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Company Information

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DLF LTD.

25 January 2022 | 12:00

Industry >> Construction & Contracting

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ISIN No INE271C01023 52Week High 450 Book Value (Rs.) 142.79 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 24/08/2021 52Week Low 232 EPS 4.42 P/E 86.07
Market Cap. 94123.73 Cr. P/BV 2.66 Div Yield (%) 0.53 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

DLF Limited (‘the Company') is primarily engaged in the business of colonization and real estate development. The operations of the Company span all aspects of real estate development, from the identification and acquisition of land, to planning, execution, construction and marketing of projects. The Company is also engaged in the business of leasing, maintenance services and recreational activities which are related to the overall development of real estate business. The Company is a public company domiciled in India and is incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act applicable in India. Its share are listed on two recognized stock exchanges in India. The registered office is situated at Shopping Mall, 3rd Floor, Arjun Marg, Phase I, DLF City, Gurugram - 122002, Haryana.

The standalone financial statements were authorized for issue in accordance with the resolution of the Board of Directors on dated May 21, 2019.

2.1 Basis of preparation

The standalone financial statements (‘financial statements') of the Company have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time) and presentation requirements of Division II of Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013, (Ind AS compliant Schedule III), as applicable to the standalone financial statements..

The standalone financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in India. Further, the standalone financial statements have been prepared on historical cost basis except for certain financial assets, financial liabilities, derivative financial instruments and share based payments which are measured at fair values as explained in relevant accounting policies.

In addition, the carrying values of recognized assets and liabilities designated as hedged items in cash flow hedges that would otherwise be carried at amortized cost are adjusted to record changes in the fair values attributable to the risks that are being hedged in effective hedge relationships.

The financial statements are presented in Rupees in lakhs, except when otherwise indicated.

2.2 Summary of significant accounting policies

a) Current and non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realized or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle.

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading.

- Expected to be realized within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle.

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading.

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

b) Property, plant and equipment

Recognition and initial measurement

Property, plant and equipment are stated at their cost of acquisition on transition to Ind AS, the Company had elected to measure all of its property, plant and equipment at the previous GAAP carrying value (deemed cost).

The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost, if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discount and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. When significant parts of plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit or loss as incurred.

Subsequent measurement (depreciation and useful lives)

Property, plant and equipment are subsequently measured at cost net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Depreciation on property, plant

The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of building, plant and equipment over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

De-recognition

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is de-recognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the income statement when the asset is de-recognized.

c) Capital work-in-progress and intangible assets under development

Capital work-in-progress and intangible assets under development represents expenditure incurred in respect of capital projects/ intangible assets under development and are carried at cost less accumulated impairment loss, if any. Cost includes land, related acquisition expenses, development/ construction costs, borrowing costs and other direct expenditure.

d) Investment properties

Recognition and initial measurement

Investment properties are properties held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation, or both. Investment properties are measured initially at their cost of acquisition, including transaction costs. On transition to Ind AS, the Company had elected to measure all of its investment properties at the previous GAAP carrying value (deemed cost). The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost, if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Any trade discount and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. When significant parts of the investment property are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company. All other repair and maintenance costs are recognized in statement of profit or loss as incurred.

Subsequent measurement (depreciation and useful lives)

The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of building, plant and equipment over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

* Includes certain assets wherein the Company has developed commercial space (in addition to automated multi-level car parking) over the land parcel received under the build, own, operate and transfer scheme of the public private partnership (as mentioned in the intangible assets policy below) which has been depreciated in the proportion in which the actual revenue received during the accounting year bears to the projected revenue from such assets till the end of concession period.

The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted prospectively.

Though the Company measures investment property using cost based measurement, the fair value of investment property is disclosed in the notes. Fair values are determined based on an annual evaluation performed by an accredited external independent valuer applying valuation model acceptable internationally.

De-recognition

Investment properties are de-recognized either when they have been disposed of or when they are permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from their disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognized in the statement of profit or loss in the period of de-recognition.

e) Intangible assets

Recognition and initial measurement

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. On transition to Ind AS, the Company had elected to measure all of its intangible assets at the previous GAAP carrying value (deemed cost). The cost comprises purchase price, borrowing cost if capitalization criteria are met and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalized development costs, are not capitalized and the related expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit or loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

The Company has acquired exclusive usage rights for 30 years under the build, own, operate and transfer scheme in respect of properties developed as automated multi-level car parking and commercial space and classified them under the “Intangible Assets - Right under build, own, operate and transfer arrangement”.

