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Company Information

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ABB INDIA LTD.

02 March 2024 | 12:00

Industry >> Electric Equipment - General

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ISIN No INE117A01022 BSE Code / NSE Code 500002 / ABB Book Value (Rs.) 280.53 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 11/05/2024 52Week High 5552 EPS 58.61 P/E 93.83
Market Cap. 116540.07 Cr. 52Week Low 3141 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 19.60 / 0.53 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2022-12 

1. Corporate Information

ABB India Limited (‘the Company’) has served utility and industry customers for over seven decades with the complete range of engineering, products, solutions and services in areas of Automation and Power technology. The Company has extensive installed base for manufacturing and a countrywide marketing and service presence. Besides catering to Indian domestic market, the Company is also playing an increasing role in the global market.

The Company is a public limited company domiciled in India and incorporated under the provisions of the Indian Companies Act. The registered office is located at Bengaluru. Its shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE).

The financial statements are approved for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on February 10, 2023.

2. Significant accounting policies

2.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements A Statement of compliance

These financial statements are prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2016.

B Functional and presentation currency

The financial statements are presented in INR in crores, rounded off to two decimal places, except when otherwise indicated.

C Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost convention and on an accrual basis of accounting, except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value:

>- Derivative financial instruments

>- Investments classified as Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (‘FVTPL’).

>- Fair value of plan assets less present value of defined benefit obligations.

Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

2.2 Use of estimates

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions. These estimates, judgments and assumptions affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the period. Application of accounting policies that require critical accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgments and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed in Note 2.3. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

2.3 Critical accounting estimates and judgements

a. Project revenue and costs

The Company uses the percentage-of-completion method in accounting for its fixed-price contracts. Use of the percentage-of-completion method requires the Company to estimate the efforts or costs expended to date as a proportion of the total efforts or costs to be expended. Efforts or costs expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected contract estimates at the reporting date.

b. Property, plant and equipment (‘PPE')

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset’s expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company’s assets are determined by management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology.

c. Employee benefits

The cost of the defined benefit gratuity plan and the present value of the gratuity obligation are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date. The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans operated in India, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation. The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes. Future salary increases and gratuity increases are based on expected future inflation rate and past trends. Further details about gratuity obligations are given in Note 37.

d. Provision for litigations and contingencies

The Company estimates the provisions that have present obligations as a result of past events and it is probable that outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligations. These provisions are reviewed at the end of each reporting period and are adjusted to reflect the current best estimates. The Company uses significant judgements to assess contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities are recognised when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made. Contingent assets are neither recognised nor disclosed in the financial statements.

e. Provision for income tax

The Company uses estimates and judgements in respect of eligibility of costs / expenses as a deductible item while determining the provision for income tax.

f. Expected credit losses on trade receivables:

The expected credit loss provision on trade receivables are based on assumptions about risk of default and expected timing of collection. The Company uses judgment in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the expected credit loss calculation based on the Company’s history of collections, customer’s creditworthiness and market conditions at the end of each reporting period.

2.4 Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

• Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

• Held primarily for the purpose of trading

• Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

• Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

• All other assets are classified as non-current.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non- current as per the Company’s operating cycle and other criteria set out in Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current and non- current classification of assets and liabilities, except for projects business. The projects business comprises long-term contracts which have an operating cycle exceeding one year. For classification of current assets and liabilities related to projects business, the Company uses the duration of the individual life cycle of the contract as its operating cycle.

A liability is current when:

• It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

• It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

• It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

• There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period

• The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

• Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

2.5 Foreign Currency

Functional currency

The functional currency of the company is the Indian Rupee.

Transactions and translations

Initial recognition transactions in foreign currencies are recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date the transaction first qualifies for recognition.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the transaction.

Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.

2.6 Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognised when control of the goods or services are transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue are stated exclusive of goods and service tax and net of returns and trade and quantity discount.

Revenue from sale of products is recognised on transfer of control of the products to the customers, which is usually on delivery of goods to the customer or as per contractual terms with the customer.

