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Company Information

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RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LTD.

02 February 2023 | 12:00

Industry >> Refineries

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ISIN No INE002A01018 BSE Code / NSE Code 500325 / RELIANCE Book Value (Rs.) 1,167.73 Face Value 10.00
Bookclosure 19/08/2022 52Week High 2856 EPS 89.72 P/E 25.93
Market Cap. 1574340.42 Cr. 52Week Low 2180 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 1.99 / 0.24 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2022-03 

A. Corporate Information

Reliance Industries Limited ("the Company") is a listed entity incorporated in India. The registered office of the Company is located at 3rd Floor, Maker Chambers IV, 222, Nariman Point, Mumbai - 400 021, India.

The Company is engaged in activities spanning across hydrocarbon exploration and production, Oil to chemicals, retail, digital services and financial services.

B. Significant Accounting Policies:

B.1 Basis of Preparation and Presentation

The Financial Statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value amount:

i) Certain Financial Assets and Liabilities (including derivative instruments),

ii) Defined Benefit Plans - Plan Assets and

iii) Equity settled Share Based Payments

The Financial Statements of the Company have been prepared to comply with the Indian Accounting standards ('Ind AS'), including the rules notified under the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, (as amended from time to time) and Presentation and disclosure requirements of Division II of Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013, (Ind AS Compliant Schedule III) as amended from time to time.

The Company's Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupees ('), which is also its functional currency and all values are rounded to the nearest crore (?00,00,000), except when otherwise indicated.

B.2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

(a) Current and Non-Current Classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the Balance Sheet based on Current/ Non-Current classification.

An asset is treated as Current when it is -

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle;

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading;

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle;

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading;

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

(b) Property, Plant and Equipment

Property, Plant and Equipment are stated at cost, net of recoverable taxes, trade discount and rebates less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes purchase price, borrowing cost and any cost directly attributable to bringing the assets to its working condition for its intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the assets. In case of land the Company has availed fair value as deemed cost on the date of transition to Ind AS.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity and the cost can be measured reliably.

Property, Plant and Equipment which are significant to the total cost of that item of Property, Plant and Equipment and having different useful life are accounted separately.

Other Indirect Expenses incurred relating to project, net of income earned during the project development stage prior to its intended use, are considered as pre-operative expenses and disclosed under Capital Work-in-Progress.

Depreciation on Property, Plant and Equipment is provided using written down value method on depreciable amount except in case of certain assets of Oil to Chemicals segment which are depreciated using straight line method. Depreciation is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 except in respect of the following assets, where useful life is different than those prescribed in Schedule II;

Particular

Depreciation

Fixed Bed Catalyst (useful life: 2 years or more)

Over its useful life as technically assessed

Fixed Bed Catalyst (useful life: up to 2 years)

100% depreciated in the year of addition

Plant and Machinery (useful life: 25 to 50 years)

Over its useful life as technically assessed

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of Property, Plant and Equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of a Property, Plant and Equipment are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

(c) Leases

The Company, as a lessee, recognises a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for its leasing arrangements, if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset.

The contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, if it involves the use of an identified asset and the Company has substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset and has right to direct the use of the identified asset. The cost of the right-of-use asset shall comprise of the amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before the commencement date plus any initial direct costs incurred. The right-of-use assets is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated depreciation, accumulated impairment losses, if any and adjusted for any remeasurement of the lease liability. The right-of-use assets is depreciated using the straight-line method from the commencement date over the shorter of lease term or useful life of right-of-use asset.

The Company measures the lease liability at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date of the lease.

The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate can be readily determined. If that rate cannot be readily determined, the Company uses incremental borrowing rate.

For short-term and low value leases, the Company recognises the lease payments as an operating expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(d) Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets are stated at cost of acquisition net of recoverable taxes, trade discount and rebates less accumulated amortisation/depletion and impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes purchase price, borrowing costs, and any cost directly attributable to bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use, net charges on foreign exchange contracts and adjustments arising from exchange rate variations attributable to the Intangible Assets.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity and the cost can be measured reliably.

Other Indirect Expenses incurred relating to project, net of income earned during the project development stage prior to its intended use, are considered as pre-operative expenses and disclosed under Intangible Assets Under Development.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an Intangible Asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised. The Company's intangible assets comprises assets with finite useful life which are amortised on a straight-line basis over the period of their expected useful life.

