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Company Information

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VEDANTA LTD.

16 April 2021 | 12:00

Industry >> Mining/Minerals

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ISIN No INE205A01025 52Week High 245 Book Value (Rs.) 146.98 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 31/10/2020 52Week Low 73 EPS 0.00 P/E 0.00
Market Cap. 86164.62 Cr. P/BV 1.58 Div Yield (%) 1.68 Market Lot 1.00

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

1(a) SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

(A) Revenue recognition

- Sale of goods/rendering of services (Revenue from contracts with customers)

The Company's revenue from contracts with customers is mainly from the sale of oil and gas, aluminium, copper, iron ore and power. Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised when control of the goods or services is transferred to the customer which usually is on delivery of the goods to the shipping agent at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recognised net of discounts, volume rebates, outgoing sales taxes/ goods and service tax and other indirect taxes excluding excise duty. Revenues from sale of by-products are included in revenue.

Certain of the Company's sales contracts provide for provisional pricing based on the price on the London Metal Exchange (LME) and crude index, as specified in the contract. Revenue in respect of such contracts is recognised when control passes to the customer and is measured at the amount the entity expects to be entitled - being the estimate of the price expected to be received at the end of the measurement period. Post transfer of control of goods, provisional pricing features are accounted in accordance with Ind AS 109 'Financial Instruments' rather than Ind AS 115 and therefore the Ind AS 115 rules on variable consideration do not apply. These 'provisional pricing' adjustments i.e. the consideration received post transfer of control are included in Revenue on the face of the statement of profit and loss and disclosed by way of note to the financial statements. Final settlement of the price is based on the applicable price for a specified future period. The Company's provisionally priced sales are marked to market using the relevant forward prices for the future period specified in the contract and is adjusted in revenue.

Revenue from oil, gas and condensate sales represent the Company's share of oil, gas and condensate production, recognised on a direct entitlement basis, when control is transferred to the buyers. Direct entitlement basis represents entitlement to variable physical volumes of hydrocarbons, representing recovery of the costs incurred and a stipulated share of the production remaining after such cost recovery. The stipulated share of production is arrived at after reducing government's share of profit petroleum which is accounted for when the obligation in respect of the same arises.

Revenue from sale of power is recognised when delivered and measured based on rates as per bilateral contractual agreements with buyers and at a rate arrived at based on the principles laid down under the relevant Tariff Regulations as notified by the regulatory bodies, as applicable.

A contract asset is the right to consideration in exchange for goods or services transferred to the customer. If the Company performs part of its obligation by transferring goods or services to a customer before the customer pays consideration or before payment is due, a contract asset is recognised for the earned consideration when that right is conditional on the Company's future performance.

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognised when the payment is received. Contract liabilities are recognised as revenue when the Company performs under the contract.

The Company does not expect to have any contracts where the period between the transfer of the promised goods or services to the customer and payment by the customer exceeds one year. As a consequence, the Company does not adjust any of the transaction prices for the time value of money.

- Interest income

Interest income from debt instruments is recognised using the effective interest rate method. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to the gross carrying amount of a financial asset.

When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options) but does not consider the expected credit losses.

- Dividends

Dividend income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss only when the right to receive payment is established, provided it is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividend will flow to the Company, and the amount of the dividend can be measured reliably.

(B) Property, plant and equipment

i) Mining properties and leases

When a decision is taken that a mining property is viable for commercial production (i.e. when the Company determines that the mining property will provide sufficient and sustainable return relative to the risks and the Company decided to proceed with the mine development), all further pre-production primary development expenditure other than that on land, buildings, plant, equipment and capital work in progress is capitalized as property, plant and equipment under the heading "Mining properties and leases” together with any amount transferred from "Exploration and evaluation” assets. The costs of mining properties and leases include the costs of acquiring and developing mining properties and mineral rights.

The stripping cost incurred during the production phase of a surface mine is deferred to the extent the current period stripping cost exceeds the average period stripping cost over the life of mine and recognised as an asset if such cost provides a benefit in terms of improved access to ore in future periods and certain criteria are met. When the benefit from the stripping costs are realised in the current period, the stripping costs are accounted for as the cost of inventory. If the costs of inventory produced and the stripping activity asset are not separately identifiable, a relevant production measure is used to allocate the production stripping costs between the inventory produced and the stripping activity asset.

The Company uses the expected volume of waste compared with the actual volume of waste extracted for a given value of ore/mineral production for the purpose of determining the cost of the stripping activity asset.

Deferred stripping costs are included in mining properties within property, plant and equipment and disclosed as a part of mining properties. After initial recognition, the stripping activity asset is depreciated on a unit of production method over the expected useful life of the identified component of the ore body.

In circumstances where a property is abandoned, the cumulative capitalised costs relating to the property are written off in the period in which it occurs i.e. when the Company determines that the mining property will not provide sufficient and sustainable returns relative to the risks and the Company decides not to proceed with the mine development.

Commercial reserves are proved and probable reserves as defined by the 'JORC' Code, 'MOrC' code or 'SAMREC' Code. Changes in the commercial reserves affecting unit of production calculations are dealt with prospectively over the revised remaining reserves.

ii) Oil and gas assets- (developing/producing assets)

For oil and gas assets a successful efforts based accounting policy is followed. Costs incurred prior to obtaining the legal rights to explore an area are expensed immediately to the statement of profit and loss.

All costs incurred after the technical feasibility and commercial viability of producing hydrocarbons has been demonstrated are capitalised within property, plant and equipment -development/producing assets on a field-by-field basis. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only where it either enhances the economic benefits of the development/ producing asset or replaces part of the existing development/ producing asset. Any remaining costs associated with the part replaced are expensed.

Net proceeds from any disposal of development/producing assets are credited against the previously capitalised cost.

A gain or loss on disposal of a development/producing asset is recognised in the statement of profit and loss to the extent that the net proceeds exceed or are less than the appropriate portion of the net capitalised costs of the asset.

iii) Other property, plant and equipment

The initial cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, and any directly attributable costs of bringing an asset to working condition and location for its intended use. It also includes the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

Land acquired free of cost or at below market rate from the government is recognized at fair value with corresponding credit to deferred income.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment. All other expenses on existing property, plant and equipment, including day-to-day repair and maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the period during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains and losses on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment computed as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is included in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised. Major inspection and overhaul expenditure is capitalized, if the recognition criteria are met.

iv) Assets under construction

Assets under construction are capitalized in the assets under construction account. At the point when an asset is capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the cost of construction is transferred to the appropriate category of property, plant and equipment. Costs associated with the commissioning of an asset and any obligations for decommissioning costs are capitalised until the period of commissioning has been completed and the asset is ready for its intended use.

v) Depreciation, depletion and amortisation expense

Mining properties and other assets in the course of development or construction and freehold land are not depreciated or amortised.

