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CIPLA LTD.

21 June 2024 | 12:00

Industry >> Pharmaceuticals

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ISIN No INE059A01026 BSE Code / NSE Code 500087 / CIPLA Book Value (Rs.) 289.87 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 02/08/2024 52Week High 1582 EPS 51.04 P/E 30.20
Market Cap. 124482.94 Cr. 52Week Low 986 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 5.32 / 0.84 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2023-03 

Corporate information

Cipla Limited (Corporate identity number: L24239MH1935PLC002380) ("Cipla" or “the Company”) having registered office at Cipla house, Peninsula Business Park, Ganpatrao Kadam Marg, Lower Parel, Mumbai - 400013, is a public company incorporated and domiciled in India. The Company is in the business of manufacturing, developing, and marketing wide range of branded and generic formulations and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). The Company has its wide network of manufacturing, trading and other incidental operations in India and International markets. Equity Shares of the Company are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited. Global Depository Receipts are listed on Luxembourg Stock Exchange.

Note 1 - Significant accounting policies and key accounting estimates and judgements1.1 Basis of preparation

(i) Compliance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS)

The financial statements of the Company as at and for the year ended 31st March, 2023 have been prepared and presented in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (“Ind AS”) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”) [Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015], and presentation requirements of Division II of Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 as amended from time to time, guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and other relevant provisions of the Act and accounting principles generally accepted in India.

These financial statements have been prepared by the Company as a going concern on the basis of relevant Ind AS that are effective or elected for early adoption at the Company's annual reporting date, 31st March, 2023.

(ii) Basis of measurement

The financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis and on accrual basis, except for the following:

• Financial assets and liabilities are measured at fair value or at amortised cost depending on classification;

• Derivative financial instruments and contingent consideration is measured at fair value;

• Assets held for sale - measured at fair value less cost to sell;

• Defined benefit plans - plan assets measured at fair value;

• Lease liability and Right-of-use assets- measured at fair value; and

• Share based payments - measured at fair value.

(iii) Consistency of accounting policy

The accounting policies are applied consistently to all the periods presented in the financial statements, except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

(iv) Functional currency and rounding of amounts

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (H) which is also the functional currency of the Company. All amounts disclosed in the financial statements and notes have been rounded-off to the nearest crores or decimal thereof as per the requirement of Schedule III, unless otherwise stated. Amount less than H 50,000/- is presented as H 0.00 crores.

1.2 Current and non-current classification

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current and non-current as per the Company's normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III of the Act and Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements.

Assets:

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

a) it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the Company's normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) it is cash or a cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.

Liabilities:

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria;

a) it is expected to be settled in the Company's normal operating cycle;

b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

c) it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting date; or

d) the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

Current assets and liabilities include the current portion of assets and liabilities, respectively. All other assets and liabilities are classified as non-current. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are always disclosed as non-current.

1.3 Use of estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements requires management of the Company to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses and disclosures relating to contingent liabilities. Management believes that the estimates used in the preparation of the financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed by management at each reporting date. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Any revision of these estimates is recognised prospectively in the current and future periods.

Following are the critical judgements and estimates:

1.3.1 Judgements

(i) Leases

Ind AS 116 - Leases requires lessees to determine the lease term as the non-cancellable period of a lease adjusted with any option to extend or terminate the lease, if the use of such option is reasonably certain. The Company makes an assessment on the expected lease term on a lease-bylease basis and thereby assesses whether it is reasonably certain that any options to extend or terminate the contract will be exercised. In evaluating the lease term, the Company considers factors such as any significant leasehold improvements undertaken over the lease term, costs relating to the termination of the lease and the importance of the underlying asset to Company's operations taking into account the location of the underlying asset and the availability of suitable alternatives. The lease term in future periods is reassessed to ensure that the lease term reflects the current economic circumstances.

(ii) Income taxes

Significant judgements are involved in determining the provision for income taxes including judgement on whether tax positions are probable of being sustained in tax assessments. A tax assessment can involve complex issues, which can only be resolved over extended time periods. The recognition of taxes that are subject to certain legal or economic limits or uncertainties is assessed individually by management based on the specific facts and circumstances.

In assessing the realisability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realised. The ultimate realisation of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversals of deferred income tax liabilities, projected future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Based on the level of historical taxable income and projections for future taxable income over the periods in which the deferred

income tax assets are deductible, management believes that the company will realise the benefits of those deductible differences. The amount of the deferred income tax assets considered realisable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carry forward period are reduced.

(iii) Research and developments costs

Internal research and development (R&D) expenses are fully charged to “Other expenses” in the profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred. The Company considers that regulatory and other uncertainties inherent in the development of new products preclude the capitalization of internal development expenses as an intangible asset until marketing approval from a regulatory authority is obtained in a major market.