Subsequent measurement (amortization)

Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The cost of capitalized software is amortized over a period of 5 years from the date of its acquisition.

The cost of usage rights is being amortized over the concession period in the proportion in which the actual revenue received during the accounting year bears to the projected revenue from such intangible assets till the end of concession period.

De-recognition

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit or loss when the asset is de-recognized.

f) Investment in equity instruments of subsidiaries, partnership firms, joint ventures and associates

Investment in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are stated at cost as per Ind AS 27 ‘Separate

Financial Statements'. Where the carrying amount of an investment is greater than its estimated recoverable amount, it is assessed for recoverability and in case of permanent diminution provision for impairment is recorded in statement of Profit and Loss. On disposal of investment, the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount is charged or credited to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

g) Inventories

- Land and plots other than area transferred to constructed properties at the commencement of construction are valued at lower of cost/ as re-valued on conversion to stock and net realizable value. Cost includes land (including development rights and land under agreement to purchase) acquisition cost, borrowing cost if inventorisation criteria are met, estimated internal development costs and external development charges and other directly attributable costs.

- Construction work-in-progress of constructed properties other than Special Economic Zone (SEZ) projects includes the cost of land (including development rights and land under agreements to purchase), internal development costs, external development charges, construction costs, overheads, borrowing cost if inventorisation criteria are met, development/ construction materials and is valued at lower of cost/ estimated cost and net realizable value.

- In case of SEZ projects, construction work-in-progress of constructed properties include internal development costs, external development charges, construction costs, overheads, borrowing cost if inventorisation criteria are met, development/ construction materials and is valued at lower of cost/ estimated cost and net realizable value.

- Development rights represent amount paid under agreement to purchase land/ development rights and borrowing cost incurred by the Company to acquire irrevocable and exclusive licenses/ development rights in the identified land and constructed properties, the acquisition of which is either completed or is at an advanced stage. These are valued at lower of cost and net realizable value.

- Construction/ development material is valued at lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost comprises of purchase price and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Cost is determined on weighted average basis.

Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs of necessary to make the sale.

h) Revenue from contract or services with customer and other streams of revenue

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognized when control of the goods or services are transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company has generally concluded that it is the principal in its revenue arrangements because it typically controls the goods and services before transferring them to the customers.

The disclosures of significant accounting judgments, estimates and assumptions relating to revenue from contracts with customers are provided in note 2.2(aa).

i. Revenue from Contracts with Customers:

Pursuant to the application of Ind AS 115 - ‘Revenue from Contracts with Customers' effective from 1 April 2018, the Company has applied following accounting policy for revenue recognition:

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received/ receivable, taking into account contractually defined terms of payment and excluding taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government and is net of rebates and discounts. The Company assesses its revenue arrangements against specific criteria to determine if it is acting as principal or agent. The Company has concluded that it is acting as a principal in all of its revenue arrangements.

Revenue is recognized in the income statement to the extent that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the revenue and costs, if applicable, can be measured reliably.

The Company has applied five step model as per Ind AS 115 ‘Revenue from contracts with customers' to recognize revenue in the standalone financial statements. The Company satisfies a performance obligation and recognizes revenue over time, if one of the following criteria is met:

a) The customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company's performance as the Company performs; or

b) The Company's performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced; or

c) The Company's performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the Company and the entity has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.

For performance obligations where one of the above conditions are not met, revenue is recognized at the point in time at which the performance obligation is satisfied.

Revenue is recognized either at point of time and over a period of time based on various conditions as included in the contracts with customers.

Point of Time:

Revenue from real-estate projects

Revenue is recognized at a Point in Time w.r.t. sale of real estate units, including land, plots, apartments, commercial units, development rights as and when the control passes on to the customer which coincides with handing over of the possession to the customer.

Over a period of time:

Revenue is recognized over period of time for following stream of revenues:

Revenue from Co-development projects

Co-development projects where the Company is acting as trunkey contractor, revenue is recognized in accordance with the terms of the co-developer agreements. Under such contracts, assets created does not have an alternative use for the company and the Company has an enforceable right to payment. The estimated project cost includes construction cost, development and construction material, internal development cost, external development charges, borrowing cost and overheads of such project.

The estimates of the saleable area and costs are reviewed periodically and effect of any changes in such estimates is recognized in the period such changes are determined. However, when the total project cost is estimated to exceed total revenues from the project, the loss is recognized immediately.

