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Company Information

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20 May 2022 | 12:00

Industry >> Food Processing - Bakery/Dairy/Fruits/Others

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ISIN No INE216A01030 52Week High 4153 Book Value (Rs.) 106.20 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 28/06/2022 52Week Low 3050 EPS 63.31 P/E 54.50
Market Cap. 83105.58 Cr. P/BV 32.49 Div Yield (%) 1.64 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other


You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2021-03 

1 Reporting entity

Britannia Industries Limited (the ‘Company’) is a company domiciled in India, with its registered office situated at 5/1A, Hungerford Street, Kolkata, West Bengal - 700017. The Company has been incorporated under the provisions of Indian Companies Act and its equity shares are listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India. The Company is primarily involved in manufacturing and sale of various food products.

2 Basis of preparation

A. Statement of compliance

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) as per the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules 2015, as amended, notified under Section 133 of Companies Act, 2013, (the ‘Act’) and other relevant provisions of the Act.

The standalone financial statements were authorised for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on 27 April 2021.

Details of the Company’s accounting policies are included in Note 3.

B. Functional and presentation currency

These standalone financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees ('), which is also the Company’s functional currency. All amounts have been rounded-off to two decimal places to the nearest crores, unless otherwise indicated.

C. Basis of measurement

The standalone financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the following



Measurement basis

Certain financial assets and liabilities

Fair value

Share-based payments

Fair value

Net defined benefit asset/(liability)

Fair value of plan assets less present value of defined benefit obligations

D. use of estimates and judgements

In preparing these standalone financial statements, the Company has made judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.


Information about judgements made in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effects on the amounts recognised in the standalone financial statements is included in the following notes:

- Note 37 - leases: whether an arrangement contains a lease and lease classification

Assumptions and estimation uncertainties

Information about assumptions and estimation uncertainties that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustment in the year ending 31 March 2021 is included in the following notes:

- Note 46 - measurement of defined benefit obligations: key actuarial assumptions;

- Note 41 - recognition and measurement of provisions and contingencies: key assumptions about the likelihood and magnitude of an outflow of resources;

- Note 4 - useful life of property, plant and equipment

- Notes 7 to 9 and Notes 12,13,15 and 16 - impairment of financial assets.

E. Measurement of fair values

Certain accounting policies and disclosures of the Company require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non financial assets and liabilities.

The Company has an established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values.

The valuation team regularly reviews significant unobservable inputs and valuation adjustments.

Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:

- Level 1: quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

- Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

- Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

When measuring the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company uses observable market data as far as possible. If the inputs used to measure the fair value of an asset or a liability fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy, then the fair value measurement is categorised in its entirety in the same level of the fair value hierarchy as the lowest level input that is significant to the entire measurement.

The Company recognises transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy at the end of the reporting period during which the change has occurred.

Further information about the assumptions made in the measuring fair values is included in the following notes:

- Note 5 - investment property

- Note 18 (d) - share-based payments

- Note 54 - financial instruments.

3. Significant accounting policies

(a) Property, plant and equipment

i. Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment, are measured at cost (which includes capitalised borrowing costs, if any) less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment includes its purchase price, duties, taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable cost of bringing the item to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials, direct labour and any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to its intended working condition and estimated costs of dismantling, removing and restoring the site on which it is located, wherever applicable.

If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

ii. Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

iii. Depreciation

Depreciation is calculated on cost of items of property, plant and equipment less their estimated residual value using straight line method over the useful lives of assets estimated by the Company based on an internal technical evaluation performed by the Company and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Assets acquired under lease are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and their useful lives unless it is reasonably certain that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term. Depreciation for assets purchased / sold during the period is proportionately charged.

The range of estimated useful lives of items of property, plant and equipment are as follows:


Useful life

Plant and equipment

7.5 - 15 years

Furniture and fixtures

10 years

Motor vehicles

8 years

Office equipment

3 - 5 years


30 - 60 years

Leasehold land

Lease period

Freehold land is not depreciated.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

iv. Reclassification to investment property

When the use of a property changes from owner-occupied to investment property, the property is reclassified as investment property at its carrying amount on the date of classification.

v. Capital work-in-progress

Capital work-in-progress includes cost of property, plant and equipment/ intangible assets under installation / under development as at the balance sheet date.