- Mining properties

The capitalised mining properties are amortised on a unit-of-production basis over the total estimated remaining commercial proved and probable reserves of each property or group of properties and are subject to impairment review. Costs used in the unit of production calculation comprise the net book value of capitalised costs plus the estimated future capital expenditure required to access the commercial reserves. Changes in the estimates of commercial reserves or future capital expenditure are dealt with prospectively.

Leasehold land and buildings are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease or, if shorter, their useful economic life.

- Oil and gas assets

All expenditures carried within each field are amortised from the commencement of production on a unit of production basis, which is the ratio of oil and gas production in the period to the estimated quantities of depletable reserves at the end of the period plus the production in the period, generally on a field-by-field basis or group of fields which are reliant on common infrastructure.

Depletable reserves are proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for successful exploratory wells, development wells, processing facilities, distribution assets, estimated future abandonment cost and all other related costs. These assets are depleted within each cost centre. Reserves for this purpose are considered on working interest basis which are reassessed atleast annually. Impact of changes to reserves are accounted for prospectively.

- Other assets

Depreciation on other property, plant and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method (SLM) to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives (determined by the management) as given below.

Management's assessment takes into account, inter alia, the nature of the assets, the estimated usage of the assets, the operating conditions of the assets, past history of replacement and maintenance support.

Estimated useful lives of assets are as follows:

Major inspection and overhaul costs are depreciated over the estimated life of the economic benefit derived from such costs. The carrying amount of the remaining previous overhaul cost is charged to the statement of profit and loss if the next overhaul is undertaken earlier than the previously estimated life of the economic benefit.

The Company reviews the residual value and useful life of an asset at least at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate.

(C) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Subsequently, intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life on a straight line basis. Software is amortised over the estimated useful life ranging from 0-5 years. Amounts paid for securing mining rights are amortised over the period of the mining lease ranging from 16-25 years.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

The amortization period and the amortization method are reviewed at least at each financial year end. If the expected useful life of the asset is different from previous estimates, the change is accounted for prospectively as a change in accounting estimate.

(D) Exploration and evaluation intangible assets

Exploration and evaluation expenditure incurred prior to obtaining the mining right or the legal right to explore are expensed as incurred.

Exploration and evaluation expenditure incurred after obtaining the mining right or the legal right to explore are capitalised as exploration and evaluation assets (intangible assets) and stated at cost less impairment, if any. Exploration and evaluation intangible assets are transferred to property, plant and equipment when the technical feasibility and commercial viability has been determined. Exploration intangible assets under development are assessed for impairment and impairment loss, if any, is recognised prior to reclassification.

Exploration expenditure includes all direct and allocated indirect expenditure associated with finding specific mineral resources which includes depreciation and applicable operating costs of related support equipment and facilities and other costs of exploration activities:

- Acquisition costs - costs associated with acquisition of licenses and rights to explore, including related professional fees

- General exploration costs - costs of surveys and studies, rights of access to properties to conduct those studies (e.g., costs incurred for environment clearance, defence clearance, etc.), and salaries and other expenses of geologists, geophysical crews and other personnel conducting those studies.

- Costs of exploration drilling and equipping exploration and appraisal wells.

Exploration expenditure incurred in the process of determining oil and gas exploration targets is capitalised within "Exploration and evaluation assets” (intangible assets) and subsequently allocated to drilling activities. Exploration drilling costs are initially capitalised on a well-by-well basis until the success or otherwise of the well has been established. The success or failure of each exploration effort is judged on a well-by-well basis. Drilling costs are written off on completion of a well unless the results indicate that hydrocarbon reserves exist and there is a reasonable prospect that these reserves are commercial.

Following appraisal of successful exploration wells, if commercial reserves are established and technical feasibility for extraction demonstrated, then the related capitalised exploration costs are transferred into a single field cost center within property, plant and equipment - development/ producing assets after testing for impairment. Where results of exploration drilling indicate the presence of hydrocarbons which are ultimately not considered commercially viable, all related costs are written off to the statement of profit and loss.

Expenditure incurred on the acquisition of a license interest is initially capitalised on a license-by-license basis. Costs are held, undepleted, within exploration and evaluation assets until such time as the exploration phase on the license area is complete or commercial reserves have been discovered.

Net proceeds from any disposal of an exploration asset are initially credited against the previously capitalised costs.

Any surplus/ deficit is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(E) Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use.

This condition is regarded as met only when the sale is highly probable and the asset (or disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition. Management must be committed to the sale which should be expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.

Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are not depreciated and are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Such assets and disposal groups are presented separately on the face of the balance sheet.

(F) Impairment of non-financial assets

Impairment charges and reversals are assessed at the level of cash-generating units. A cash-generating unit (CGU) is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generate cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets.

The Company assesses at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. The Company conducts an internal review of asset values annually, which is used as a source of information to assess for any indications of impairment or reversal of previously recognised impairment losses. Internal and external factors, such as worse economic performance than expected, changes in expected future prices, costs and other market factors are also monitored to assess for indications of impairment or reversal of previously recognised impairment losses.

If any such indication exists then an impairment review is undertaken and the recoverable amount is calculated, as the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and the asset's value in use.

Fair value less costs of disposal is the price that would be received to sell the asset in an orderly transaction between market participants and does not reflect the effects of factors that may be specific to the entity and not applicable to entities in general. Fair value for mineral and oil and gas assets is generally determined as the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continued use of the asset, including any expansion prospects, and its eventual disposal, using assumptions that an independent market participant may take into account. These cash flows are discounted at an appropriate post tax discount rate to arrive at the net present value.

Value in use is determined as the present value of the estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continued use of the asset in its present form and its eventual disposal. The cash flows are discounted using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted. Value in use is determined by applying assumptions specific to the Company's continued use and cannot take into account future development. These assumptions are different to those used in calculating fair value and consequently the value in use calculation is likely to give a different result to a fair value calculation.

The carrying amount of the CGU is determined on a basis consistent with the way the recoverable amount of the CGU is determined.

If the recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset or CGU is reduced to its recoverable amount.

An impairment loss is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Any reversal of the previously recognised impairment loss is limited to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognised.

Exploration and evaluation assets:

In assessing whether there is any indication that an exploration and evaluation asset may be impaired, the Company considers, as a minimum, the following indicators:

- the period for which the Company has the right to explore in the specific area has expired during the period or will expire in the near future, and is not expected to be renewed;

- substantive expenditure on further exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources in the specific area is neither budgeted nor planned;

- exploration for and evaluation of mineral resources in the specific area have not led to the discovery of commercially viable quantities of mineral resources and the Company has decided to discontinue such activities in the specific area;

- sufficient data exist to indicate that, although a development in the specific area is likely to proceed, the carrying amount of the exploration and evaluation asset is unlikely to be recovered in full from successful development or by sale; and

- reserve information prepared annually by external experts

When a potential impairment is identified, an assessment is performed for each area of interest in conjunction with the group of operating assets (representing a cash-generating unit) to which the exploration and evaluation assets is attributed. Exploration areas in which reserves have been discovered but require major capital expenditure before production can begin, are continually evaluated to ensure that commercial quantities of reserves exist or to ensure that additional exploration work is underway or planned. To the extent that capitalised expenditure is no longer expected to be recovered, it is charged to the statement of profit and loss.