A summary of amortisation/depletion policies applied to the Company's Intangible Assets to the extent of depreciable amount is as follows:

Particular

Amortisation / Depletion

Technical

Know-How

Over the useful life of the underlying assets ranging from 5 years to 35 years.

Computer

Software

Over a period of 5 years.

Development

Rights

Depleted using the unit of production method. The cost of producing wells along with its related facilities including decommissioning costs are depleted in proportion of oil and gas production achieved vis-a-vis Proved Developed Reserves. The cost for common facilities including its decommissioning costs are depleted using Proved Reserves.

Others

In case of Jetty, the aggregate amount amortised to date is not less than the aggregate rebate availed by the Company.

The amortisation period and the amortisation method for Intangible Assets with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date.

(e) Research and Development Expenditure

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

Development costs are capitalised as an intangible asset if it can be demonstrated that the project is expected to generate future economic benefits, it is probable that those future economic benefits will flow to the entity and the costs of the asset can be measured reliably, else it is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(f) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise of cash on hand, cash at banks, short-term deposits and short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

(g) Finance Costs

Borrowing costs include exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost. Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of the cost of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use.

Interest income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.

All other borrowing costs are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period for which they are incurred.

(h) Inventories

Items of inventories are measured at lower of cost and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence, if any, except in case of by-products which are valued at net realisable value. Cost of inventories comprises of cost of purchase, cost of conversion and other costs including manufacturing overheads net of recoverable taxes incurred in bringing them to their respective present location and condition.

Cost of finished goods, work-in-progress, raw materials, chemicals, stores and spares, packing materials, trading and other products are determined on weighted average basis.

(i) Impairment of Non-Financial Assets - Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangible Assets

The Company assesses at each reporting date as to whether there is any indication that any Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangible Assets or group of Assets, called Cash Generating Units (CGU) may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is estimated to determine the extent of impairment, if any. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the CGU to which the asset belongs.

An impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent, asset's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable

amount is higher of an asset's fair value less cost of disposal and value in use. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and risk specific to the assets.

The impairment loss recognised in prior accounting period is reversed if there has been a change in the estimate of recoverable amount.

(j) Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

Provision for Decommissioning Liability

The Company records a provision for decommissioning costs towards site restoration activity. Decommissioning costs are provided at the present value of future expenditure using a current pre-tax rate expected to be incurred to fulfil decommissioning obligations and are recognised as part of the cost of the underlying assets. Any change in the present value of the expenditure, other than unwinding of discount on the provision, is reflected as adjustment to the provision and the corresponding asset. The change in the provision due to the unwinding of discount is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(k) Contingent Liabilities

Disclosure of contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of amount cannot be made.

(l) Employee Benefits Expense

Short-Term Employee Benefits

The undiscounted amount of short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees are recognised as an expense during the period when the employees render the services.

Post-Employment Benefits Defined Contribution Plans

The Company recognises contribution payable to the provident fund scheme as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognised as a liability. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognised as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Defined Benefit Plans

The Company pays gratuity to the employees who have completed five years of service with the Company at the time of resignation/superannuation. The gratuity is paid @15 days basic salary for every completed year of service as per the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972. The gratuity liability amount is contributed to the approved gratuity fund formed exclusively for gratuity payment to the employees. The gratuity fund has been approved by respective Income Tax authorities. The liability in respect of gratuity and other post-employment benefits is calculated using the Projected Unit Credit Method and spread over the period during which the benefit is expected to be derived from employees' services.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in the period in which they occur in Other Comprehensive Income.

Employee Separation Costs: The Company recognises the employee separation cost when the scheme is announced, and the Company is demonstrably committed to it.

(m) Tax Expenses

The tax expenses for the period comprises of current tax and deferred income tax. Tax is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in the Other Comprehensive Income. In which case, the tax is also recognised in Other Comprehensive Income.

i. Current Tax

Current tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the Income Tax authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted at the Balance sheet date.

ii. Deferred Tax

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Financial Statements

and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit.

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax losses can be utilised. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. The carrying amount of Deferred tax liabilities and assets are reviewed at the end of each reporting period.

(n) Share Based Payments

Equity-settled share based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. Details regarding the determination of the fair value of equity-settled share based payments transactions are set out in Note 29.2.

The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company's estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss such that the cumulative expenses reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the Share Based Payments Reserve.

The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

In case of Group equity-settled share-based payment transactions, where the Company grants stock options to the employees of its subsidiaries, the transactions are accounted by increasing the cost of investment in subsidiary with a corresponding credit in the equity.