(b) Investment property

Investment property is property held either to earn rental income or for capital appreciation or for both, but not for sale in the ordinary course of business, use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes. Upon initial recognition, an investment property is measured at cost. Subsequent to initial recognition, investment property is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The Company depreciates investment properties on a straight-line basis over the useful life of the asset as specified in the table above.

Any gain or loss on disposal of an investment property is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The fair values of investment property is disclosed in the notes acccompanying these financial statements. Fair values are determined by an independent valuer who holds recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued.

(c) Intangible assets

Internally generated: Research and development

Expenditure on research activities is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred.

Development expenditure is capitalised as part of the cost of the resulting intangible asset only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable, and the Company intends to and has sufficient resources to complete the development and to use or sell the asset. Otherwise, it is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.


Other intangible assets including those acquired by the Company in a business combination are initially measured at cost. Such intangible assets are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.


Amortisation is calculated to write off the cost of intangible assets less their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives using the straight- line method, and is included in depreciation and amortisation in Statement of Profit and Loss.

The estimated useful lives are as follows:


useful life

Computer software

6 years

Amortisation method, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at the end of each financial year and adjusted if appropriate.

(d) Impairment

(i) Financial assets

The Company recognises loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are not fair valued through Statement of Profit and Loss. Loss allowance for trade receivables with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime ECL. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recognised is recognised as an impairment gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash generated units to which the asset belongs. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset. An impairment loss is reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. The carrying amount of the asset is increased to its revised recoverable amount, provided that this amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined (net of any accumulated amortisation or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years.

(e) Leases

Effective 1 April 2019, the Company has applied Ind AS 116, which replaces the erstwhile lease standard, Ind AS 17 Leases and other interpretations. The Company at the inception of a contract, assesses whether a contract, is or contains a lease. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Ind AS 116 introduces a single balance sheet lease accounting model for lessees. A lessee recognises a Right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset and a lease liability representing its obligation to make lease payments. The Company does not recognise right-of-use of assets and lease liabilities for short term leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and leases of low value assets. The Company recognises the lease payments associated with these leases as an expense on a straight line basis over the lease term. Lessor accounting remains similar to the accounting under the previous standard i.e. lessor continues to classify leases as finance or operating lease. This policy is applied to contracts entered into, or changed, on or after 1 April 2019. For contracts entered into before 1 April 2019, the determination of whether an arrangement is, or contains a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

As a lessee

The Company recognises a right-of-use asset and a lease liability at the lease commencement date. The right of use asset is initially measured at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, plus any initial direct cost incurred and an estimate of cost to dismantle and remove the underlying asset or to restore the underlying asset or the site on which it is located, less any lease incentives received. The right-of-use asset is subsequently depreciated using the straight line method from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life or the end of the lease term. The estimated useful life of the right-of-use assets are determined on the same basis as those of property, plant and equipment. In addition, the right-of-use asset is periodically reduced by impairment losses, if any, and adjusted for certain remeasurements of the lease liability. The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the Company’s incremental borrowing rate. The lease payments shall include fixed payments, variable lease payments, residual value guarantees, exercise price of a purchase option where the Company

is reasonably certain to exercise that option and payment of penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term reflects the lessee exercising an option to terminate the lease. Subsequent to initial measurement, the liability is reduced for payments made and increased for interest. It is remeasured to reflect any reassessment or modification, or if there are changes in in-substance fixed payments. When the lease liability is remeasured, the corresponding adjustment is reflected in the right-of-use asset, or profit and loss if the right-of-use asset is already reduced to zero. On the Balance Sheet, right-of-use assets have been included under property, plant and equipment and lease liabilities have been included under borrowings & other financial liabilities.

As a lessor

Lease income from operating leases, where the Company is a lessor, is recognised on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the receipts are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the expected inflation.

(f) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost (including prime cost, non-refundable taxes and duties and other overheads incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition) and estimated net realisable value, after providing for obsolescence, where appropriate. The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis. The net realisable value of materials in process is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished goods. Raw materials, packing materials and other supplies held for use in production of inventories are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined, and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value.

The provision for inventory obsolescence is assessed regularly based on estimated usage and shelf life of products.

Raw materials, packing materials and stores and spares are valued at cost computed on moving weighted average basis. The cost includes purchase price, inward freight and other incidental expenses net of refundable duties, levies and taxes, where applicable.

Work-in-progress is valued at input material cost plus conversion cost as applicable.

Finished goods and stock-in-trade are valued at the lower of net realisable value and cost (including prime cost, non-refundable taxes and duties and other overheads incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition), computed on a moving weighted average basis.