Payments made to third parties, such as contract research and development organizations in compensation for subcontracted R&D, that are deemed not to transfer intellectual property to Company are expensed as internal R&D expenses in the period in which they are incurred. Such payments are only capitalized if they meet the criteria for recognition of an internally generated intangible asset, usually when marketing approval has been received from a regulatory authority in a major market.

Payments made to third parties to in-license or acquire intellectual property rights, compounds and products, including initial upfront and subsequent milestone payments, are capitalized, as are payments for other assets, such as technologies to be used in R&D activities. If additional payments are made to the originator company to continue performing R&D activities, an evaluation is made as to the nature of the payments. Such additional payments will be expensed if they are deemed to be compensation for subcontracted R&D services not resulting in an additional transfer of intellectual property rights to Company. Such additional payments will be capitalized if they are deemed to be compensation for the transfer of additional intellectual property developed at the risk of the originator company. Subsequent internal R&D costs in relation to IPR&D and other assets are expensed, since the technical feasibility of the internal R&D activity can only be demonstrated by the receipt of marketing approval for a related product from a regulatory authority in a major market.

(iv) Provisions and contingent liabilities

The Company exercises judgement in determining if a particular matter is possible, probable or remote. The Company exercises judgement in measuring and recognising provisions and the exposures to contingent liabilities related to pending litigation or other outstanding claims subject to negotiated settlement, mediation, government regulation, as well as other contingent liabilities. Judgement is necessary in assessing the likelihood that a pending claim will succeed, or a liability will arise, and to quantify the possible range of the financial settlement. Because of the inherent uncertainty in this evaluation process, actual losses may be different from the originally estimated provision. Provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate. If it is no longer probable that the outflow of resources would be required to settle the obligation, the provision is reversed.

(v) Business combinations

The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgement is applied in determining the acquisition date, determining whether control is transferred from one party to another and whether acquisition constitute a business or asset acquisition. Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive.

1.3.2 Estimates

(i) Useful lives of property, plant and equipment, and intangible assets

Property, plant and equipment, and intangibles assets represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset's expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company's assets are determined by the management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technology.

(ii) Refund liabilities

The Company accounts for sales returns accrual by recording refund liabilities concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This liability is based on the Company's estimate of expected sales returns. The Company deals in various products and operates in various markets. Accordingly, the estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by the Company's historical experience in the markets in which the Company operates. With respect to established products, the Company considers its historical experience of sales returns, levels of inventory in the distribution channel, estimated shelf life, product discontinuances, price changes of competitive products, and the introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company's business and markets.

At the time of recognising the refund liability, the Company also recognises an asset, (i.e., the right to the returned goods to the extent goods are saleable in market) which is included in inventories for the products expected to be returned and sold. The Company initially measures this asset at the former carrying amount of the inventory, less any expected costs to recover the goods, including any potential decreases in the value of the returned goods. Along with re-measuring the refund liability at the end of each reporting period, the Company updates the measurement of the asset recorded for any revisions to its expected level of returns, as well as any additional decreases in the value of the returned products.

(iii) Provision for rebates and discounts

Provisions for rebates, discounts and other deductions are estimated and provided for in the year of sales and recorded as reduction of revenue. Provisions for such rebates and discounts are accrued and estimated based on historical average rate actually claimed over a period of time, current contract prices with customers.

(iv) Inventories obsolescence

The factors that the Company considers in determining the provision for slow moving, obsolete and other non-saleable inventory include estimated shelf life, planned product discontinuances, price changes, ageing of inventory and introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company's business and markets. The Company considers all these factors and adjusts the inventory obsolescence to reflect its actual experience on a periodic basis.

(v) Expected credit loss

In accordance with Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments, the Company applies ECL model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

For this purpose, the Company follows 'simplified approach' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on the trade receivable balances, contract assets and lease receivables. The application of simplified approach requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

In case of other assets, the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to twelve months ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance.

(vi) Accounting for defined benefit plans

In accounting for post-retirement benefits, several statistical and other factors that attempt to anticipate future events are used to calculate plan expenses and liabilities. These factors include expected return on plan assets, discount rate assumptions and rate of future compensation increases. To estimate these factors, actuarial consultants also use estimates such as withdrawal, turnover, and mortality rates which require significant judgement. The actuarial assumptions used by the Company may differ materially from actual results in future periods due to changing market and economic conditions, regulatory events, judicial rulings, higher or lower withdrawal rates, or longer or shorter participant life spans.

(vii) Impairment of non-financial assets

An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which an asset's or cash-generating unit's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. To determine the recoverable amount, management estimates expected future cash flows from each asset or cash-generating unit and determines a suitable interest rate in order to calculate the present value of those cash flows. In the process of measuring expected future cash flows, management makes assumptions about future operating results. These assumptions relate to future events and circumstances. The actual results may vary and may cause significant adjustments to the Company's assets.

In most cases, determining the applicable discount rate involves estimating the appropriate adjustment to market risk and the appropriate adjustment to asset-specific risk factors.

