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Company Information

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HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LTD.

09 April 2021 | 12:00

Industry >> Personal Care

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ISIN No INE030A01027 52Week High 2526 Book Value (Rs.) 35.04 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 29/10/2020 52Week Low 1902 EPS 28.72 P/E 86.21
Market Cap. 581752.99 Cr. P/BV 70.66 Div Yield (%) 1.39 Market Lot 1.00

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

1.1 SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

(a) Property, Plant and Equipment:

Property, plant and equipment is stated at acquisition cost net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Property, plant and equipment acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance cost are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during the period in which they are incurred.

Gains or losses arising on retirement or disposal of property, plant and equipment are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Property, plant and equipment which are not ready for intended use as on the date of Balance Sheet are disclosed as “Capital work-in-progress”.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date is classified as capital advances under “Other Non Current Assets”.

Depreciation is provided on a pro-rata basis on the straight-line method based on estimated useful life prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 with the exception of the following:

- plant and equipment is depreciated over 3 to 21 years based on the technical evaluation of useful life done by the management.

- assets costing Rs. 5,000 or less are fully depreciated in the year of purchase.

Freehold land is not depreciated.

The residual values, useful lives and method of depreciation of property, plant and equipment is reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

(b) Intangible Assets:

Intangible assets purchased are initially measured at cost. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequently, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite. Finite-life intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over the period of their estimated useful lives. Estimated useful lives by major class of finite-life intangible assets are as follows:

Design - 10 years

Know-how - 10 years

Computer software - 5 years

Trademarks - 5 years

The amortisation period and the amortisation method for finite-life intangible assets is reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

For indefinite life intangible assets, the assessment of indefinite life is reviewed annually to determine whether it continues, if not, it is impaired or changed prospectively basis revised estimates.

Goodwill is initially recognised based on the accounting policy for business combinations [refer note 2.4. (r)] and is tested for impairment annually.

(c) Investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint

Ventures:

Investments in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint venture, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(d) Inventories:

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is computed on a weighted average basis. Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress include all costs of purchases, conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. The net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

(e) Cash and Cash Equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents are cash, balances with bank and short-term (three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

(f) Assets Held for Sale:

Non-current assets or disposal groups comprising of assets and liabilities are classified as ‘held for sale’ when all the following criteria are met: (i) decision has been made to sell. (ii) the assets are available for immediate sale in its present condition. (iii) the assets are being actively marketed and (iv) sale has been agreed or is expected to be concluded within 12 months of the Balance Sheet date.

Subsequently, such non-current assets and disposal groups classified as ‘held for sale’ are measured at the lower of its carrying value and fair value less costs to sell. Non-current assets held for sale are not depreciated or amortised.

(g) Financial Instruments:

Financial Assets:

Financial assets are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

On initial recognition, a financial asset is recognised at fair value. In case of Financial assets which are recognised at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), its transaction cost is recognised in the statement of profit and loss. In other cases, the transaction cost is attributed to the acquisition value of the financial asset.

Financial assets are subsequently classified and measured at

- amortised cost

- fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL)

- fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI).

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their recognition, except during the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

Trade Receivables and Loans:

Trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value. Subsequently, these assets are held at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate (EIR) method net of any expected credit losses. The EIR is the rate that discounts estimated future cash income through the expected life of financial instrument.

Debt Instruments:

Debt instruments are initially measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (‘FVOCI’) or fair value through profit or loss (‘FVTPL) till derecognition on the basis of (i) the company’s business model for managing the financial assets and (ii) the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

(i) Measured at amortised cost:

Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (‘EIR’) method less impairment, if any. The amortisation of EIR and loss arising from impairment, if any is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Measured at fair value through other comprehensive

Income (FVOCI):

Financial assets that are held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both, selling financial assets and collecting contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). Interest income measured using the EIR method and impairment losses, if any are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On derecognition, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(iii) Measured at fair value through profit or loss

(FVTPL):

A financial asset not classified as either amortised cost or FVOCI, is classified as FVTPL. Such financial assets are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value, including interest income and dividend income if any, recognised as ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Equity Instruments:

All investments in equity instruments classified under financial assets are initially measured at fair value, the Company may, on initial recognition, irrevocably elect to measure the same either at FVOCI or FVTPL.

The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. Fair value changes on an equity instrument is recognised as ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss unless the Company has elected to measure such instrument at FVOCI. Fair value changes excluding dividends, on an equity instrument measured at FVOCI are recognised in OCI. Amounts recognised in OCI are not subsequently reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Dividend income on the investments in equity instruments are recognised as ‘other income’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivative Financial Instruments:

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts to hedge its foreign currency risk. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Any changes therein are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the contractual rights to receive the cash flows from the asset.