(g) Financial instruments

i. Recognition and initial measurement

The Company initially recognises financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are measured at fair value on initial recognition. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, that are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition.

ii. Classification and subsequent measurement

Financial assets

Financial assets carried at amortised cost

A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortised cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss

A financial asset which is not classified in any of the above categories are subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.

Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

Investment in subsidiaries, joint venture and associates

Investment in equity shares in subsidiaries, joint venture and associates is carried at cost in the financial statements.

iii. Derecognition

Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the right to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial assets are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.

If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and a new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

iv. Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(h) Revenue recognition

The Company recognises revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. A 5-step approach is used to recognise revenue as below:

Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer Step 2: Identify the performance obligation in contract Step 3: Determine the transaction price

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract Step 5: Recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation”

(i) Sale of goods:

Revenue is recognised when a customer obtains control of the goods which is ordinarily upon delivery at the customer premises. Revenue is measured at fair value of the consideration received or receivable, after deduction of any trade discounts, volume rebates and any taxes or duties collected on behalf of the government which are levied on sales such as goods and services tax, etc. For certain contracts that permit the customer to return an item, revenue is recognised to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur. As a consequence, for those contracts for which the Company is unable to make a reasonable estimate of return, revenue is recognised when the return period lapses or a reasonable estimate can be made. A refund liability and an asset for recovery is recognised for these contracts and presented separately in the balance sheet.

(ii) Deferred revenue:

The Company has a customer loyalty programme for select customers. The Company grants credit points to those customers as part of a sales transaction which allows them to accumulate and redeem those credit points. The consideration is allocated between the loyalty programme and the goods based on their relative stand-alone selling prices. The credit points have been deferred and will be recognised as revenue when the reward points are redeemed or lapsed.

(iii) Income from royalties are recognised based on contractual agreements.

(iv) Dividend income is recognised when the Company’s right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

(v) For all financial instruments measured at amortised cost, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR), which is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the net carrying amount of the financial asset. Interest income is included in other income in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(i) Business combination

Business combinations arising from transfers of interest in entities that are under the control of the shareholder who control the Company are accounted for as if the acquisition had occurred at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or, if later, at the date that common control was established; for this purpose comparatives are revised. The assets and liabilities acquired are recognised at their carrying amounts. The identity of the reserves is preserved and they appear in the financial statements of the Company in the same form in which they appeared in the financial statements of the acquired entity. The difference, if any, between the value of net assets and the consequent reduction in value of investment held by the Company is transferred to the capital reserve or to the accumulated balance of profit and loss.

(j) Foreign currencies

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their functional currency spot rates at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are translated at the functional currency spot rates of exchange at the reporting date. Exchange differences that arise on settlement of monetary items or on reporting at each balance sheet date are recognised as income or expenses in the period in which they arise. Non-monetary items which are carried at historical cost denominated in a foreign currency are reported using the exchange rates at the date of transaction. Non-monetary items measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is determined.

(k) Government grants

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to revenue, it is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the periods to which they relate. When the grant relates to an asset, it is treated as deferred income and recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset.

(l) Income tax

Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent that it relates to a business combination or to an item recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

i. Current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

ii. Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognised in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits. Deferred tax is not recognised for:

- temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of transaction.

- temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, associates and interests in joint ventures, when the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used.

Deferred tax assets recognised or unrecognised are reviewed at each reporting date and are recognised / reduced to the extent that it is probable / no longer probable respectively that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

The Company offsets, the current tax assets and liabilities (on a year on year basis) and deferred tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right and where it intends to settle such assets and liabilities on a net basis.

(m) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of those property, plant and equipment which necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use are capitalised. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they incur in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(n) Provisions and contingent liabilities

i. General

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, the expense relating to a provision is presented in the Statement of Profit and Loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

ii. Contingent liabilities

A disclosure for contingent liabilities is made where there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may probably not require an outflow of resources. When there is a possible or a present obligation where the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

iii. Onerous contracts

Provision for onerous contracts. i.e. contracts where the expected unavoidable cost of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received under it, are recognised when it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle a present obligation as a result of an obligating event based on a reliable estimate of such obligation.