(viii) Fair value of financial instruments

Management uses valuation techniques in measuring the fair value of financial instruments where active market quotes are not available. Details of the assumptions used are given in the notes regarding financial assets and liabilities. In applying the valuation techniques, management makes maximum use of market inputs and uses estimates and assumptions that are, as far as possible, consistent with observable data that market participants would use in pricing the instrument. Where applicable data is not observable, management uses its best estimate about the assumptions that market participants would make. These estimates may vary from the actual prices that would be achieved in an arm's length transaction at the reporting date.

1.4 Property, plant and equipment and Capital work-in-progress

(i) Recognition and measurement

All items of property, plant and equipment, including freehold land, are initially recorded at cost. Cost of property, plant and equipment comprises purchase price, non-refundable taxes, levies, and any directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for the intended use. The cost includes the cost of replacing part of the property, plant and equipment and borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying property, plant and equipment. Subsequent to initial recognition, property, plant and equipment other than freehold land are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Freehold land has an unlimited useful life and therefore is not depreciated. The carrying values of property, plant and equipment are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable (refer note 1.8 for more details). The Company had applied for the one-time transition exemption of considering the carrying cost on the transition date i.e., 1st April, 2015 as the deemed cost under Ind AS and regarded thereafter as historical cost. When parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised as an asset if, and only if, it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment that meet the definition of property, plant and equipment are capitalised at cost and depreciated over their useful life. Costs in nature of repairs and maintenance are recognised in the profit or loss as and when incurred. The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for the provision is met.

Software for internal use, which is primarily acquired from third-party vendors, and which is an integral part of a tangible asset, including consultancy charges for implementing the software, is capitalised as part of the related property, plant and equipment. Subsequent costs associated with maintaining such software are recognised as expense as incurred.

Advances paid towards the acquisition of property, plant and equipment outstanding at each reporting date is disclosed as capital advance under non-current assets.

Capital work-in-progress included in non-current assets comprises of direct costs, related incidental expenses and attributable interest. Capital work-in-progress are not depreciated as these assets are not yet available for use.

(ii) Depreciation

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment (other than freehold land) is provided based on useful life of the assets as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013 as per straight-line method except for certain assets where management believes and based on the technical evaluation and assessment that the useful lives adopted by it best represent the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment, which are added/disposed off during the year, is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the month of addition/deletion, in the profit or loss.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) are accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8 - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

The estimated useful lives are as follows:

Property, plant and equipment

Useful Life

Buildings - Factory and Administrative Buildings

30 to 99 years

Buildings - Ancillary structures

3 to 10 years

Plant and equipment

2 to 20 years

Furniture, fixtures and office equipment

3 to 10 years

Vehicles

8 years

Computers

3 years

(iii) De-recognition

An item of property, plant and equipment, is de-recognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on de-recognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the profit or loss.

1.5 Intangible assets

(i) Recognition and measurement

Intangible assets such as marketing intangibles, trademarks, technical know-how, brands and computer software acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Further, payments to third parties for in-licensed products, generally take the form of upfront and milestones payments and are capitalised following a cost accumulation approach to variable payments (milestones) when receipt of economic benefits out of the separately purchased transaction is considered to be probable. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment loss, if any (refer note 1.8 for more details). Subsequent expenditures are capitalised only when they increase the future economic benefits embodied in the specific asset to which they relate.

(ii) In-Process Research and Development assets ("IPR&D") or Intangible assets under development

Acquired research and development intangible assets that are under development are recognised as In-Process Research and Development assets (“IPR&D”) or Intangible assets under development. IPR&D assets are not amortised but evaluated for potential impairment on an annual basis or when there are indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Subsequent expenditure on an In-Process Research or Development project acquired separately or in a business combination and recognised as an intangible asset is:

• recognised as an expense when incurred, if it is research expenditure;

• capitalised if the cost can be reliably measured, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Company has sufficient resources to complete the development and to use and sell the asset.

(iii) Expenditure on regulatory approval

Expenditure for obtaining regulatory approvals and registration of products for overseas markets is charged to the profit or loss.

(iv) Amortisation

The Company amortises intangible assets with a finite useful life using the straight-line method over the following useful lives:

The amortisation period and the amortisation method for intangible assets with a finite useful life are reviewed at each reporting date.

The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite life is recognised in profit or loss under the head depreciation, impairment and amortisation expense.

(v) De-recognition of intangible assets

Intangible assets are de-recognised either on their disposal or where no future economic benefits are expected from their use. Losses arising on such de-recognition are recorded in the profit or loss and are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of respective intangible assets as on the date of de-recognition.

1.6 Discontinued operations and assets classified as held for sale

A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed off or is classified as held for sale and:

Intangible assets

Useful Life

Marketing intangibles

2 to 10 years

Trademarks

2 to 10 years

Technical Know-how

2 to 10 years

Brands

2 to 10 years

Computer software

3 to 6 years

• represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and;

• is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations.

The result of discontinued operations are presented separately as a single amount as profit or loss after tax from discontinued operations in the Profit or Loss.