(o) Foreign Currencies Transactions and Translation

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency closing rates of exchange at the reporting date. Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent of exchange differences which are regarded

as an adjustment to interest costs on foreign currency borrowings that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets which are capitalised as cost of assets. Additionally, exchange gains or losses on foreign currency borrowings taken prior to April 1, 2016 which are related to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets are adjusted in the carrying cost of such assets.

Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are recorded using the exchange rates at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value was measured. The gain or loss arising on translation of non-monetary items measured at fair value is treated in line with the recognition of the gain or loss on the change in fair value of the item (i.e. translation differences on items whose fair value gain or loss is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income or Statement of Profit and Loss are also recognised in Other Comprehensive Income or Statement of Profit and Loss, respectively).

In case of an asset, expense or income where a non-monetary advance is paid/received, the date of transaction is the date on which the advance was initially recognised. If there were multiple payments or receipts in advance, multiple dates of transactions are determined for each payment or receipt of advance consideration.

(p) Revenue Recognition

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised when control of the goods or services are transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company is generally the principal as it typically controls the goods or services before transferring them to the customer.

Generally, control is transferred upon shipment of goods to the customer or when the goods is made available to the customer, provided transfer of title to the customer occurs and the Company has not retained any significant risks of ownership or future obligations with respect to the goods shipped.

Revenue from rendering of services is recognised over time by measuring the progress towards complete satisfaction of performance obligations at the reporting period.

Revenue is measured at the amount of consideration which the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring distinct goods or services to a customer as specified in the contract, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties (for example taxes and duties collected on behalf of the government). Consideration is generally due upon satisfaction of performance obligations and a receivable is recognised when it becomes unconditional. Generally, the credit period varies between 0-60 days from the shipment or delivery of goods or services as the case may be. The Company provides volume rebates to certain customers once the quantity of products purchased during the period exceeds a threshold specified and also accrues discounts to certain customers based on customary business practices which is derived on the basis of crude price volatility and various market demand - supply situations. Consideration are determined based on its most likely amount. Generally, sales of petroleum products contain provisional pricing features where revenue is initially recognised based on provisional price.

Difference between final settlement price and provisional price is recognised subsequently. The Company does not adjust short-term advances received from the customer for the effects of significant financing component if it is expected at the contract inception that the promised good or service will be transferred to the customer within a period of one year.

Contract Balances Trade Receivables

A receivable represents the Company's right to an amount of consideration that is unconditional.

Contract Liabilities

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration or is due from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognised when the payment is made or the payment is due (whichever is earlier).

Contract liabilities are recognised as revenue when the Company performs under the contract.

Interest Income

Interest Income from a Financial Assets is recognised using effective interest rate method.

Dividend Income

Dividend Income is recognised when the Company's right to receive the amount has been established.

(q) Financial Instruments

i. Financial Assets

A. Initial Recognition and Measurement

All Financial Assets are initially recognised at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of Financial Assets, which are not at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss, are adjusted to the fair

value on initial recognition. Purchase and sale of Financial Assets are recognised using trade date accounting.

B. Subsequent Measurement

a) Financial Assets measured at Amortised Cost (AC)

A Financial Asset is measured at Amortised Cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the Financial Asset give rise to cash flows on specified dates that represent solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

b) Financial Assets measured at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI)

A Financial Asset is measured at FVTOCI if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling Financial Assets and the contractual terms of the Financial Asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that represents solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

c) Financial Assets measured at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)

A Financial Asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are measured at FVTPL. Financial assets are reclassified subsequent to their recognition, if the Company changes its business model for managing those financial assets. Changes in business model are made and applied prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of immediately next reporting period following the changes in business model in accordance with principles laid down under Ind AS 109 -Financial Instruments.

C. Investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures

The Company has accounted for its investments in Subsidiaries, associates and joint venture at cost less impairment loss (if any). The investments in preference shares with the right of surplus assets which are in nature of equity in accordance with Ind AS 32 are treated as separate category of investment and measured at FVTOCI.

D. Other Equity Investments

All other equity investments are measured at fair value, with value changes recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss, except for those equity investments for which the Company has elected to present the value changes in 'Other Comprehensive Income'. However, dividend on such equity investments are recognised in Statement of Profit and loss when the Company's right to receive payment is established.

E. Impairment of Financial Assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company uses 'Expected Credit Loss' (ECL) model, for evaluating impairment of Financial Assets other than those measured at Fair Value Through Profit and Loss (FVTPL).