Revenues from fixed price contracts are recognized on the percentage of completion method, in proportion that the contract costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total contract costs. Contract revenue earned in excess of billing has been reflected under "Other current assets" and billing in excess of contract revenue has been reflected under "Other current liabilities" in the balance sheet. Full provision is made for any loss in the year in which it is first foreseen. Liquidated damages / penalties are provided for as per the contract terms wherever there is a delayed delivery attributable to the Company.

Revenue from services is recognised as per the terms of the contract with the customer using the percentage of completion method, in proportion that the costs incurred for work performed up to the reporting date bear to the estimated total costs.

Revenue from the development services are recognised on a cost plus basis and billed in accordance with the terms of arrangement with the customer.

Commission income is recognised as and when the terms of the contract are fulfilled.

Interest income is recognised on time proportion basis, based on the underlying interest rates.

2.7 Income Taxes

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. The Company offsets tax assets and tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

2.8 Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Such cost includes the cost of replacing part of the plant and equipment and borrowing costs for long-term construction projects if the recognition criteria are met. When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives. Likewise, when a major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied.

All other repair and maintenance costs are recognised in statement of profit or loss as incurred. The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of Property, plant and equipment separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the Property, plant and equipment and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each balance sheet date is classified as capital advances under other non-current assets and cost of assets not ready for use at the balance sheet date are disclosed under capital work- in- progress.

The Company depreciates property, plant and equipment over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of assets are as follows:

Useful lives estimated by the management in years:

• Leasehold improvements

Shorter of over the period of lease or useful life

• Factory buildings

15-30

• Other buildings

3-60

• Furniture and fixtures

10

• Office equipments

3-5

• Plant and equipment

6-21

• Vehicles

• Freehold land is not depreciated

5

Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an property, plant and equipment are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the property, plant and equipment is derecognized.

2.9 Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised and the related expenditure is reflected in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. The estimated useful life of assets in years are as follows:

• Technical know-how fees 3-10

• Capitalized software costs 3-5

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful life recognized on business combination are tested for impairment at least annually and when events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the recoverable amount of an asset or cash generating unit to which the assets pertains is less than the carrying value.

Gains or losses arising from de-recognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

2.10 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur. Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

2.11 Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. The cost of various categories of inventories is arrived at as follows:

Stores, spares, raw materials, components and traded goods - at rates determined on the moving weighted average method.

Goods in Transit - at actual cost.

Work-in-progress and finished goods - at full absorption cost method which includes direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overheads. Cost is determined on weighted average method.

Provision for obsolescence is made wherever necessary.

2.12 Impairment

a Financial assets

Financial assets (other than at fair value) The Company assesses at each date of balance sheet whether a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Ind AS 109 ('Financial Instruments') requires expected credit losses to be measured through a loss allowance. The Company recognises lifetime expected losses for all contract assets and / or all trade receivables that do not constitute a financing transaction. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month expected credit losses or at an amount equal to the life time expected credit losses if the credit risk on the financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition. Additionally the Company provides for impairment upon the occurrence of the triggering event.

The impairment provisions for financial assets are based on evaluation of the risk of default over the expected life of the receivables and expected timing of collection. The Company uses judgment in making these assumptions and selecting the inputs to the impairment calculation, based on the Company's past history of collections, customer's credit-worthiness, existing market conditions as well as forward looking estimates at the end of each reporting period.

b Non-financial assets

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

The Company assesses, at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cash-generating unit's (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs.

If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset. An impairment loss is reversed in the statement of profit and loss if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of the asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

2.13 Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using the indirect method, whereby profit for the period is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments and item of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.

2.14 Other income

Other income is comprised primarily of interest income. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method.

2.15 Provisions, Contingent liability and assets General

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that is reasonably estimable, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of time value of money is material, Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

Warranty provisions

Provisions for warranty-related costs are recognised when the product is sold to the customer. Initial recognition is based on historical experience. The initial estimate of warranty-related costs is revised annually.

Contingent liability

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the financial statements.

Contingent assets

Contingent assets are not recognised or disclosed in financial statements since this may result in the recognition of income that may never be realised. However, when the realisation of income is virtually certain, then the related asset is not a contingent asset and is recognised.