Assets are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable. They are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

An impairment loss is recognised for any initial or subsequent writedown of the asset to fair value less costs to sell. A gain is recognised for any subsequent increases in fair value less costs to sell of an asset, but not in excess of any cumulative impairment loss previously recognised. A gain or loss not previously recognised by the date of the sale of the asset is recognised at the date of de-recognition.

Assets are not depreciated or amortised while they are classified as held for sale. Interest and other expenses attributable to the liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale continue to be recognised.

Assets classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets in the Balance Sheet. The liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from other liabilities in the Balance Sheet.

1.7 Investment properties

Property that is held for long-term rental yields or for capital appreciation or both, and that is not occupied by the Company, is classified as investment properties. Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and borrowing costs where applicable. Subsequent expenditure is capitalised to the asset's carrying amount only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance costs are expensed when incurred. When part of an investment property is replaced, the carrying amount of the replaced part is de-recognised.

Investment properties are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives.

Investment properties generally have a useful life of 5-60 years. The useful life has been determined based on technical evaluation performed by the management's expert.

1.8 Impairment of non-financial assets

The carrying amounts of the Company's non-financial assets, other than inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the

Company estimates the asset's recoverable amount. For goodwill and intangible assets that have indefinite lives or that are not yet available for use, an impairment test is performed each year at 31st March.

An asset's recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's or cashgenerating unit's (CGU) fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or the cash-generating unit. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, or other available fair value indicators. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the “cash-generating unit”).

The goodwill acquired in a business combination is, for the purpose of impairment testing, allocated to cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.

An impairment loss is recognised in the profit or loss if the estimated recoverable amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit is lower than it carrying amount. Impairment losses recognised in respect of cashgenerating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the units and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit on a pro-rata basis.

An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, impairment losses recognised in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a favourable change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

1.9 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs consists of interest, amortisation of discount, ancillary costs and other costs in connection with the borrowing of funds and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs.

Borrowing costs, general or specific, that are directly attributable to the acquisition or construction of qualifying assets is capitalized as part of such assets. A qualifying asset is one that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the Profit or Loss.

The Company determines the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the year less any interest income earned on temporary investment

of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets, to the extent that an entity borrows funds specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset.

1.10 Foreign currency transactions and balances

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the functional currency of the Company at exchange rates at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation of monetary items denominated in foreign currency at prevailing reporting date, exchange rates are recognised in the profit or loss. Non-monetary items are measured at historical cost (translated using the exchange rates at the transaction date), except for non-monetary items measured at fair value which are translated using the exchange rates at the date when fair value was determined.

1.11 Inventories

Inventories consists of raw materials and packing materials, stores, spares and consumables, work-in-progress, stock-in-trade and finished goods and are measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value.

Cost of inventories is determined on a weighted average basis. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost includes expenditures incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their existing location and condition. In the case of finished goods and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of overheads based on normal operating capacity.

Raw materials and packing materials are considered at replacement cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Stores and spares are inventories that do not qualify to be recognised as property, plant and equipment and consists of consumables, engineering spares (such as machinery spare parts), which are used in operating machines or consumed as indirect materials in the manufacturing process.

1.12 Government grants

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an asset, it is initially recognised as deferred income at fair value and subsequently are recognised in profit or loss as other income on a systematic basis over the expected useful life of the related asset.

When loans or similar assistance are provided by the government or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favourable interest is regarded as a government grant.

The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured at amortised cost.

Export entitlement from government authority are recognised in the profit or loss as other operating revenue when the right to receive is established as per the terms of the scheme in respect of the exports made by the Company with no future related cost and where there is no significant uncertainty regarding the ultimate collection of the relevant export proceeds.

1.13 Revenue recognition

As per Ind AS 115 “Revenue from contracts with customers" - A contract with a customer exists only when the parties to the contract have approved it and are committed to perform their respective obligations, the Company can identify each party's rights regarding the distinct goods or services to be transferred (“performance obligations"), the Company can determine the transaction price for the goods or services to be transferred, the contract has commercial substance and it is probable that the Company will collect the consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.

Revenues are recorded in the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for performance obligations upon transfer of control to the customer and is measured at the amount of transaction price allocated to that performance obligation. The transaction price of goods sold and services rendered is net of estimated incentives, returns, rebates, sales tax and applicable trade discounts, allowances, Goods and Services Tax (GST) and amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

(i) Sale of products

The majority of customer contracts that the Company enters into consist of a single performance obligation for the delivery of pharmaceutical products. The Company recognises revenue from product sales when control of the product transfers, generally upon shipment or delivery, to the customer, or in certain cases, upon the corresponding sales by customer to a third party. The Company records product sales net of estimated incentives/discounts, returns, and other related charges. These are generally accounted for as variable consideration estimated in the same period the related sales occur. The methodology and assumptions used to estimate rebates and returns are monitored and adjusted regularly in the light of contractual and legal obligations, historical trends, past experience and projected market conditions. The revenue for such variable consideration is included in the Company's estimate of the transaction price only if it is highly probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur once any uncertainty is resolved. The Company estimates the amount of variable consideration using the expected value method or historical record of performance of similar contracts.