Revenue from golf course operations

Income from golf operations, course capitation, sponsorship etc. is fixed and recognized as per the management agreement with the parties, as and when Company satisfies performance obligation by delivering the promised goods or services as per contractual agreed terms.

Maintenance income

Revenue in respect of maintenance services is recognized on an accrual basis, in accordance with the terms of the respective contract as and when the Company satisfies performance obligations by delivering the services as per contractual agreed terms.

Other operating income

Income from forfeiture of properties and delayed interest from customers under agreements to sell is accounted for on an accrual basis except in cases where ultimate collection is not reasonably ascertained.

ii. Volume rebates and early payment rebates

The Company provides move in rebates/ early payment rebates/ down payment rebates to the customers. Rebates are offset against amounts payable by the customer and revenue to be recognized. To estimate the variable consideration for the expected future rebates, the Company estimates the expected value of rebates that are likely to be incurred in future and recognizes the revenue net of rebates and recognizes the refund liability for expected future rebates.

iii. Contract balances

Contract assets

A contract asset is the right to consideration in exchange for goods or services transferred to the customer. If the Company performs by transferring goods or services to a customer before the customer pays consideration or before payment is due, a contract asset is recognized for the earned consideration that is conditional.

Trade receivables

A receivable represents the Company's right to an amount of consideration that is unconditional (i.e., only the passage of time is required before payment of the consideration is due). Refer to accounting policies of financial assets in section 2.2(t) Financial instruments - initial recognition and subsequent measurement.

Contract liabilities

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration (or an amount of consideration is due) from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognized when the payment is made or the payment is due (whichever is earlier). Contract liabilities are recognized as revenue when the Company performs under the contract.

i) Cost of revenue

Cost of real estate projects

Cost of constructed properties other than SEZ projects, includes cost of land (including cost of development rights/ land under agreements to purchase), estimated internal development costs, external development charges, borrowing costs, overheads, construction costs and development/ construction materials, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the revenue recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from real estate projects above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.

Cost of SEZ projects

Cost of constructed properties includes estimated internal development costs, external development charges, overheads, borrowing cost, construction costs and development/ construction materials, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the revenue recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from real estate SEZ projects above, in consonance with the concept of matching costs and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.

Cost of land and plots

Cost of land and plots includes land (including development rights), acquisition cost, estimated internal development costs and external development charges, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss based on the percentage of land/ plotted area in respect of which revenue is recognized as explained in accounting policy for revenue from ‘Sale of land and plots', in consonance with the concept of matching cost and revenue. Final adjustment is made on completion of the specific project.

Cost of development rights

Cost of development rights includes proportionate development rights cost, borrowing costs and other related cost, which is charged to statement of profit and loss as explained in accounting policy for revenue, in consonance with the concept of matching cost and revenue.

j) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and/ or construction/ production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss as incurred. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

k) Taxes

Current income tax

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. Current tax is determined as the tax payable in respect of taxable income for the year and is computed in accordance with relevant tax regulations. Current income tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) paid in a year is charged to the statement of profit and loss as current tax for the year. The deferred tax asset is recognized for MAT credit available only to the extent that it is probable that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period, i.e., the period for which MAT credit is allowed to be carried forward. In the year in which the Company recognizes MAT credit as an asset, it is created by way of credit to the statement of profit and loss and shown as part of deferred tax asset. The Company reviews the “MAT credit entitlement” asset at each reporting date and writes down the asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that it will pay normal tax during the specified period.

In the situations where one or more units/ undertaking in the Company are entitled to a tax holiday under the Income-tax Act, 1961 enacted in India or tax laws prevailing in the respective tax jurisdictions where they operate, no deferred tax (asset or liability) is recognized in respect of temporary differences which reverse during the tax holiday period, to the extent the concerned entity's gross total income is subject to the deduction during the tax holiday period. Deferred tax in respect of temporary differences which reverse after the tax holiday period is recognized in the year in which the temporary differences originate. However, the Company restricts recognition of deferred tax assets to the extent it is probable that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realized. For recognition of deferred taxes, the temporary differences which originate first are considered to reverse first.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is provided using the liability method on temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes at the reporting date.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized for all taxable temporary differences, except:

- In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future

Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, the carry forward of unused tax credits and any unused tax losses. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized. Unrecognized deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognized to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognized outside profit or loss is recognized outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognized in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Sales/ Value Added Taxes/ GST paid on acquisition of assets or on incurring expenses

Expenses and assets are recognized net of the amount of sales/ value added taxes/ Good and services tax paid, except:

- When the tax incurred on a purchase of assets or services is not recoverable from the taxation authority, in which case, the tax paid is recognized as part of the cost of acquisition of the asset or as part of the expense item, as applicable.