Impairment of Financial Asset

The Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of loss allowance on the following:

i. Trade receivables

ii. Financial assets measured at amortized cost (other than trade receivables)

iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

In case of trade receivables, the Company follows a simplified approach wherein an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.

In case of other assets (listed as ii and iii above), the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to 12-month ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.

Subsequently, if the credit quality of the financial asset improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial asset. 12-month ECL are a portion of the lifetime ECL which result from default events that are possible within 12 months from the reporting date.

ECL are measured in a manner that they reflect unbiased and probability weighted amounts determined by a range of outcomes, taking into account the time value of money and other reasonable information available as a result of past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to measure lifetime ECL on its portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is prepared based on historically observed default rates over the expected life of trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At each reporting date, the historically observed default rates and changes in the forward-looking estimates are updated.

ECL allowance recognised (or reversed) during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss under the head ‘Other expenses’.

Financial Liabilities:

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Financial liabilities are initially measured at the amortised cost unless at initial recognition, they are classified as fair value through profit and loss. In case of trade payables, they are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently, these liabilities are held at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.

Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. Financial liabilities carried at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value with all changes in fair value recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expires.

(h) Provisions and Contingent Liabilities:

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are measured at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the Balance Sheet date.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted to reflect its present value using a current pre-tax rate that reflects the current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.

(i) Revenue Recognition:

Effective April 1, 2018, the Company has applied Ind AS 115: Revenue from Contracts with Customers which establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue is to be recognised. Ind AS 115 replaces Ind AS 18 Revenue. The impact of the adoption of the standard on the financial statements of the Company is insignificant.

Revenue from sale of goods is recognised when control of the products being sold is transferred to our customer and when there are no longer any unfulfilled obligations.

The Performance Obligations in our contracts are fulfilled at the time of dispatch, delivery or upon formal customer acceptance depending on customer terms.

Revenue is measured at fair value of the consideration received or receivable, after deduction of any trade discounts, volume rebates and any taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government such as goods and services tax, etc. Accumulated experience is used to estimate the provision for such discounts and rebates. Revenue is only recognised to the extent that it is highly probable a significant reversal will not occur.

Our customers have the contractual right to return goods only when authorised by the Company. An estimate is made of goods that will be returned and a liability is recognised for this amount using a best estimate based on accumulated experience.

Income from services rendered is recognised based on agreements/arrangements with the customers as the service is performed and there are no unfulfilled obligations.

Interest income is recognized using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

Dividend income on investments is recognised when the right to receive dividend is established.

(j) Government Grant:

The Company is entitled to ‘Scheme of budgetary support’ under Goods and Service Tax Regime in respect of eligible manufacturing units located in specified regions. Such grants are measured at amount receivable from the government and are recognised as other operating revenue when there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with all necessary conditions attached to that.

Income from such grants is recognised on a systematic basis over the periods to which they relate.

(k) Expenditure:

Expenses are accounted on accrual basis.

(l) Employee Benefits:

Defined contribution plans

Contributions to defined contribution schemes such as employees’ state insurance, labour welfare fund, superannuation scheme, employee pension scheme etc. are charged as an expense based on the amount of contribution required to be made as and when services are rendered by the employees. Company’s provident fund contribution, in respect of certain employees, is made to a government administered fund and charged as an expense to the Statement of Profit and Loss. The above benefits are classified as Defined Contribution Schemes as the Company has no further defined obligations beyond the monthly contributions.

Defined benefit plans

In respect of certain employees, provident fund contributions are made to a trust administered by the Company. The interest rate payable to the members of the trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Company. The liability in respect of the shortfall of interest earnings of the Fund is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation. The Company also provides for retirement/ post-retirement benefits in the form of gratuity, pensions (in respect of certain employees), compensated absences (in respect of certain employees) and medical benefits (in respect of certain employees) including to the employees of group companies.

For defined benefit plans, the amount recognised as ‘Employee benefit expenses’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss is the cost of accruing employee benefits promised to employees over the year and the costs of individual events such as past/future service benefit changes and settlements (such events are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss). The amount of net interest expense calculated by applying the liability discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset is charged or credited to ‘Finance costs’ in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Any differences between the expected interest income on plan assets and the return actually achieved, and any changes in the liabilities over the year due to changes in actuarial assumptions or experience adjustments within the plans, are recognised immediately in ‘Other comprehensive income’ and subsequently not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The defined benefit plan surplus or deficit on the Balance Sheet date comprises fair value of plan assets less the present value of the defined benefit liabilities using a discount rate by reference to market yields on government bonds at the end of the reporting period.