(ii) Sales by clearing and forwarding agents

Revenue from sales of generic products in India is recognised upon delivery of products to distributors by clearing and forwarding agents of the Company. Control in respect of ownership of generic products are transferred by the Company when the goods are delivered to distributors from clearing and forwarding agents. Clearing and forwarding agents are generally compensated on a commission basis as a percentage of sales made by them.

(iii) Out-licensing arrangements

Revenues include amounts derived from product out-licensing agreements. The Company enters into collaborations and out-licensing arrangement of the Company's products to other parties.

Licensing arrangements performance obligations generally include intellectual property (“IP”) rights, certain R&D and contract manufacturing services. The Company accounts for IP rights and other associated services separately if they are distinct - i.e., if they are separately identifiable from other items in the arrangement and if the customer can benefit from them on their own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer. The consideration is allocated between IP rights and services based on their relative standalone selling prices.

Revenue from IP rights is recognised at the point in time when control of the distinct license is transferred to the customer, the Company has a present right to payment and risk and rewards of ownership is transferred to the customer.

Revenue from sales-based milestones and royalties promised in exchange for a license of IP is recognised only when, or as, the later of subsequent sale or the performance obligation to which some or all of the sales-based royalty has been allocated, is satisfied. The Company estimates variable consideration in the form of sales-based milestones by using the expected value or most likely amount method, depending upon which method the Company expects to better predict the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled.

(iv) Service fee

Revenue from services rendered is recognised in the profit or loss as the underlying services are performed. Upfront nonrefundable payments received under these arrangements are deferred and recognised as revenue over the expected period over which the related services are expected to be performed.

(v) Profit sharing revenues

The Company from time to time enters into marketing arrangements with certain business partners for the sale of its products in certain markets. Under such arrangements, the Company sells its products to the business partners at a non-refundable base purchase price agreed upon in the arrangement and is also entitled to a profit share which is over and above the base purchase price. The profit share is typically dependent on the business partner's ultimate net sale proceeds or net profits, subject to any reductions or adjustments that are required by the terms of the arrangement. Such arrangements typically require the business partner to provide confirmation of units sold and net sales or net profit computations for the products covered under the arrangement.

Revenue in an amount equal to the base sale price is recognised in these transactions upon delivery of products to the business partners. An additional amount representing the profit share component is recognised as revenue only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur.

At the end of each reporting period, the Company updates the estimated transaction price (including updating its assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained) to represent faithfully the circumstances present at the end of the reporting period and the changes in circumstances during the reporting period.

(vi) Interest income

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset's net carrying amount on initial recognition.

(vii) Dividends

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the right to receive payment has been established, provided that it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably.

(viii) Other Income (other than interest and dividend income)

Other Income consists of litigation settlement income, rent income, insurance claim, miscellaneous income and is recognised when it is probable that economic benefits will flow to the company and amount of income can be measured reliably.

(ix) Contract balances Contract assets

A Contract asset is the right to consideration in exchange for goods or services transferred to the customer. If the Company performs by transferring goods or services to a

customer before the customer pays consideration or before payment is due, a contract asset is recognised for the earned consideration that is conditional.

Contract liabilities

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration (or an amount of consideration is due) from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognised when the payment is made or the payment is due (whichever is earlier). Contract liabilities are recognised as revenue when the Comany performs under the contract.

1.14 Employee benefits

(i) Short term employee benefits

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits. Benefits such as salaries, wages etc., and the expected cost of ex-gratia are recognised in the period in which the employee renders the related service. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

(ii) Defined contribution plans

Post-retirement contribution plans such as Employees' Pension Scheme, Labour Welfare Fund, Employee State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) are charged to the profit or loss for the year when the contributions to the respective funds accrue. The Company does not have any obligation other than the contribution made.

(iii) Defined benefit plans

a) Employees' provident fund

In accordance with the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provision Act, 1952, all eligible employees of the Company are entitled to receive benefits under the provident fund plan in which both the employee and employer (at a determined rate) contribute monthly to “Cipla Limited Employee's Provident Fund Trust”, a Trust set up by the Company to manage the investments and distribute the amounts to employees at the time of separation from the Company or retirement, whichever is earlier. This plan is a defined benefit obligation plan as the Company is obligated to provide its members a rate of return which should, at a minimum, meet the interest rate declared by government-administered provident fund. A part of the Company's contribution is transferred

to government-administered pension fund. The contributions made by the Company and the shortfall of interest, if any, are recognised as an expense in the profit or loss under "Employee benefits expense".

b) Gratuity obligations

Post-retirement benefit plans such as gratuity for eligible employees of the Company is determined on the basis of actuarial valuation made by an independent actuary as at the reporting date. Re-measurement, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the changes to the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding net interest), is recognised in other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Re-measurement recognised in other comprehensive income is included in retained earnings and will not be reclassified to the profit or loss.