(G) Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

(i) Financial Assets - recognition & subsequent measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

- Debt instruments at amortised cost

A 'debt instrument' is measured at amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the Effective Interest Rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in interest income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

- Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

A 'debt instrument' is classified as at FVOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset's contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, interest income, impairment losses and reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss are recognised in the statement of profit and loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to statement of profit and loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

- Debt instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments.

Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as 'accounting mismatch'). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes being recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

- Equity instruments

All equity investments in the scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to the statement of profit or loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. For equity instruments which are classified as FVTPL all subsequent fair value changes are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(ii) Financial Assets - derecognition

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to cash flows from the asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows on the financial asset in a transaction in which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred.

(iii) Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities and deposits

b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVOCI

c) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115.

The Company follows 'simplified approach' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables, contract assets and lease receivables.

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

At each reporting date, for recognition of impairment loss on other financial assets and risk exposure, the Company determines whether there has been a significant increase in the credit risk since initial recognition. If credit risk has not increased significantly, 12-month ECL is used to provide for impairment loss. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, lifetime ECL is used. If, in a subsequent period, credit quality of the instrument improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, then the entity reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The 12-month ECL is a portion of the lifetime ECL which results from default events that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original EIR.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the year is recognized as income/ expense in the statement of profit and loss. The balance sheet presentation for various financial instruments is described below:

a) Financial assets measured at amortised cost: ECL is presented as an allowance, i.e., as an integral part of the measurement of those assets in the balance sheet.

The Company does not reduce impairment allowance from the gross carrying amount.

b) Debt instruments measured at FVOCI: Since financial assets are already reflected at fair value, impairment allowance is not further reduced from its value. Rather, ECL amount is presented as 'accumulated impairment amount' in the OCI.

For assessing increase in credit risk and impairment loss, the Company combines financial instruments on the basis of shared credit risk characteristics with the objective of facilitating an analysis that is designed to enable significant increases in credit risk to be identified on a timely basis.

The Company does not have any purchased or originated credit-impaired(POCI) financial assets, i.e., financial assets which are credit impaired on purchase/ origination.

(iv) Financial liabilities - Recognition & Subsequent measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, or as loans, borrowings and payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of financial liabilities at amortised cost, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company's financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

- Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/ loss are not subsequently transferred to profit and loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the statement of profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as at fair value through profit or loss.

- Financial liabilities at amortised cost (Loans & Borrowings and Trade and Other payables)

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings and trade and other payables are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method.

Gains and losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

(v) Financial liabilities - Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(vi) Embedded derivatives

An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid (combined) instrument that also includes a non-derivative host contract - with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price, foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific to a party to the contract. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows that would otherwise be required or a reclassification of a financial asset out of the fair value through profit or loss.

If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope of Ind AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value though profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in the statement of profit and loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments.

(vii) Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

(viii) Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(ix) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting Initial recognition and subsequent measurement

In order to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange, interest rate, and commodity price risks, the Company enters into forward, option, swap contracts and other derivative financial instruments. The Company does not hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes.

Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to the statement of profit and loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognised in OCI and later reclassified to the statement of profit and loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss or treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:

- Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment

- Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment

- Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation

At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting.

The documentation includes the Company's risk management objective and strategy for undertaking hedge, the hedging/ economic relationship, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged, hedge ratio and how the entity will assess the effectiveness of changes in the hedging instrument's fair value in offsetting the exposure to changes in the hedged item's fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk. Such hedges are expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows and are assessed on an ongoing basis to determine that they actually have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which they were designated.

Hedges that meet the strict criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for, as described below:

i) Fair value hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in the statement of profit and loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.

When an unrecognised firm commitment is designated as a hedged item, the subsequent cumulative change in the fair value of the firm commitment attributable to the hedged risk is recognised as an asset or liability with a corresponding gain or loss recognised in statement of profit and loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the Company revokes the hedge relationship, the hedging instrument or hedged item expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised or no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting.

ii) Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in OCI in the cash flow hedge reserve, while any ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

Amounts recognised in OCI are transferred to profit or loss when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss, such as when the hedged financial income or financial expense is recognised or when a forecast sale occurs. When the hedged item is the cost of a non-financial asset or non-financial liability, the amounts recognised as OCI are transferred to the initial carrying amount of the non-financial asset or liability.

If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised without replacement or rollover (as part of the hedging strategy), or if its designation as a hedge is revoked, or when the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI remains separately in equity until the forecast transaction occurs or the foreign currency firm commitment is met.

(H) Financial guarantees

Financial guarantees issued by the Company on behalf of group companies are designated as 'Insurance Contracts'.

The Company assesses at the end of each reporting period whether its recognised insurance liabilities (if any) are adequate, using current estimates of future cash flows under its insurance contracts. If that assessment shows that the carrying amount of its insurance liabilities is inadequate in the light of the estimated future cash flows, the entire deficiency is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(I) Leases

Determining whether an arrangement contains lease

At inception of an arrangement, the Company determines whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.

The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

At inception or on reassessment of an arrangement that contains lease, the Company separates payments and other consideration required by the arrangement into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If the Company concludes for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset; subsequently the liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the Company's incremental borrowing rate.

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease at the inception date fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss, unless they are directly attributable to qualifying assets, in which case they are capitalized in accordance with the Company's policy on the general borrowing costs. Contingent rentals are recognised as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset and the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the payments are structured to increase in line with general inflation to compensate for the lessor's expected inflationary cost increase.

Company as a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease unless the payments are structured to increase in line with the general inflation to compensate for the lessor's expected inflationary cost increase. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognised as revenue in the period in which they are earned.

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership is transferred from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company's net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

(J) Inventories

Inventories and work-in-progress are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost is determined on the following basis:

- purchased copper concentrate is recorded at cost on a first-in, first-out (”FIFO”) basis; all other materials including stores and spares are valued on a weighted average basis except in Oil and Gas business where stores and spares are valued on FIFO basis;

- finished products are valued at raw material cost plus costs of conversion, comprising labor costs and an attributable proportion of manufacturing overheads based on normal levels of activity and are moved out of inventory on a weighted average basis (except copper business where FIFO basis is followed) and

- By-products and scrap are valued at net realisable value.

Net realisable value is determined based on estimated selling price, less further costs expected to be incurred to completion and disposal.

(K) Government grants

Grants and subsidies from the government are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that (i) the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them, and (ii) the grant/subsidy will be received.

When the grant or subsidy relates to revenue, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis in the statement of profit and loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs, which they are intended to compensate.

Where the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as deferred income and released to income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset and presented within other income.

When the Company receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset.

When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favorable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received.

The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.