(o) Employee benefits

i. Short-term employee benefits

All employee benefits falling due wholly within twelve months of rendering the services are classified as short-term employee benefits, which include benefits like salaries, wages, short-term compensated absences and performance incentives and are recognised as expenses in the period in which the employee renders the related service.

ii. Post-employment benefits

Contributions to defined contribution schemes such as Provident Fund, Pension Fund, etc., are recognised as expenses in the period in which the employee renders the related service. In respect of certain employees, Provident Fund contributions are made to a Trust administered by the Company. The interest rate payable to the members of the Trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and shortfall, if any, after considering the accumulated reserves with the Trust, shall be made good by the Company. To this extent, the Provident Fund scheme could be considered as a defined benefit plan. In respect of contributions made to government administered Provident Fund, the Company has no further obligations beyond its monthly contributions. The Company also provides for post-employment defined benefit in the form of gratuity and medical benefits. The cost of providing benefit is determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuation being carried out at each balance sheet date. Remeasurement of the net benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interests) and the effect of the assets ceiling (if any, excluding interest) are recognised in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognised in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The Britannia Industries Limited Covenanted Staff Pension Fund Trust (‘BILCSPF’) and Britannia Industries Limited Officers’ Pension Fund Trust (‘BILOPF’) were established by the Company to administer pension schemes for its employees. These trusts are managed by the Trustees. The Pension Scheme is applicable to all the managers and officers of the Company who have been employed up to the date of 15 September 2005 and any manager or officer employed after that date, if he has opted for the membership of the Scheme. The Company makes a contribution of 15% of basic salary in respect of the members, each month to the trusts. On retirement, subject to the vesting conditions as per the rules of the trust, the member becomes eligible for pension, which is paid from annuity purchased in the name of the member by the trusts.

iii. Other long-term employee benefits

All employee benefits (other than post-employment benefits and termination benefits) which do not fall due wholly within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related services are determined based on actuarial valuation or discounted present value method carried out at each balance sheet date. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary as at 1 January every year using projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid / availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. Expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognised in the period in which the absences occur.

iv. Voluntary retirement scheme benefits

Voluntary retirement scheme benefits are recognised as an expense in the year they are incurred.

(p) Share-based payments

The cost of equity-settled transactions is determined by the fair value on the date when the grant is made using an appropriate valuation model. That cost is recognised in employee benefits expense, together with a corresponding increase in share-based payment (share options outstanding account) reserves in equity, over the period in which the performance and/or service conditions are fulfilled. The dilutive effect of outstanding options is reflected as additional share dilution in the computation of diluted earnings per share.

(q) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, cheques on hand and demand deposits with banks with original maturities of three months or less.

(r) Earnings per share

Basic Earnings Per Share (‘EPS’) is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the net profit by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as of the beginning of the year, unless issued at a later date. In computing diluted earnings per share, only potential equity shares that are dilutive and that either reduces earnings per share or increases loss per share are included. The number of shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented in case of share splits.

(s) Cash flow statement

Cash flows are reported using indirect method, whereby net profits before tax is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature and any deferrals or accruals of past or future cash receipts or payments and items of income or expenses associated with investing or financing cash flows. The cash flows from regular revenue generating (operating activities), investing and financing activities of the Company are segregated.

(t) Recent accounting pronouncements

On 24 March 2021, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) through a notification, amended Schedule III of the Companies Act, 2013. The amendments revise Division I, II and III of Schedule III and are applicable from 1 April 2021. Key amendments relating to Division II which relate to companies whose financial statements are required to comply with Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules 2015 are:

Balance Sheet:

• Lease liabilities should be separately disclosed under the head ‘financial liabilities’, duly distinguished as current or non-current.

• Certain additional disclosures in the statement of changes in equity such as changes in equity share capital due to prior period errors and restated balances at the beginning of the current reporting period.

• Specified format for disclosure of shareholding of promoters.

• Specified format for ageing schedule of trade receivables, trade payables, capital work-in-progress and intangible asset under development.

• If a company has not used funds for the specific purpose for which it was borrowed from banks and financial institutions, then disclosure of details of where it has been used.

• Specific disclosure under ‘additional regulatory requirement’ such as compliance with approved schemes of arrangements, compliance with number of layers of companies, title deeds of immovable property not held in name of company, loans and advances to promoters, directors, key managerial personnel (KMP) and related parties, details of benami property held etc.

Statement of profit and loss:

• Additional disclosures relating to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), undisclosed income and crypto or virtual currency specified under the head ‘additional information’ in the notes forming part of standalone financial statements.

The amendments are extensive and the Company will evaluate the same to give effect to them as required by law.