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows by reference to market yields at the end of the reporting period on government bonds that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation.

The net interest cost is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net balance of the defined benefit obligation and the fair value of plan assets. This cost is included in employee benefit expense in the profit or loss.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in the profit or loss as past service cost.

(iv) Other benefit plans

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed within one year from the reporting date is recognised on the basis of undiscounted value of estimated amount required to be paid or estimated value of benefit expected to be availed by the employees. Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed more than one year after the reporting date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the profit or loss and are not deferred.

(v) Termination benefits

Termination benefits are recognised in the profit or loss when:

• the Company has a present obligation as a result of past event;

• a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation; and

• it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation.

(vi) Other long-term employee benefits

The Company's net obligation in respect of other long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and previous periods. That benefit is discounted to determine its present value.

1.15 Share based payments

a) Equity settled share based payment transactions

The Company operates equity settled share based remuneration plans for its employees.

All services received in exchange for the grant of any share based payment are measured at their fair values on the grant date and is recognised as an employee expense, in the profit or loss with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The increase in equity recognised in connection with share based payment transaction is presented as a separate component in equity under “Employee stock options / Employee stock appreciation rights”. The amount recognised as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of stock options that vest.

Grant date is the date when the Company and employees have shared an understanding of terms and conditions on the arrangement.

Where employees are rewarded using share based payments, the fair value of employees' services is determined indirectly by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments granted. This fair value is appraised at the grant date and excludes the impact of non-market vesting conditions (for example profitability and sales growth). All share based remuneration is ultimately recognised as an expense in the profit or loss. If vesting periods or other vesting conditions apply, the expense is allocated over the vesting period, based on the best available estimate of the number of share options expected to vest.

Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. Estimates are subsequently revised if there is any indication that the number of share options expected to vest differs from previous estimates. Any adjustment to cumulative share based compensation resulting from a revision is recognised in the current period. The number of vested options ultimately exercised by holder does not impact the expense recorded in any period.

Market conditions are taken into account when estimating the fair value of the equity instruments granted.

Upon exercise of share options, the proceeds received, net of any directly attributable transaction costs, are allocated to share capital up to the nominal (or par) value of the shares issued with any excess being recorded as share premium.

b) Cash settled share based payment transactions

The fair value of the amount payable to employees in respect of share based payment transactions which are settled in cash is recognised as an expense, with a corresponding increase in liabilities, over the period during which the employees become unconditionally entitled to payment. The liability is re-measured at each reporting date and at the settlement date based on the fair value of the share based payment transaction. Any changes in the liability are recognised in the profit or loss.

1.16 Taxes

Income tax expense comprises of current tax expense and deferred tax expense/benefit. Current and deferred taxes are recognised in the profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

(i) Current income tax

Current income tax is the amount of tax payable on the taxable income for the year as determined in accordance with the provisions of the applicable income tax law. The current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted, at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(ii) Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised using the Balance Sheet approach on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts.

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilised, except when the deferred tax asset relating to the deductible temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and, at the time of the transaction, affects neither the accounting profit nor taxable profit or loss.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available

to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are re-assessed at each reporting date and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using substantively enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT) credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent it is reasonably certain that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Such asset is reviewed at each reporting date and the carrying amount of the MAT credit asset is written down to the extent there is no longer a convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.

The Company recognises deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

• When the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and

• it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities.

(iii) Uncertain tax positions

Accruals for uncertain tax positions require management to make judgements of potential exposures. Accruals for uncertain tax positions are measured using either the most likely amount or the expected value amount depending on which method the entity expects to better predict the resolution of the uncertainty. Tax benefits are not recognised unless the tax positions will probably be accepted by the tax authorities. This is based upon management's interpretation of applicable laws and regulations and the expectation of how the tax authority will resolve the matter. Once considered probable of not being accepted, management reviews each material tax benefit and reflects the effect of the uncertainty in determining the related taxable amounts.

1.17 Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfillment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

(i) Company as a lessee

The Company's lease asset classes primarily consist of leases for land, buildings, plant & equipment and computers. The Company assesses whether a contract contains a lease, at inception of a contract. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company assesses whether: (i) the contract involves the use of an identified asset (ii) the Company has substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset throughout the period of the lease and (iii) the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset.

At the date of commencement of the lease, the Company recognises a right-of-use asset (“ROU”) and a corresponding lease liability for all lease arrangements in which it is a lessee, except for leases with a term of twelve months or less (short term leases) and low value leases. For these short term and low value leases, the Company recognises the lease payments as an operating expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Certain lease arrangements includes the options to extend or terminate the lease before the end of the lease term. ROU assets and lease liabilities includes these options when it is reasonably certain that they will be exercised. The right-of-use assets are initially recognised at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or prior to the commencement date of the lease plus any initial direct costs less any lease incentives. They are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Right-of-use assets are depreciated from the commencement date on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term and useful life of the underlying asset. Right-of-use assets are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e., the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the Cash Generating Unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs.