(L) Taxation

Tax expense represents the sum of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax is provided at amounts expected to be paid (or recovered) using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date and includes any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Subject to the exceptions below, deferred tax is provided, using the balance sheet method, on all temporary differences at the reporting date between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts for financial reporting purposes and on carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses;

- deferred income tax is not recognised on initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction which affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss); and

- deferred tax assets (including MAT credit entitlement) are recognised only to the extent that it is more likely than not that they will be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date. Tax relating to items recognized outside statement of profit and loss is recognised outside the statement of profit and loss (either in other comprehensive income or equity).

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets (including MAT credit entitlement) is reviewed at each reporting date and is adjusted to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current income tax assets against current income tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

(M) Retirement benefit schemes

The Company operates or participates in a number of defined benefits and defined contribution schemes, the assets of which (where funded) are held in separately administered funds. For defined benefit schemes, the cost of providing benefits under the plans is determined by actuarial valuation separately for each plan using the projected unit credit method by third party qualified actuaries.

Remeasurement including, effects of asset ceiling and return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in interest on the net defined benefit liability) and actuarial gains and losses arising in the year are recognised in full in other comprehensive income and are not recycled to the statement of profit and loss.

Past service costs are recognised in profit or loss on the earlier of:

- the date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and

- the date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs

Net interest is calculated by applying a discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset at the beginning of the period. Defined benefit costs are split into current service cost, past service cost, net interest expense or income and remeasurement and gains and losses on curtailments and settlements. Current service cost and past service cost is recognised within employee benefit expenses. Net interest expense or income is recognized within finance costs.

For defined contribution schemes, the amount charged to the statement of profit and loss in respect of pension costs and other post retirement benefits is the contributions payable in the year, recognised as and when the employee renders related services.

(N) Share-based payments

Certain employees (including executive directors) of the Company receive part of their remuneration in the form of share-based payment transactions, whereby employees render services in exchange for shares or rights over shares ('equity-settled transactions').

The cost of equity-settled transactions with employees is measured at fair value of share awards at the date at which they are granted. The fair value of share awards is determined with the assistance of an external valuer and the fair value at the grant date is expensed on a proportionate basis over the vesting period based on the Company's estimate of shares that will eventually vest. The estimate of the number of awards likely to vest is reviewed at each balance sheet date up to the vesting date at which point the estimate is adjusted to reflect the current expectations.

The resultant increase in equity is recorded in share based payment reserve.

In case of cash-settled transactions, a liability is recognised for the fair value of cash-settled transactions. The fair value is measured initially and at each reporting date up to and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expense. The fair value is expensed over the period until the vesting date with recognition of a corresponding liability. The fair value is determined with the assistance of an external valuer.

Additionally, VRL offered certain share based incentives under the Long-Term Incentive Plan ("LTIP”) to employees and directors of the Company. VRL recovers the proportionate cost (calculated based on the grant date fair value of the options granted) from the Company, which is charged to the statement of profit and loss.

(O) Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets

The assessments undertaken in recognising provisions and contingencies have been made in accordance with the applicable Ind AS.

Provisions represent liabilities for which the amount or timing is uncertain. Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive), as a result of past events, and it is probable that an outflow of resources, that can be reliably estimated, will be required to settle such an obligation.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows to net present value using an appropriate pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Unwinding of the discount is recognized in the statement of profit and loss as a finance cost. Provisions are reviewed at each reporting date and are adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognised because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognised because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the Balance Sheet.

Contingent assets are not recognised but disclosed in the financial statements when an inflow of economic benefit is probable.

The Company has significant capital commitments in relation to various capital projects which are not recognised on the balance sheet.

(P) Restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs

An obligation to incur restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs arises when environmental disturbance is caused by the development or ongoing production of a mine or oil fields. Such costs, discounted to net present value, are provided for and a corresponding amount is capitalised at the start of each project, as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. These costs are charged to the statement of profit and loss over the life of the operation through the depreciation of the asset and the unwinding of the discount on the provision. The cost estimates are reviewed periodically and are adjusted to reflect known developments which may have an impact on the cost estimates or life of operations.

The cost of the related asset is adjusted for changes in the provision due to factors such as updated cost estimates, changes to lives of operations, new disturbance and revisions to discount rates. The adjusted cost of the asset is depreciated prospectively over the lives of the assets to which they relate. The unwinding of the discount is shown as finance cost in the statement of profit and loss.

Costs for the restoration of subsequent site damage, which is caused on an ongoing basis during production, are provided for at their net present value and charged to the statement of profit and loss as extraction progresses. Where the costs of site restoration are not anticipated to be material, they are expensed as incurred.

(Q) Accounting for foreign currency transactions

The functional currency of the Company is determined as the currency of the primary economic environment in which it operates. For all principal businesses of the Company, the functional currency is Indian rupee (') with an exception of oil and gas business operations, which has a US dollar functional currency as that is the currency of the primary economic environment in which it operates. The financial statements are presented in Indian rupee (Rs.).

In the financial statements of the Company, transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates ruling at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies are translated into the functional currency at exchange rates prevailing on the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies and measured at historical cost or fair value are translated at the exchange rates prevailing on the dates on which such values were determined.

All exchange differences are included in the statement of profit and loss except those where the monetary item designated as an effective hedging instrument of the currency risk of designated forecasted sales or purchases, which are recognized in the other comprehensive income.

Exchange differences which are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on foreign currency borrowings, are capitalized as part of borrowing costs in qualifying assets.

The statement of profit and loss of oil and gas business is translated into Indian Rupees (INR) at the average rates of exchange during the year / exchange rates as on the date of the transaction. The Balance Sheet is translated at the exchange rate as at the reporting date. Exchange difference arising on translation is recognised in other comprehensive income and would be recycled to the statement of profit and loss as and when these operations are disposed off.

The Company had applied paragraph 46A of AS 11 under Previous GAAP. Ind AS 101 gives an option, which has been exercised by the Company, whereby a first time adopter can continue its Indian GAAP policy for accounting for exchange differences arising from translation of long-term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the Indian GAAP financial statements for the period ending immediately before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period. Hence, foreign exchange gain/loss on long-term foreign currency monetary items recognized upto March 31, 2016 has been deferred/capitalized. Such exchange differences arising on translation/settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items and pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset are amortised over the remaining useful lives of the assets.

Exchange differences arising on translation/ settlement of long-term foreign currency monetary items, acquired post April 01, 2016, pertaining to the acquisition of a depreciable asset are charged to the statement of profit and loss.

(R) Earnings per share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS”) data for its equity shares. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.

(S) Buyers' Credit/ Suppliers' Credit

The Company enters into arrangements whereby financial institutions make direct payments to suppliers for raw materials and project materials. The financial institutions are subsequently repaid by the Company at a later date providing working capital timing benefits. These are normally settled up to twelve months (for raw materials) and up to 36 months (for project materials). Where these arrangements are for raw materials with a maturity of up to twelve months, the economic substance of the transaction is determined to be operating in nature and these are recognised as operational buyers' credit/ suppliers' credit (under Trade payables).