- When receivables and payables are stated with the amount of tax included.

The net amount of tax recoverable from, or payable to, the taxation authority is included as part of receivables or payables in the balance sheet.

l) Foreign currency transactions

Functional and presentation currency

The standalone financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (‘'') which is also the functional and presentation currency of the Company.

Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are recorded in the functional currency, by applying the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Foreign currency monetary items outstanding at the balance sheet date are converted to functional currency using the closing rate. Non-monetary items denominated in a foreign currency which are carried at historical cost are reported using the exchange rate at the date of the transactions.

Exchange differences arising on settlement of monetary items, or restatement as at reporting date, at rates different from those at which they were initially recorded, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which they arise.

m) Employee benefits

Provident Fund

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund is a defined benefit scheme. The Company makes contribution to statutory provident fund trust set up in accordance with the Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952. The Company has to meet the interest shortfall, if any. Accordingly, the contribution paid or payable and the interest shortfall, if any, is recognized as an expense in the period in which services are rendered by the employee. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Gratuity

Gratuity is a post-employment benefit and is in the nature of a defined benefit plan. The liability recognized in the balance sheet in respect of gratuity is the present value of the defined benefit/ obligation at the balance sheet date, together with adjustments for unrecognized actuarial gains or losses and past service costs. The defined benefit/ obligation is calculated at or near the balance sheet date by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. This is based on standard rates of inflation, salary growth rate and mortality. Discount factors are determined close to each year-end by reference to market yields on government bonds that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related liability. Service cost on the Company's defined benefit plan is included in employee benefits expense. Net interest expense on the net defined benefit liability is included in finance costs. Actuarial gains/ losses resulting from re-measurements of the liability are included in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur and are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods.

Compensated absences

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed within one year from the balance sheet date is recognized on the basis of discounted value of estimated amount required to be paid or estimated value of benefit expected to be availed by the employees. Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed more than one year after the balance sheet date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method.

Actuarial gains and losses arising from past experience and changes in actuarial assumptions are charged to statement of profit and loss in the year in which such gains or losses are determined.

Short-term employee benefits

Expense in respect of short-term benefits is recognized on the basis of the amount paid or payable for the period during which services are rendered by the employee. Contribution made towards superannuation fund (funded by payments to Life Insurance Corporation of India) is charged to statement of profit and loss on accrual basis.

n) Share based payments

Employee Stock Option Plan

The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value at the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model. That cost is recognized, together with a corresponding increase in share-based payment (SBP) reserves in equity, over the period in which the performance and/ or service conditions are fulfilled in employee benefits expense. The cumulative expense recognized for equity-settled transactions at each reporting date until the vesting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Company's best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The statement of profit and loss expense or credit for a period represents the movement in cumulative expense recognized as at the beginning and end of that period and is recognized in employee benefits expense. Upon exercise of share options, the proceeds received are allocated to share capital up to the par value of the shares issued with any excess being recorded as share premium.

Employee Shadow Option Scheme (cash settled options)

Fair value of cash settled options granted to employees under the Employee's Shadow Option Scheme is determined on the basis of excess of the average market price, during the month before the reporting date, over the exercise price of the shadow option. This fair value is expensed over the vesting period with recognition of a corresponding liability. The liability is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date up to and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognized in employee benefits expense over the vesting period.

o) Impairment of non-financial assets

At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication based on internal/ external factors, that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount and the impairment loss, including impairment on inventories, are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.

The Company bases its impairment calculation on detailed budgets and forecast calculation. These budgets and forecast calculations generally cover a period of five years. For longer periods, a long term growth rate is calculated and applied to project future cash flows after the fifth year.

If, at the reporting date there is an indication that a previously assessed impairment loss no longer exists, the recoverable amount is reassessed and the asset is reflected at the recoverable amount. Impairment losses previously recognized are accordingly reversed in the statement of profit and loss.

p) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of unrestricted cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company's cash management.

q) Cash dividend and non-cash distribution to equity holders

The Company recognizes a liability to make cash or noncash distributions to equity holders when the distribution is authorized and the distribution is no longer at the discretion of the Company. As per the corporate laws in India, a distribution is authorized when it is approved by the shareholders. A corresponding amount is recognized directly in equity.

Non-cash distributions are measured at the fair value of the assets to be distributed with fair value re-measurement recognized directly in equity.