The lease liability is initially measured at amortised cost at the present value of the future lease payments. The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if not readily determinable, using the incremental borrowing rates in the country of domicile of these leases. Lease liabilities are remeasured with a corresponding adjustment to the related right of use asset if the Company changes its assessment if whether it will exercise an extension or a termination option.

Lease liability and ROU asset have been separately presented in the Balance Sheet and lease payments have been classified as financing cash flows.

(ii) Company as a lessor

Leases for which the Company is a lessor is classified as a finance or operating lease. Whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee, the contract is classified as a finance lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

When the Company is an intermediate lessor, it accounts for its interest in the head lease and the sublease separately. The sublease is classified as a finance or operating lease by reference to the right of-use asset arising from the head lease. For operating leases, rental income is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

(iii) Arrangements in the nature of lease

The Company enters into agreements, comprising a transaction or series of related transactions that does not take the legal form of a lease but conveys the right to use the asset in return for a payment or series of payments. In case of such arrangements, the Company applies the requirements of Ind AS 116 - Leases to the lease element of the arrangement. For the purpose of applying the requirements under Ind AS 116 - Leases , payments and other consideration required by the arrangement are separated at the inception of the arrangement into those for lease and those for other elements.

1.18 Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand and cash at bank including fixed deposit with original maturity period of three months or less and short term highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less.

1.19 Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses.

Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognised even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.

Provisions are measured at the present value of management's best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used to determine the present value is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments

of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense.

Provision for onerous contracts:

A provision for onerous contracts is recognised in the profit or loss when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

1.20 Contingencies

Disclosure of contingent liabilities is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not, require an outflow of resources. Where there is possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which the likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

Contingent assets are not recognised in the financial statements. However, contingent assets are assessed continually and if it is virtually certain that an inflow of economic benefits will arise, the asset and related income are recognised in the period in which the change occurs.

1.21 Fair value measurement

The Company measures financial instruments at fair value at each reporting date.

Financial instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

(i) Financial assets

(a) Classification

The Company classifies its financial assets in the

following measurement categories:

• those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through other comprehensive income, or through profit or loss); and

• those to be measured at amortised cost. The classification depends on the entity's business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.

For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or other comprehensive income. For investments in equity instruments that are not held for trading, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at FVTOCI.

(b) Initial recognition and measurement

Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset. All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

However, trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component are measured at transaction price under Ind AS 115 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers".

(c) Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in below categories:

• Debt instruments at amortised cost.

• Debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).

• Derivatives and equity instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

• Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI).

(d) Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109-Financial Instruments are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at FVTOCI or FVTPL. The Company makes such election on an instrument-byinstrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognised in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to profit or loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognised in the profit or loss. Transaction cost of financial assets at FVTPL are expensed in profit or loss.

(e) Investments in subsidiaries and associates

Investments in subsidiaries and associates are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries and associates, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognised in the profit or loss. Upon first-time adoption of Ind AS, the Company has elected to measure its investments in subsidiaries and associates at the previous GAAP carrying amount as its deemed cost on the date of transition to Ind AS i.e., 1st April, 2015.

(f) De-recognition

The Company de-recognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expires or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a passthrough arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company's continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

(g) Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies Expected Credit Losses (“ECL") model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets:

• Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost, e.g. loans and deposits;

• Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

• Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115.

Expected Credit Losses are measured through a loss allowance at an amount equal to:

• The 12-months expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from those default events on the financial instrument that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date), if the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly; or

• Full lifetime expected credit losses (expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the life of the financial instrument), if the credit risk on a financial instrument has increased significantly.

In accordance with Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments, the Company applies ECL model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

For this purpose, the Company follows 'simplified approach' for recognition of impairment loss allowance on the trade receivable balances, contract assets and lease receivables. The application of simplified approach requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to determine impairment loss allowance on portfolio of its trade receivables. The provision matrix is based on its historically observed default rates over the expected life of the trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At every reporting date, the historical observed default rates are updated and changes in the forward-looking estimates are analysed.

In case of other assets, the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to twelve months ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance.

When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company's historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward looking information.

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the writeoff. However, financial assets that are written off could still be subject to enforcement activities in order to comply with the Company's procedures for recovery of amounts due.

(ii) Financial liabilities

(a) Classification

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, loans and borrowings, payables, or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

(b) Initial recognition and measurement

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company's financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.

(c) Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through the profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109- Financial Instruments. Separated embedded

derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/ losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognised in OCI. These gains/ losses are not subsequently transferred to the profit or loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in profit or loss. The Company has not designated any financial liability as fair value through profit or loss.

(d) Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Gains and losses are recognised in the profit or loss when the liabilities are de-recognised as well as through the EIR amortisation process.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the profit or loss.