Where these arrangements are for project materials with a maturity up to thirty six months, the economic substance of the transaction is determined to be financing in nature, and these are presented within borrowings in the balance sheet. Interest expense on these are recognised in the finance cost.

(T) Current and non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / non-current classification.

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- it is expected to be realized in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company's normal operating cycle.

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- it is expected to be realized within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

- it is expected to be settled in the Company's normal operating cycle;

- it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

- it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or

- the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non current only.

(U) Borrowing costs

Borrowing cost includes interest expense as per effective interest rate (EIR) and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs directly relating to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying capital project under construction are capitalised and added to the project cost during construction until such time that the assets are substantially ready for their intended use i.e. when they are capable of commercial production. Where funds are borrowed specifically to finance a qualifying capital project, the amount capitalised represents the actual borrowing costs incurred.

Where surplus funds are available out of money borrowed specifically to finance a project, the income generated from such short-term investments is deducted from the total capitalized borrowing cost. If any specific borrowing remains outstanding after the related asset is ready for its intended use or sale, that borrowing then becomes part of general borrowing. Where the funds used to finance a project form part of general borrowings, the amount capitalised is calculated using a weighted average of rates applicable to relevant general borrowings of the Company during the year.

All other borrowing costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which they are incurred.

Capitalisation of interest on borrowings related to construction or development projects is ceased when substantially all activities that are necessary to make the assets ready for their intended use are complete or when delays occur outside of the normal course of business.

EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial liability or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument (for example, prepayment, extension, call and similar options).

(V) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at bank and on hand and short-term money market deposits which have a maturity of three months or less, that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, and additionally includes unpaid dividend account.

(W) Equity investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures

Investments representing equity interest in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are carried at cost. A subsidiary is an entity that is controlled by the Company. Control is evidenced where the Company has the power over the investee or exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee. Power is demonstrated through existing rights that give the ability to direct relevant activities, which significantly affect the entity returns. An associate is an entity over which the Company has significant influence. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not control or joint control over those policies.

Joint Arrangements

A Joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control. Joint control is considered when there is contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. Investments in joint arrangements are classified as either joint operations or joint venture.

The classification depends on the contractual rights and obligations of each investor, rather than the legal structure of the joint arrangement. A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

Joint Operations

The Company has joint operations within its Oil and gas segment and participates in several unincorporated joint operations which involve the joint control of assets used in oil and gas exploration and producing activities. The Company accounts for its share of assets and income and expenditure of joint operations in which it holds an interest. Liabilities in unincorporated joint ventures, where the Company is the operator, is accounted for at gross values (including share of other partners) with a corresponding receivable from the venture partners. These have been included in the financial statements under the appropriate headings. [Details of joint operations are set out in note 38(b)].

(X) Common Control transactions

A business combination involving entities or businesses under common control is a business combination in which all of the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination and the control is not transitory. The transactions between entities under common control are specifically covered by Ind AS 103. Such transactions are accounted for using the pooling-of-interest method. The assets and liabilities of the acquired entity are recognised at their carrying amounts recorded in the parent entity's consolidated financial statements with the exception of certain income tax and deferred tax assets. No adjustments are made to reflect fair values, or recognise any new assets or liabilities. The only adjustments that are made are to harmonise accounting policies. The components of equity of the acquired companies are added to the same components within the Company's equity. The difference, if any, between the amounts recorded as share capital issued plus any additional consideration in the form of cash or other assets and the amount of share capital of the transferor is transferred to capital reserve.

The Company's shares issued in consideration for the acquired companies are recognized from the moment the acquired companies are included in these financial statements and the financial statements of the commonly controlled entities are combined, retrospectively, as if the transaction had occurred at the beginning of the earliest reporting period presented. However, the prior year comparative information is only adjusted for periods during which entities were under common control.

(Y) Exceptional items

Exceptional items are those items that management considers, by virtue of their size or incidence (including but not limited to impairment charges and acquisition and restructuring related costs), should be disclosed separately to ensure that the financial information allows an understanding of the underlying performance of the business in the year, so as to facilitate comparison with prior years. Also tax charges related to exceptional items and certain one-time tax effects are considered exceptional. Such items are material by nature or amount to the year's result and require separate disclosure in accordance with Ind AS.

1(b) APPLICATION OF NEW STANDARDS AND

AMENDMENTS

(A) The Company has adopted with effect from April 01, 2018, the following new standards and amendments.

- Ind AS 115: Revenue from contracts with customers

The Company has adopted Ind AS 115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers with effect from April 01, 2018 which outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. The standard replaces most of the current revenue recognition guidance. The core principle of the new standard is for companies to recognize revenue when the control of the goods and services is transferred to the customer as against the transfer of risk and rewards. As per the Company's current revenue recognition practices, transfer of control happens at the same point as transfer of risk and rewards thus not effecting the revenue recognition. The amount of revenue recognised reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

Under this standard, services provided post transfer of control of goods are treated as separate performance obligation and requires proportionate revenue to be deferred along with associated costs and to be recognized over the period of service. The Company provides shipping and insurances services after the date of transfer of control of goods and therefore has identified it as a separate performance obligation. As per the result of evaluation of contracts of the relevant revenue streams, it is concluded that the impact of this change is immaterial to the Company and hence no accounting changes have been done.

The Company has products which are provisionally priced at the date revenue is recognised. Revenue in respect of such contracts are recognised when control passes to the customer and is measured at the amount the entity expects to be entitled - being the estimate of the price expected to be received at the end of the measurement period. Post transfer of control of goods, subsequent movements in provisional pricing are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 109 "Financial Instruments” rather than Ind AS 115 and therefore the Ind AS 115 rules on variable consideration do not apply. These 'provisional pricing' adjustments i.e. the consideration received post transfer of control has been included in total revenue from operations on the face of the Statement of Profit and loss. The accounting for revenue under Ind AS 115 does not, therefore, represent a substantive change from the Company's previous practice for recognising revenue from sales to customers.

Further, export incentives received from Government that were included within other operating revenue' are now included within other operating income'.

The Company has adopted the modified transitional approach as permitted by the standard under which the comparative financial information is not restated.

The accounting changes required by the standard are not having material effect on the recognition or measurement of revenues and no transitional adjustment is recognised in retained earnings at April 01, 2018. Additional disclosures as required by Ind AS 115 have been included in these financial statements.

Previous period accounting policy: Revenue Recognition

Revenues are measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of discounts, volume rebates, outgoing sales taxes/ goods & service tax and other indirect taxes excluding excise duty.

Excise duty is a liability of the manufacturer which forms part of the cost of production, irrespective of whether the goods are sold or not. Since the recovery of excise duty flows to Company on its own account, revenue includes excise duty.

Sale of goods/rendering of services

Revenues from sales of goods are recognised when all significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods sold are transferred to the customer which usually is on delivery of the goods to the shipping agent. Revenues from sale of by-products are included in revenue.