Upon distribution of non-cash assets, any difference between the carrying amount of the liability and the carrying amount of the assets distributed is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

r) Provisions, contingent assets and contingent liabilities

Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognized as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

Onerous contracts

If the Company has a contract that is onerous, the present obligation under the contract is recognized and measured as a provision. However, before a separate provision for an onerous contract is established, the Company recognizes any impairment loss that has occurred on assets dedicated to that contract.

An onerous contract is a contract under which the unavoidable costs (i.e., the costs that the Company cannot avoid because it has the contract) of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it. The unavoidable costs under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, which is the lower of the cost of fulfilling it and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfill it.

These estimates are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimates.

Contingent liability is disclosed for:

- Possible obligations which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company, or

- Present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.

Contingent assets are neither recognized nor disclosed except when realization of income is virtually certain, related asset is disclosed.

s) Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as finance lease.

Finance leases, which effectively transfer to the lessee substantially all the risks and benefits incidental to ownership of the leased item, are capitalized at the lower of the fair value and present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease term and disclosed as leased assets. Lease payments under such leases are apportioned between the finance charges and reduction of the lease liability based on the implicit rate of return. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company's general policy on the borrowing costs (See note 2.2(j)). Contingent rentals are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred. A leased assets are depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain the ownership by the end of lease term, capitalized leased assets are depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of risk and rewards of ownership are retained by the less or are classified as operating leases. Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Company as a less or

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease except where scheduled increase in rent compensates the Company with expected inflationary costs. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the period in which they are earned. Fit-out rental income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss on accrual basis.

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company's net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

t) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

1) Financial Assets

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial assets are classified, at initial recognition, as subsequently measured at amortized cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (OCI) and fair value through profit or loss.

The classification of financial assets at initial recognition depends on the financial asset's contractual cash flow characteristics and the Company's business model for managing them. With the exception of trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component or for which the Company has applied the practical expedient, the Company initially measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs. Trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component or for which the Company has applied the practical expedient are measured at the transaction price determined under Ind AS 115. Refer to the accounting policies in section 2.2(h) ‘Revenue from contracts with customers'.

In order for a financial asset to be classified and measured at amortized cost or fair value through OCI, it needs to give rise to cash flows that are ‘solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI)' on the principal amount outstanding. This assessment is referred to as the SPPI test and is performed at an instrument level.

The Company's business model for managing financial assets refers to how it manages its financial assets in order to generate cash flows. The business model determines whether cash flows will result from collecting contractual cash flows, selling the financial assets, or both.

Subsequent measurement

i. Financial assets carried at amortized cost - a financial asset is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

- The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows; and

- Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

ii. Investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates - Investments in equity instruments of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are accounted for at cost in accordance with Ind AS 27 Separate Financial Statements.

iii. Investments in other equity instruments - Investments in equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). For all other equity instruments, the Company makes an irrevocable choice upon initial recognition, on an instrument by instrument basis, to classify the same either as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) or fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL). Amounts presented in other comprehensive income are not subsequently transferred to profit or loss. However, the Company transfers the cumulative gain or loss within equity. Dividends on such investments are recognized in profit or loss unless the dividend clearly represents a recovery of part of the cost of the investment.

iv.Investments in mutual funds - Investments in mutual funds are measured at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL).

De-recognition of financial assets

A financial asset is primarily de-recognized when the contractual rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss for financial assets.

ECL is the weighted-average of difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive, discounted at the original effective interest rate, with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. When estimating the cash flows, the Company is required to consider:

- All contractual terms of the financial assets (including prepayment and extension) over the expected life of the assets.

- Cash flows from the sale of collateral held or other credit enhancements that are integral to the contractual terms.

(i) Trade receivables

In respect of trade receivables, the Company applies the simplified approach of Ind AS 109, which requires measurement of loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument.

(ii) Other financial assets

In respect of its other financial assets, the Company assesses if the credit risk on those financial assets has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses, else at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses.

When making this assessment, the Company uses the change in the risk of a default occurring over the expected life of the financial asset. To make that assessment, the Company compares the risk of a default occurring on the financial asset as at the balance sheet date with the risk of a default occurring on the financial asset as at the date of initial recognition and considers reasonable and supportable information, that is available without undue cost or effort, that is indicative of significant increases in credit risk since initial recognition. The Company assumes that the credit risk on a financial asset has not increased significantly since initial recognition if the financial asset is determined to have low credit risk at the balance sheet date.