Onerous contracts

Present obligations arising under onerous contracts are recognised and measured as provisions. An onerous contract is considered to exist where the Company has a contract under which the unavoidable costs (full cost basis) of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received from the contract.

2.16 Financial instruments

2.16.1 Initial recognition

The Company recognizes financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are recognized at fair value on initial recognition, except for trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, that are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition.

2.16.2 Subsequent measurement

a. Non-derivative financial instruments

(i) Financial assets carried at amortised cost

A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business where the objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income

A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business where the objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. The Company has made an irrevocable election for its investments which are classified as equity instruments to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income based on its business model. Further, in cases where the Company has made an irrevocable election based on its business model, for its investments which are classified as equity instruments, the subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in other comprehensive income.

(iii) Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.

(iv) Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

(v) Derecognition

A financial asset is primarily derecognised when:

• The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

• The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

b. Derivative financial instruments

The company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank. Commodity risk is mitigated by entering into future contracts to hedge against fluctuation in commodity prices.

Financial assets or financial liabilities, at fair value through profit or loss.

This category has derivative financial assets or liabilities which are not designated as hedges.

Although the company believes that these derivatives constitute hedges from an economic perspective, they may not qualify for hedge accounting under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments. Any derivative that is either not designated a hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective as per Ind AS 109, is categorized as a financial asset or financial liability, at fair value through profit or loss.

Derivatives not designated as hedges are recognized initially at fair value and attributable transaction costs are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, these derivatives are measured at fair value through profit or loss and the resulting exchange gains or losses are included in other income / expenses. Assets/ liabilities in this category are presented as current assets/current liabilities if they are either held for trading or are expected to be realized within 12 months after the balance sheet date.

Certain commercial contracts may grant rights to the Company or the counterparties, or contain other provisions that are considered to be derivatives. Such embedded derivatives are assessed at inception of the contract and depending on their characteristics, accounted for as separate derivative instruments and shown at their fair value in the balance sheet with changes in their fair value recognized through profit or loss.

2.17 Fair value of financial instruments

Fair value hierarchy:

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

2.18 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The Company has no potentially dilutive equity shares.

2.19 Employee benefits

2.19.1 Gratuity & Provident Fund - Defined benefit plans

The present value of the obligation under defined benefit plans are determined based on actuarial valuation using the Projected Unit Credit Method. In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognize the obligation on a net basis.

In case of defined benefit plans, remeasurement comprising of actuarial gains and losses is recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI) and is reflected in retained earnings and is not eligible to be reclassified to profit or loss.

The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in statement of profit and loss:

• Service cost including current service cost, past service cost and gains and losses on curtailments and settlements; and

• Net interest expense or income.

Provident fund has been considered as a defined benefit plan since any additional obligations on account of investment risk and interest rate risk are required to be met by the Company.

2.19.2 Superannuation - Defined contribution scheme

Contribution to Superannuation Fund, is made at pre-determined rates to the Superannuation Fund Trust and is charged to the statement of profit and loss during the period in which the employee renders the related services. There are no other obligations other than the contribution payable to the Superannuation Fund Trust.

2.19.3 Compensated absences

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilised within the next 12 months, is treated as short-term employee benefits. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date. The Company presents the entire accumulated leave as a current liability in the balance sheet, since it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for 12 months after the reporting date.

The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each balance sheet date using the projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date.

2.19.4 Share based compensation

The company recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit using fair-value in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-Based Payment. The estimated fair value of awards is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was in-substance, multiple awards with a corresponding increase to share options outstanding account.

For cash-settled share-based payment transactions, the Company measures the services acquired and the liability incurred at the fair value of the liability. The Company recognises the services received, and a liability to pay for those services, as the employees render service. The liability is measured, initially and at the end of each reporting period until settled, at the fair value of the share appreciation rights, by applying an option pricing model, taking into account the terms and conditions on which the share appreciation rights were granted, and the extent to which the employees have rendered service to date.

2.20 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and cheque at hand and cash and deposit with bank.

2.21 Operating cycle

A portion of the Company‘s activities (primarily long-term project activities) has an operating cycle that exceeds one year. Accordingly, assets and liabilities related to these long-term contracts, which will not be realized/paid within one year, have been classified as current. For all other activities, the operating cycle is twelve months.