Certain of the Company's sales contracts provide for provisional pricing based on the price on The London Metal Exchange ("LME”) and crude index, as specified in the contract, when shipped. Final settlement of the price is based on the applicable price for a specified future period. The Company's provisionally priced sales are marked to market using the relevant forward prices for the future period specified in the contract and is adjusted in revenue.

Revenue from oil, gas and condensate sales represents the Company's share of oil, gas and condensate production, recognized on a direct entitlement basis, when significant risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the buyers. Direct entitlement basis represents entitlement to variable physical volumes of hydrocarbons, representing recovery of the costs incurred and a stipulated share of the production remaining after such cost recovery. The stipulated share of production is arrived after reducing government's share of profit petroleum which is accounted for when the obligation in respect of the same arises.

Revenue from sale of power is recognised when delivered and measured based on rates as per bilateral contractual agreements with buyers and at rates arrived at based on the principles laid down under the relevant Tariff Regulations as notified by the regulatory bodies, as applicable.

- Amendment to Ind AS 23: Borrowing cost

The amendment clarifies that an entity considers any borrowings made specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset as part of the general borrowings, when substantially all of the activities necessary to prepare that asset for its intended use or sale are complete.

The amendment is applicable to borrowing costs incurred on or after the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies those amendments.

The amendment is efffective from April 01, 2019. Since this amendment is clarificatory in nature, the Company has applied the amendment prospectively from the current reporting year i.e. for the borrowing costs incurred on or after April 01, 2018.

Based on the Amendment, the Company has now capitalized certain borrowing costs as general borrowings. This has resulted in capitalization of interest expense of Rs. 278 Crore for the year ended March 31, 2019 and a corresponding increase in depreciation of Rs. 1 Crore.

The consequent incremental impact on net profit for the year was Rs. 200 Crore and on the basic and diluted earnings per share was Rs. 0.54/ share and Rs. 0.54/ share respectively.

The change did not have any significant impact on the Company's balance sheet and the statement of cash flows.

(B) Standards issued but not yet effective

The following standards/ amendments to standards have been issued but are not yet effective up to the date of issuance of the Company's Financial Statements. Except specifically disclosed below, the Company is evaluating the requirements of these standards, improvements and amendments and has not yet determined the impact on the financial statements.

I. Ind AS 116: Lease

Ind AS 116, Leases, replaces the existing standard on accounting for leases, Ind AS 17, with effect from April 01, 2019. This standard introduces a single lessee accounting model and requires a lessee to recognize a 'right of use asset' (ROU) and a corresponding 'lease liability' for all leases. Lease costs will be recognised in the statement of profit and loss over the lease term in the form of depreciation on the ROU asset and finance charges representing the unwinding of the discount on the lease liability. In contrast, the accounting requirements for lessors remain largely unchanged.

The Company acts as a lessee in lease arrangements mainly involving office premises and other properties. The Company has elected to apply the modified retrospective approach on transition, and accordingly the comparative figures will not be restated. For contracts in place at this date, the Company will continue to apply its existing definition of leases under current accounting standards ("grandfathering”), instead of reassessing whether existing contracts are or contain a lease at the date of application of the new standard. Further, as permitted by Ind AS 116, the Company will not bring leases of low value assets or short-term leases with 12 or fewer months remaining on to balance sheet.

Transition to Ind AS 116 does not have a material effect on the Company's Financial Statements.

II. Amendments to standards

The following amendments are applicable to the Company from April 01, 2019. The impacts of these are currently expected to be immaterial:

1(c) SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGEMENTS

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income, expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of these financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the years presented. These judgments and estimates are based on management's best knowledge of the relevant facts and circumstances, having regard to previous experience, but actual results may differ materially from the amounts included in the financial statements.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

The information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements are as given below:

(A) Significant Estimates

(i) Oil and Gas reserves

Significant technical and commercial judgements are required to determine the Company's estimated oil and natural gas reserves. Reserves considered for computing depletion are proved reserves for acquisition costs and proved and developed reserves for successful exploratory wells, development wells, processing facilities, distribution assets, estimated future abandonment cost and all other related costs. Reserves for this purpose are considered on working interest basis which are reassessed atleast annually. Details of such reserves are given in note 40(b).

Changes in reserves as a result of change in management assumptions could impact the depreciation rates and the carrying value of assets (refer note 5).

(ii) Carrying value of exploration and evaluation assets

The recoverability of a project is assessed under Ind AS 106. Exploration assets are assessed by comparing the carrying value to higher of fair value less cost of disposal or value in use if impairment indicators exists. Change to the valuation of exploration assets is an area of judgement. Further details on the Company's accounting policies on this are set out in accounting policy above. The amounts for exploration and evaluation assets represent active exploration projects. These amounts will be written off to the statement of profit and loss as exploration costs unless commercial reserves are established or the determination process is not completed and there are no indications of impairment. The outcome of ongoing exploration, and therefore whether the carrying value of exploration and evaluation assets will ultimately be recovered, is inherently uncertain.

During the financial year ended March 31, 2018, the Company had recognized impairment reversal (net) against exploration and evaluation oil and gas assets. The details of impairment reversal impact and the assumptions and sensitivities used are disclosed in note 31. Carrying values of exploration and evaluation assets are disclosed in note 5.

(iii) Carrying value of developing/producing oil and gas assets

Management performs impairment tests on the Company's developing/ producing oil and gas assets where indicators of impairment or impairment reversal of previous recorded impairment are identified in accordance with Ind AS 36.

During the financial year ended March 31, 2018, the Company had recognised impairment reversal of its developing/ producing oil and gas assets in Rajasthan. During the current year, an impairment reversal has been recorded in the oil and gas assets in Krishna Godavari (KG) basin. The details of impairment charge/reversal and the assumptions and sensitivities used are disclosed in note 31.

In the current year, the management has reviewed the key assumptions i.e. future production, oil prices, discount to price, Production sharing contract (PSC) life, discount rates, etc. for all of its oil and gas assets. Based on analysis of events that have occurred since then, there did not exist any indication that the assets may be impaired or previously recorded impairment charge may reverse except for the assets in KG basin. Hence, detailed impairment analysis has not been conducted in the current financial year, except for assets in KG basin.

Carrying values of oil & gas assets are disclosed in note 5.

(iv) Mining properties and leases

The carrying value of mining property and leases is arrived at by depreciating the assets over the life of the mine using the unit of production method based on proved and probable reserves. The estimate of reserves is subject to assumptions relating to life of the mine and may change when new information becomes available. Changes in reserves as a result of factors such as production cost, recovery rates, grade of reserves or commodity prices could thus impact the carrying values of mining properties and leases and environmental and restoration provisions.