Expected Credit Losses are measured through a loss allowance at an amount equal to:

• The 12-months expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from those default events on the financial instrument that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date); or

• Full lifetime expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the life of the financial instrument).

For Trade Receivables the Company applies 'simplified approach' which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.

The Company uses historical default rates to determine impairment loss on the portfolio of trade receivables. At every reporting date these historical default rates are reviewed and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

For other assets, the Company uses 12 month ECL to provide for impairment loss where there is no significant increase in credit risk.

If there is significant increase in credit risk full lifetime ECL is used.

ii. Financial Liabilities

A. Initial Recognition and Measurement

All Financial Liabilities are recognised at fair value and in case of borrowings, net of directly attributable cost. Fees of recurring nature are directly recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as finance cost.

B. Subsequent Measurement

Financial Liabilities are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

iii. Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge Accounting

The Company uses various derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps, currency swaps, forwards & options and commodity contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. At the inception of a hedge relationship, the Company formally designates and documents the hedge relationship to which the Company wishes to apply hedge accounting and the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are also subsequently measured at fair value.

Derivatives are carried as Financial Assets when the fair value is positive and as Financial Liabilities when the fair value is negative. Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to Statement of Profit and Loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedge which is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and later to Statement of Profit and Loss when the hedged item affects profit or loss or is treated as basis adjustment if a hedged forecast transaction subsequently results in the recognition of a Non-Financial Assets or NonFinancial liability.

Hedges that meet the criteria for hedge accounting are accounted for as follows:

A. Cash Flow Hedge

The Company designates derivative contracts or non-derivative Financial Assets/ Liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of movement in interest rates and foreign exchange rates for foreign exchange exposure on highly probable future cash flows attributable to a recognised asset or liability or forecast cash transactions.

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised in the cash flow hedging reserve being part of Other Comprehensive Income. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold or terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in cash flow hedging reserve till the period

the hedge was effective remains in cash flow hedging reserve until the underlying transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss upon the occurrence of the underlying transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

B. Fair Value Hedge

The Company designates derivative contracts or non-derivative Financial Assets/Liabilities as hedging instruments to mitigate the risk of change in fair value of hedged item due to movement in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and commodity prices.

Changes in the fair value of hedging instruments and hedged items that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging relationship no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortised to Statement of Profit and Loss over the period of maturity.

iv. Derecognition of Financial Instruments

The Company derecognises a Financial Asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the Financial Asset expire or it transfers the Financial Asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109. A Financial liability (or a part of a Financial liability) is derecognised from the Company's Balance Sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

v. Offsetting

Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities are offset and the net amount is presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off the amount and it intends, either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(r) Non-current Assets Held for Sale

Non-current assets are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and sale is considered highly probable.

A sale is considered as highly probable when decision has been made to sell, assets are available for immediate sale in its present condition, assets are being actively marketed and sale has been agreed or is expected to be concluded within 12 months of the date of classification.

Non-current assets held for sale are neither depreciated nor amortised.

Assets and liabilities classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost of disposal and are presented separately in the Balance Sheet.

(s) Accounting for Oil and Gas Activity

The Company has adopted Successful Efforts Method (SEM) of accounting for its Oil and Gas activities. The policy of recognition of exploration and evaluation expenditure is considered in line with the principle of SEM. Seismic costs, geological and geophysical studies, petroleum exploration license fees and general and administration costs directly attributable to exploration and evaluation activities are expensed off. The costs incurred on acquisition of interest in oil and gas blocks and on exploration and evaluation other than those which are expensed off are accounted for as Intangible Assets Under Development. All development costs incurred in respect of proved reserves are also capitalised under Intangible Assets Under Development. Once a well is ready to commence commercial production, the costs accumulated in Intangible Assets Under Development are classified as Intangible Assets corresponding to proved developed oil and gas reserves. The exploration and evaluation expenditure which does not result in discovery of proved oil and gas reserves and all cost pertaining to production are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The Company uses technical estimation of reserves as per the Petroleum Resources Management System guidelines 2011 and standard geological and reservoir engineering methods. The reserve review and evaluation is carried out annually.

Oil and Gas Joint Ventures are in the nature of joint operations. Accordingly, assets and liabilities as well as income and expenditure are accounted on the basis of available information on a line-by-line basis with similar items in the Company's Financial Statements, according to the participating interest of the Company.

