retirement and other employee benefits

Contribution to Superannuation Fund, a defined contribution scheme, is made at pre-determined rates to the Superannuation Fund Trust and is charged to the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related services. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust.

Contributions to the recognized Provident Fund / Gratuity Fund, defined benefits scheme, and provision for other long term employee benefits - leave are made on the basis of actuarial valuations using the projected unit credit method made at the end of each financial year and are charged to the statement of profit and loss during the year.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company presents the entire accumulated leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

Actuarial gains / losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

Expenses incurred towards voluntary retirement scheme are charged to the statement of profit and loss immediately.

2.10 Revenue recognition

Revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue can be reliably measured.

- Sales of products and services are recognized when significant risks and rewards of ownership of products are passed on to customers or when the service has been provided. In case of large transformers, revenue is recognized on achievement of contractual milestone. Revenue recognized in excess of billing has been reflected under "Other current assets" as unbilled revenue. Net sales are stated at contractual realizable values, net of excise duty, sales tax, service tax, value added tax and trade discounts.

- Revenues from long-term contracts are recognized on the percentage of completion method, in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under "Other current assets" and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under "Other current liabilities" in the balance sheet. Full provision is made for any loss in the year in which it is first foreseen.

- Liquidated damages / penalties are provided for as per the contract terms wherever there is a delayed delivery attributable to the Company.

- Commission income is recognized as per contract terms and when accrued.

- Income from development services are recognized on rendering of service as per contract terms.

- Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive dividend is established.

- Interest income is recognized on a time proportion method.

2.11 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

A provision is recognized when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made based on technical evaluation and past experience. Provisions are not discounted to its present value and are determined based on management estimate required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date. These are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current management estimates.

Disclosures for contingent liability are made when there is a possible or present obligation for which it is not probable that there will be an outflow of resources. When there is a possible or present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no disclosure is made.

Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed in the financial statements.

2.12 Foreign currency transactions

Foreign currency transactions are recorded by applying the daily exchange rates. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions settled during the year are recognized in the statement of profit and loss for the year.

All foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. The resultant exchange differences are recognized in the statement of profit and loss for the year. Non-monetary items, which are measured in terms of historical cost denominated in a foreign currency, are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items, which are measured at fair value or other similar valuation denominated in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date of transaction.

The Company uses derivative financial instruments such as forward exchange contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations.

Gain or loss on restatement of forward exchange contracts for hedging underlying outstanding at the balance sheet date are recognized in the statement of profit and loss for the year in which it occurs. The premium or discount on such contracts is recognized in the statement of profit and loss over the period of the contract.

Gain or loss on fair valuation of forward exchange contracts for hedging highly probable forecasted transactions not covered under Accounting Standard (AS) 11 "The effect of changes in foreign exchange rates" are recognized in the statement of profit and loss for the year in which it occurs.

The Company does not follow hedge accounting.

2.13 Taxation

Tax expense comprises current tax and deferred tax.

The current charge for income tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Indian Income Tax Act including probable adjustments, if any, for international transactions with associated enterprises.

The deferred tax for timing differences between the book and tax profits for the year is accounted for using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted as of the balance sheet date. Deferred tax assets arising from timing differences are recognized to the extent there is reasonable certainty that the assets can be realized in future. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each balance sheet date for its reliability. The Company writes-down the carrying amount of deferred tax assets to the extent it is no longer reasonably certain of its realization.

2.14 Operating leases

Leases, where the less or effectively retains substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the leased item, are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

2.15 Operating cycle

A portion of the Company's activities (primarily long-term construction activities) has an operating cycle that exceeds one year. Accordingly, assets and liabilities related to these long-term contracts, which will not be realized/paid within one year, have been classified as current. For all other activities, the operating cycle is twelve months.