Management performs impairment tests when there is an indication of impairment. The impairment assessments are based on a range of estimates and assumptions, including:

(v) Assessment of Impairment of Goa iron ore mines:

Pursuant to an order passed by the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India on February 07, 2018, the second renewal of the mining leases granted by the State of Goa in 2014-15 to all miners including the Company were cancelled. Consequentially all mining operations stopped with effect from March 16, 2018 until fresh mining leases (not fresh renewals or other renewals) and fresh environmental clearances are granted in accordance with the provisions of The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act. Significant uncertainty exists over the resumption of mining at Goa under the current leases. The Company had assessed the recoverable value of all its assets and liabilities associated with existing mining leases which led to a non-cash impairment charge in the financial year ended March 31, 2018. There are no significant changes subsequent to the financial year ended March 31, 2018.

Details of impairment charge and method of estimating recoverable value is disclosed in note 31.

(vi) Restoration, rehabilitation and environmental costs:

Provision is made for costs associated with restoration and rehabilitation of mining sites as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises. Such restoration and closure costs are typical of extractive industries and they are normally incurred at the end of the life of the mine or oil fields. The costs are estimated on an annual basis on the basis of mine closure plans and the estimated discounted costs of dismantling and removing these facilities and the costs of restoration are capitalised as soon as the obligation to incur such costs arises.

The provision for decommissioning oil and gas assets is based on the current estimates of the costs for removing and decommissioning production facilities, the forecast timing and currency of settlement of decommissioning liabilities and the appropriate discount rate.

A corresponding provision is created on the liability side.

The capitalised asset is charged to the statement of profit and loss through depreciation over the life of the operation and the provision is increased each period via unwinding the discount on the provision. Management estimates are based on local legislation and/or other agreements. The actual costs and cash outflows may differ from estimates because of changes in laws and regulations, changes in prices, analysis of site conditions and changes in restoration technology. Details of such provisions are set out in note 22.

(vii) Provisions and liabilities

Provisions and liabilities are recognised in the period when it becomes probable that there will be a future outflow of funds resulting from past operations or events that can be reasonably estimated. The timing of recognition requires the application of judgement to existing facts and circumstances which may be subject to change especially when taken in the context of the legal environment in India. The actual cash outflows may take place over many years in the future and hence the carrying amounts of provisions and liabilities are regularly reviewed and adjusted to take into account the changing circumstances and other factors that influence the provisions and liabilities. This is set out in note 22.

(viii) The HZL and BALCO call options

The Company had exercised its call option to acquire the remaining 49% interest in BALCO and 29.5% interest in HZL. The Government of India has however, contested the validity of the options and disputed their valuation performed in terms of the relevant agreements the details of which are set out in note 6A. In view of the lack of resolution on the options, the non-response to the exercise and valuation request from the Government of India, the resultant uncertainty surrounding the potential transaction and the valuation of the consideration payable, the Company considers the strike price of the options to be at fair value. Accordingly, the value of the option would be nil, and hence, the call options have not been recognized in the financial statements.

(ix) Recoverability of deferred tax and other income tax assets

The Company has carry forward tax losses, unabsorbed depreciation and MAT credit that are available for offset against future taxable profit. Deferred tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or tax credits can be utilized. This involves an assessment of when those assets are likely to reverse, and a judgement as to whether or not there will be sufficient taxable profits available to offset the assets. This requires assumptions regarding future profitability, which is inherently uncertain. To the extent assumptions regarding future profitability change, there can be an increase or decrease in the amounts recognised in respect of deferred tax assets and consequential impact in the statement of profit and loss.

Additionally, the Company has tax receivables on account of refund arising on account of past amalgamation and relating to various tax disputes. The recoverability of these receivables involve application of judgement as to the ultimate outcome of the tax assessment and litigations. This pertains to the application of the legislation, which in certain cases is based upon management's interpretation of country specific tax law, in particular India, and the likelihood of settlement. Management uses in-house and external legal professionals to make informed decision (Refer note 32).

The details of MAT assets are set out in note 32.

(x) Copper operations in India

In an appeal filed by the Company against the closure order of the Tuticorin Copper smelter by Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board ("TNPCB”), the appellate authority National Green Tribunal ("NGT”) passed an interim order on May 31, 2013 allowing the copper smelter to recommence operations and appointed an Expert Committee to submit a report on the plant operations. Post the interim order, the plant recommenced operations on June 23, 2013. Based on Expert Committee's report on the operations of the plant stating that the plant's emission were within prescribed standards and based on this report, NGT ruled on August 08, 2013 that the Copper smelter could continue its operations and recommendations made by the Expert Committee be implemented in a time bound manner. The Company has implemented all of the recommendations. TNPCB has filed an appeal against the order of the NGT before the Supreme Court of India.

In the meanwhile, the application for renewal of Consent to Operate (CTO) for existing copper smelter, required as per procedure established by law was rejected by TNPCB in April 2018. The Company has filed an appeal before the TNPCB Appellate Authority challenging the Rejection Order. During the pendency of the appeal, there were protests by a section of local community raising environmental concerns and TNPCB vide its order dated May 23, 2018 ordered closure of existing copper smelter plant with immediate effect.

Further, the Government of Tamil Nadu, issued orders dated May 28, 2018 with a direction to seal the existing copper smelter plant permanently. The Company believes these actions were not taken in accordance with the procedure prescribed under applicable laws. Subsequently, the Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health passed orders dated May 30, 2018, directing the immediate suspension and revocation of the Factory License and the Registration Certificate for the existing smelter plant.

Separately, the Company has filed a fresh application for renewal of the Environmental Clearance for the proposed Copper Smelter Plant 2 (Expansion Project) dated March 12, 2018 before the Expert Appraisal Committee of the MoEF wherein a sub-committee was directed to visit the Expansion Project site prior to prescribing the Terms of Reference.

In the meantime, the Madurai Bench of the High Court of Madras in a Public Interest Litigation held vide its order dated May 23, 2018 that the application for renewal of the Environmental Clearance for the Expansion Project shall be processed after a mandatory public hearing and in the interim, ordered the Company to cease construction and all other activities on site for the proposed Expansion Project with immediate effect. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has delisted the expansion project since the matter is sub judice. Separately, SIPCOT vide its letter dated May 29, 2018, cancelled 342.22 acres of the land allotted for the proposed Expansion Project. Further the TNPCB issued orders on June 7, 2018 directing the withdrawal of the Consent to Establish (CTE) which was valid till March 31, 2023. The Company has approached Madras High Court by way of writ petition challenging the cancellation of lease deeds by SIPCOT pursuant to which an interim stay has been granted. The Company has also filed Appeals before the TNPCB Appellate Authority challenging withdrawal of CTE by the TNPCB, the matter is pending for adjudication.

The Company has appealed this before the National Green Tribunal (NGT). NGT vide its order on December 15, 2018 has set aside the impugned orders and directed the TNPCB to pass fresh orders for renewal of consent and authorization to handle hazardous substances, subject to appropriate conditions for protection of environment in accordance with law.

The State of Tamil Nadu and TNPCB approached Supreme Court in Civil Appeals on January 02, 2019 challenging the judgment of NGT dated December 15, 2018 and the previously passed judgment of NGT dated August 08, 2013. The Supreme Court vide its judgment dated February 18, 2019 set aside the judgments of NGT dated December 15, 2018 and August 08, 2013 on the basis of maintainability alone.