(t) Earnings Per Share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year adjusted for bonus element in equity share. Diluted earnings per share adjusts the figures used in determination of basic earnings per share to take into account the conversion of all dilutive potential

equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as at the beginning of the period unless issued at a later date.

C. Critical Accounting Judgements and Key Sources of Estimation Uncertainty

The preparation of the Company's Financial Statements requires management to make judgement, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and the accompanying disclosures. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in next financial years.

(A) Estimation of Oil and Gas Reserves

The determination of the Company's estimated oil and natural gas reserves requires significant judgements and estimates to be applied and these are regularly reviewed and updated. Factors such as the availability of geological and engineering data, reservoir performance data, acquisition and divestment activity, drilling of new wells, and commodity prices all impact on the determination of the Company's estimates of its oil and natural gas reserves. The Company bases it's proved reserves estimates on the requirement of reasonable certainty with rigorous technical and commercial assessments based on conventional industry practice and regulatory requirements.

Estimates of oil and natural gas reserves are used to calculate depletion charges for the Company's oil and gas properties. The impact of changes in estimated proved reserves is dealt with prospectively by amortising the remaining carrying value of the asset over the expected future production. Oil and natural gas reserves also have a direct impact on the assessment of the recoverability of asset carrying values reported in the Financial Statements.

Details on proved reserves and production both on product and geographical basis are provided in Note 35.1.

(B) Decommissioning Liabilities

The liability for decommissioning costs is recognised when the Company has an obligation to perform site restoration activity. The recognition and measurement of decommissioning provisions involves the use of estimates and assumptions. These include; the timing of abandonment of well and related facilities which would depend upon the ultimate life of the field, expected utilisation of assets by other fields, the scope of abandonment activity and pre-tax rate applied for discounting.

(C) Property Plant and Equipment/ Intangible Assets

Estimates are involved in determining the cost attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by the management. Property, Plant and Equipment/Intangible Assets are depreciated/ amortised over their estimated useful life, after taking into account estimated residual value. Management reviews the estimated useful life and residual values of the assets annually in order to determine the amount of depreciation/ amortisation to be recorded during any reporting period. The useful life and residual values are based on the Company's historical experience with similar assets and take into account anticipated technological and future risks. The depreciation/ amortisation for future periods is revised if there are significant changes from previous estimates.

(D) Recoverability of Trade Receivables

Judgments are required in assessing the recoverability of overdue trade receivables and determining whether a provision against those receivables is required. Factors considered include the credit rating of the counterparty, the amount and timing of anticipated future payments and any possible actions that can be taken to mitigate the risk of non-payment.

(E) Provisions

The timing of recognition and quantification of the liability (including litigations) requires the application of judgement to existing facts and circumstances, which can be subject to change. The carrying amounts of provisions and liabilities are reviewed regularly and revised to take account of changing facts and circumstances.

(F) Impairment of Financial and NonFinancial Assets

The impairment provisions for Financial Assets are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected cash loss rates. The Company uses judgement in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on Company's past history, existing market conditions as well as forwardlooking estimates at the end of each reporting period.

In case of non-financial assets, assessment of impairment indicators involves consideration of future risks. Further, the company estimates asset's recoverable amount, which is higher of an asset's or Cash Generating Units (CGU's) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using pre-tax

discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account, if no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used.

(G) Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets and Liabilities

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses for which there is probability of utilisation against the future taxable profit. The Company uses judgement to determine the amount of deferred tax that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits and business developments.

(H) Fair Value Measurement

For estimates relating to fair value of financial instruments refer note 38 of financial statements.

(I) Global Health Pandemic on Covid-19

The continuance of corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic globally and in India is causing significant disturbance and slowdown of economic activity. The Company's operations and revenue during the period were impacted due to COVID-19. The Company has taken into account the possible impact of COVID-19 in preparation of financial statements, including its assessment of recoverable value of its assets based on internal and external information upto the date of approval of these financial statements and current indicators of future economic conditions.

D. Standards Issued but not Effective

On March 23, 2022, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has notified Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2022. This notification has resulted into amendments in the following existing accounting standards which are applicable to company from April 1, 2022.

i. Ind AS 101 - First time adoption of Ind AS

ii. Ind AS 103 - Business Combination

iii. Ind AS 109 - Financial Instrument

iv. Ind AS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment

v. Ind AS 37 -Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

vi. Ind AS 41 - Agriculture

Application of above standards are not expected to have any significant impact on the company's financial statements