This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings.

(e) De-recognition

A financial liability is de-recognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the profit or loss.

(iii) Derivative financial instruments

For the purpose of hedge accounting, hedges are classified as:

• Fair value hedges when hedging the exposure to changes

in the fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment.

• Cash flow hedges when hedging the exposure to variability in cash flows that is either attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction or the foreign currency risk in an unrecognised firm commitment.

Fair value hedges:

The Company uses derivative forward contracts to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value at the end of each reporting period. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative. Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to the profit or loss.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the Company revokes the hedge relationship, the hedging instrument or hedged item expire or sold, terminated, or exercised or no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting.

Cash flow hedge

The Company classifies its foreign exchange forward and currency option contracts that hedge foreign currency risk associated with highly probable forecasted transactions as cash flow hedges and measures them at fair value. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated under hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the profit or loss, and is included in the 'Other income/ expenses' line item. Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to effective portion (as described above) are reclassified to the profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item.

When the hedging instrument expires or is sold or terminated or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative deferred gain/loss at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain/loss that was reported in equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.

(iv) Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability

simultaneously. The legally enforceable right must not be contingent on future events and must be enforceable in the normal course of business and in the event of default, insolvency or bankruptcy of the Company or the counterparty.

(v) Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts are recognised as a financial liability at the time the guarantee is issued. The liability is initially measured at fair value and subsequently at the higher of

• the amount determined in accordance with the expected credit loss model as per Ind AS 109- Financial Instruments; and

• the amount initially recognised less, where appropriate, cumulative amount of income recognised in accordance with the principles of Ind AS 115 - Revenue from contracts with customers.

The fair value of financial guarantees is determined based on the present value of the difference in cash flows between the contractual payments required under the debt instrument and the payments that would be required without the guarantee, or the estimated amount that would be payable to a third party for assuming the obligations. Where guarantees in relation to loans or other payables of associates are provided for no compensation, the fair values are accounted for as contributions and recognised as part of the cost of the investment.

1.22 Business combinations

The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgement is applied in determining the acquisition date and determining whether control is transferred from one party to another. Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive. The Company measures goodwill as of the applicable acquisition date at the fair value of the consideration transferred, including the recognised amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree, less the net recognised amount of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

When the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the consideration transferred, a bargain purchase gain is recognised immediately in the OCI and accumulates the same in equity as capital reserve where there exists clear evidence of the underlying reasons for classifying the business combination as a bargain purchase else the gain is directly recognised in equity as capital reserve. Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities incurred by the Company to the previous owners of the acquiree, and equity interests issued by the Company.

Consideration transferred also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to the settlement of pre-existing relationships and employee service-related payments. Any goodwill that arises on account of such business combination is tested annually for impairment.

Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not re-measured and the settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise, other contingent consideration is re-measured at fair value at each reporting date and subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recorded in the profit or loss.

A contingent liability of the acquiree is assumed in a business combination only if such a liability represents a present obligation and arises from a past event, and its fair value can be measured reliably.

On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Company recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the noncontrolling interest's proportionate share of the acquiree's identifiable net assets.

Transaction costs that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination, such as finder's fees, legal fees, due diligence fees and other professional and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.

Business Combination involving entities or businesses under common control shall be accounted for using the pooling of interest method.

1.23 Exceptional Items

An item of income or expense which by its size, type or incidence requires disclosure in order to improve an understanding of the performance of the Company is treated as an exceptional item and the same is disclosed in the profit or loss and in the notes forming part of the financial statements.

1.24 Recent accounting pronouncement

New and amended standards adopted by the Company:

The Company has applied the following amendments for the first time for their annual reporting period commencing 1st April, 2022

• Amendment to Ind AS 16, Property, Plant and Equipment's, Accounting for proceeds before intended use

• Amendment to Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent liabilities, and Contingent Assets, Clarification on determining costs to fulfil an onerous contract

• Amendment to Ind AS 103, Business Combinations, Reference to the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting.

• Amendment to Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments, derecognition of financial liabilities

These amendments did not have any impact on the amounts recognised in prior periods and are not expected to significantly affect the current or future periods.

New amendments issued but not effective.

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA”) notifies new standards or amendments to the existing standards under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as issued from time to time. On 31st March, 2023, MCA amended the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2023. The effective date for adoption of this amendment is annual periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2023. These amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Company or future reporting periods and on foreseeable future transactions.

• Amendment to Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements

- This amendment requires the entities to disclose their material accounting policies rather than their significant accounting policies.

• Amendment to Ind AS 8 - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors - This amendment has introduced a definition of 'accounting estimates' and included amendments to Ind AS 8 to help entities distinguish changes in accounting policies from changes in accounting estimates.

• Amendment to Ind AS 12 - Income Taxes - This amendment has narrowed the scope of the initial recognition exemption so that it does not apply to transactions that give rise to equal and offsetting temporary differences.