2.22 Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets (including disposal groups) are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale are not depreciated or amortised from the date when they are classified as held for sale.

An impairment loss is recognized for any initial or subsequent write-down of the asset (or disposal group) to fair value less costs to sell. A gain is recognized for any subsequent increases in fair value less costs to sell of an asset (or disposal group), but not in excess of any cumulative impairment loss previously recognized. A gain or loss not previously recognized by the date of the sale of the non-current asset (or disposal group) is recognized at the date of de-recognition.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale and the assets and liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets and liabilities in the balance sheet.

A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale and:

(a) represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and;

(b) is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations.

The results of discontinued operations are presented separately in the statement of profit and loss. The comparative statement of profit and loss is re-presented as if the operation had been discontinued from the start of the comparative period.

2.23 Leases

A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for a consideration. To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company assesses whether:

• the contract involves the use of an identified asset;

• the Company had the right to obtain substantially all the economic benefits from use of the asset throughout the period of use; and

• the Company had the right to direct the use of the asset.

The Company as lessor

At inception or on modification of a contract that contains a lease component, the Company allocates the consideration in the contract to each lease component on the basis of their relative standalone prices. When the Company acts as a lessor, it determines at lease inception whether each lease is a finance lease or an operating lease.

The Company as lessee

The Company recognises a right-of-use asset (ROU) and a lease liability at the lease commencement date. The right-of-use asset is initially measured at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, plus any initial direct costs incurred and an estimate of costs to dismantle and remove the underlying asset or to restore the underlying asset or the site on which it is located, less any lease incentives received.

The right-of-use asset is subsequently depreciated using the straight-line method from the commencement date to the end of the lease term, unless the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the Company by the end of the lease term or the cost of the right-of-use asset reflects that the Company will exercise a purchase option. In that case the right-of-use asset will be depreciated over the useful life of the underlying asset, which is determined on the same basis as those of property, plant and equipment. In addition, the right-of-use asset is periodically reduced by impairment losses, if any, and adjusted for certain remeasurements of the lease liability.

The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. Generally, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate.

Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability comprise the following:

- fixed payments, including in-substance fixed payments;

- variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate, initially measured using the index or rate as at the commencement date;

- amounts expected to be payable under a residual value guarantee; and

- the exercise price under a purchase option that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise, lease payments in an optional renewal period if the Company is reasonably certain to exercise an extension option, and penalties for early termination of a lease unless the Company is reasonably certain not to terminate early.

The lease liability is measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. It is remeasured when there is a change in future lease payments arising from a change in an index or rate, if there is a change in the Company's estimate of the amount expected to be payable under a residual value guarantee, if the Company changes its assessment of whether it will exercise a purchase, extension or termination option or if there is a revised insubstance fixed lease payment.

When the lease liability is remeasured in this way, a corresponding adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset, or is recorded in profit or loss if the carrying amount of the right-of use asset has been reduced to zero.

Short-term leases and leases of low-value assets

The Company has elected not to recognise right-of use assets and lease liabilities for leases of low value assets and short-term leases. The Company recognises the lease payments associated with these leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company's significant leasing arrangements are mainly in respect of land & buildings, plant & equipment and vehicles.

2.24 Exceptional items

When an item of income/expense within profit and loss from ordinary activities is of such size, nature or incidence that their disclosure is relevant to explain the performance of the Company for the year, the nature and amount of such items are disclosed as exceptional item.

2.25 Amendments to Schedule III of Companies Act, 2013

The Company has adopted the presentation requirements under the amended schedule III including changes to comparative financial information where applicable in preparation of the financial statements.

2.26 Standards issued but not effective

On March 23, 2022, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has notified Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2022. This notification has resulted into amendments in the following existing accounting standards which are applicable to company for the financial year starting from January 1, 2023.

Ind AS 103 - Business Combination

Ind AS 109 - Financial Instrument

Ind AS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment

Ind AS 37 -Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Application of above standards are not expected to have any significant impact on the company's financial statements