All defined benefit plans obligations are determined based on valuations, as at the Balance Sheet date, made by independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. The classification of the Company’s net obligation into current and non-current is as per the actuarial valuation report.

Termination benefits

Termination benefits, in the nature of voluntary retirement benefits or termination benefits arising from restructuring, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognises termination benefits at the earlier of the following dates:

(a) when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of those or

(b) when the Company recognises costs for a restructuring that is within the scope of Ind AS 37: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and involves the payment of termination benefits.

Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to their present value.

Share-Based Payments

Employees of the Company receive remuneration in the form of share-based payments in consideration of the services rendered.Under the equity settled share based payment, the fair value on the grant date of the awards given to employees is recognised as ‘employee benefit expenses’ with a corresponding increase in equity over the vesting period. The fair value of the options at the grant date is calculated by an independent valuer basis Black Scholes model. At the end of each reporting period, apart from the non-market vesting condition, the expense is reviewed and adjusted to reflect changes to the level of options expected to vest. When the options are exercised, the Company issues fresh equity shares.

For cash-settled share-based payments, the fair value of the amount payable to employees is recognised as ‘employee benefit expenses’ with a corresponding increase in liabilities, over the period of non-market vesting conditions getting fulfilled. The liability is remeasured at each reporting period up to, and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expenses. Refer Note 41 for details.

(m) Impairment of Non-Financial Assets:

Assessment for impairment is done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. Indefinite life intangible assets are subject to a review for impairment annually or more frequently if events or circumstances indicate that it is necessary. For the purpose of assessing impairment, the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets is considered as a cash generating unit. Goodwill acquired in a business combination is, from the acquisition date, allocated to each of the Company’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination, irrespective of whether other assets or liabilities of the acquire are assigned to those units.

If any indication of impairment exists, an estimate of the recoverable amount of the individual asset/cash generating unit is made. Asset/cash generating unit whose carrying value exceeds their recoverable amount are written down to the recoverable amount by recognising the impairment loss as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill (if any) allocated to the cash generating unit and then to the other assets of the unit, pro rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Recoverable amount is higher of an asset’s or cash generating unit’s fair value less cost of disposal and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset or cash generating unit and from its disposal at the end of its useful life. Assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is any indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods may no longer exist or may have decreased. Basis the assessment a reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than goodwill is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss account.

(n) Income Taxes:

Income tax expense for the year comprises of current tax and deferred tax. It is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent it relates to a business combination or to an item which is recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

Current tax is the expected tax payable/receivable on the taxable income/loss for the year using applicable tax rates for the relevant period, and any adjustment to taxes in respect of previous years. Interest expenses and penalties, if any, related to income tax are included in finance cost and other expenses respectively. Interest Income, if any, related to Income tax is included in Other Income.

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes.

A deferred tax liability is recognised based on the expected manner of realisation or settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, using tax rates enacted, or substantively enacted, by the end of the reporting period. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the asset can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle the asset and the liability on a net basis. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority.

(o) Leases:

Leases in which a substantial portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments and receipts under such leases are recognised to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease unless the lease payments to the lessor are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases, in which case the same are recognised as an expense in line with the contractual term.

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the lessee.

(p) Foreign Currencies:

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using exchange rates at the date of the transaction. Foreign exchange gains and losses from settlement of these transactions are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, the gain or loss arising from such translations are recognised in the statement of profit & loss.

(q) Earnings Per Share:

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit for the period attributable to the equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all periods presented is adjusted for events, such as bonus shares, other than the conversion of potential equity shares that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(r) Business Combination:

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition accounting method as at the date of the acquisition, which is the date at which control is transferred to the Company. The consideration transferred in the acquisition and the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recognised at fair values on their acquisition date. Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the amount recognised for non-controlling interests, and any previous interest held, over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. The Company recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquired entity on an acquisition-by-acquisition basis either at fair value or at the noncontrolling interest’s proportionate share of the acquired entity’s net identifiable assets. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to settlement of preexisting relationships. Such amounts are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Transaction costs are expensed as incurred, other than those incurred in relation to the issue of debt or equity securities. Any contingent consideration payable is measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes in the fair value of contingent consideration are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.