The Company has also filed a writ petition before Madras High Court challenging the various orders passed against the Company in 2018 and 2013. The case was heard on 01 March 2019 wherein the Company pressed for interim relief for care and maintenance of the plant. The Madras High Court has directed the State of Tamil Nadu and TNPCB to file their counter to our petition for interim relief.

The Company is taking appropriate legal measures to address the matters.

Even though there can be no assurance regarding the final outcome of the process and the timing of such process in relation to the approval for the expansion project, as per the Company's assessment, it is in compliance with the applicable regulations and expects to get the necessary approvals in relation to the existing operations and the expansion project and is not expecting any material loss on this account.

The carrying value of the assets under operation and under expansion as at March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2018 is Rs. 2,385 Crore and Rs. 1,046 Crore respectively.

The Company has carried out an impairment analysis considering the key variables and concluded that there exists no impairment. The Company has done an additional sensitivity with a delay in commencement of operations both at the existing and expansion plants by two years and noted that the recoverable amount of the assets would still be in excess of their carrying values.

(xi) PSC Extension

Rajasthan Block

On October 26, 2018, the Government of India (GoI), acting through the Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) has granted its approval for a ten-year extension of the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for the Rajasthan Block (RJ), with effect from May 15, 2020 subject to certain conditions. The GoI has granted the extension under the Pre-NELP Extension Policy, the applicability whereof to PSC for RJ is sub-judice and pending before the Hon'ble Delhi High Court. To address two of the conditions stated by DGH, the Company has taken the following steps:

- Submission of Audited Accounts and End of year statement: The Company and one of the joint venture partners have divergent views on the cost oil entitlement and therefore the End of Year statement for the year ended March 31, 2018 and Investment Multiple as at March 31,2018 could not be finalized. To resolve this, the Company has initiated arbitration proceedings against the joint venture partner. Consequentially, profit petroleum pertaining to the said Block for the year ended March 31, 2019 and applicable Investment Multiple calculated based on management's cost oil computation (resulting into Government's share of profit petroleum @ 40% for DA-1 & DA-2 and @20% for DA-3 for FY 2018-19), remains provisional. The computation is after considering relevant independent legal advice.

- Profit Petroleum: DGH has raised a demand for the period upto March 31, 2017 for Government's additional share of Profit Oil based on its computation of disallowance of cost incurred over the initially approved Field Development Plan (FDP) of pipeline project and retrospective allocation of certain common costs between Development Areas (DAs) of Rajasthan Block. The Company believes that it has sufficient as well as reasonable basis (pursuant to PSC provisions & approvals) for having claimed such costs and for allocating common costs between different DAs and has responded to the government accordingly. Company's view is also supported by an independent legal opinion.

Pursuant to the aforesaid approval of October 26, 2018, the Company has recomputed its reserves till 2030 and has reclassified exploration costs of ' 4,071 Crore to property plant and equipment and Rs. 3,362 Crore to capital work in progress. This has led to a reduction in depletion charge of ' 94 Crore for the period from October 26, 2018 till March 31, 2019.

Ravva Block

The Government of India has granted its approval for a ten-year extension of PSC for Ravva Block with effect from October 28, 2019, subject to certain conditions. The extension has been granted with a 10% increase in GOI share of profit oil. Management has reviewed the conditions and is confident of fulfilling or disposing of such conditions.

The Company does not expect any material adjustment to the financial statements on account of the aforesaid matters.

(B) Significant Judgement

(i) Contingencies

In the normal course of business, contingent liabilities may arise from litigation, taxation and other claims against the Company. A tax provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that the Company will be required to settle that obligation.

Where it is management's assessment that the outcome cannot be reliably quantified or is uncertain, the claims are disclosed as contingent liabilities unless the likelihood of an adverse outcome is remote. Such liabilities are disclosed in the notes but are not provided for in the financial statements.

When considering the classification of legal or tax cases as probable, possible or remote, there is judgement involved.

This pertains to the application of the legislation, which in certain cases is based upon management's interpretation of country specific applicable law, in particular India, and the likelihood of settlement. Management uses in-house and external legal professionals to make informed decision.

Although there can be no assurance regarding the final outcome of the legal proceedings, the Company does not expect them to have a materially adverse impact on the Company's financial position or profitability. These are set out in Note 35.

(ii) Revenue recognition and receivable recovery in relation to the power division

In certain cases, the Company's power customers are disputing various contractual provisions of Power Purchase Agreements (PPA). Significant judgement is required in both assessing the tariff to be charged under the PPA in accordance with Ind AS 115 and to assess the recoverability of withheld revenue currently accounted for as receivables.

In assessing this critical judgment, management considered favourable external legal opinions the Company has obtained in relation to the claims. In addition the fact that the contracts are with government owned companies implies the credit risk is low [Refer note 7(c)]

(iii) Exceptional items

Exceptional items are those items that management considers, by virtue of their size or incidence (including but not limited to impairment charges and acquisition and restructuring related costs), should be disclosed separately to ensure that the financial information allows an understanding of the underlying performance of the business in the year, so as to facilitate comparison with prior periods. Also tax charges related to exceptional items and certain one-time tax effects are considered Exceptional. Such items are material by nature or amount to the year's result and require separate disclosure in accordance with Ind AS.

The determination as to which items should be disclosed separately requires a degree of judgement. The details of exceptional items are set out in note 31.

2. SEGMENT INFORMATION

Description of segment and principal activities

The Company is a diversified natural resource company engaged in exploring, extracting and processing minerals and oil and gas. The Company produces oil and gas, aluminium, copper, iron ore and power. The Company has five reportable segments: oil and gas, aluminium, copper, iron ore and power. The management of the Company is organized by its main products: oil and gas, aluminium, copper, iron ore and power. Each of the reportable segments derives its revenues from these main products and hence these have been identified as reportable segments by the Company's Chief Operating Decision Maker ("CODM”).

Segment Revenue, Results, Assets and Liabilities include the respective amounts identifiable to each of the segments and amount allocated on a reasonable basis. Unallocated expenditure consist of common expenditure incurred for all the segments and expenses incurred at corporate level. The assets and liabilities that cannot be allocated between the segments are shown as unallocated assets and unallocated liabilities respectively.

The accounting policies of the reportable segments are the same as the Company's accounting policies described in Note 3. Earnings before Interest, Tax and Depreciation & Amortisation (EBITDA) are evaluated regularly by the CODM, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The operating segments reported are the segments of the Company for which separate financial information is available. The Company's financing (including finance costs and finance income) and income taxes are reviewed on an overall basis and are not allocated to operating segments.

Pricing between operating segments are on an arm's length basis in a manner similar to transactions with third parties.

For the year ended March 31, 2019, the Company has not recorded any impairment of receivables relating to amounts owed by related parties. This assessment is undertaken each financial year through examining the financial position of the related party and the market in which the related party operates.

The following table presents revenue and profit information and certain assets and liabilities information regarding the Company's business segments as at and for the year ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2018 respectively.