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Company Information

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GMR POWER AND URBAN INFRA LTD.

23 July 2024 | 12:00

Industry >> Power - Generation/Distribution

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ISIN No INE0CU601026 BSE Code / NSE Code 543490 / GMRP&UI Book Value (Rs.) -40.03 Face Value 5.00
Bookclosure 18/09/2023 52Week High 108 EPS 0.00 P/E 0.00
Market Cap. 7031.13 Cr. 52Week Low 19 P/BV / Div Yield (%) -2.46 / 0.00 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2023-03 

1. Corporate information

GMR Power and Urban Infra Limited ('GPUIL' or 'the Company') is a public limited Company incorporated under the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 on May 17, 2019. The Company is domiciled in India and has its registered office located at Plot No.C-31 G Block, 701, 7th Floor, Naman Center Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai, Maharashtra- 400051. Its equity shares are listed on National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in India. The Company carries its business in the following business segments:

a. Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC)

The Company is engaged in handling EPC solutions in the infrastructure sector.

b. Others

The Company's business also comprises of investment activity and corporate support to various infrastructure Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV).

Other explanatory information to the standalone financial statements comprises of notes to the standalone financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2023.

The standalone financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors and authorised for issue in accordance with a resolution of the directors on May 23, 2023.

2. Significant accounting policies

The significant accounting policies applied by the Company in the preparation of its standalone financial statements are listed below. Such accounting policies have been applied consistently to all the periods presented in these standalone financial statements, unless otherwise indicated below:

Recent accounting pronouncement issued but not made effective:

Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA") vide notification dated March 31, 2023, has issued an amendment to Ind AS 1 which specifies that an entity to disclose their material accounting policies rather than their significant accounting policies and include corresponding amendments to Ind AS 107 and Ind AS 34 with effect from April 01, 2023.

Ind AS 8 - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA") vide notification dated March 31, 2023, has issued an amendment to Ind AS 8 which specifies that the definition of 'accounting estimates' and

included amendments to Ind AS 8 to help entities distinguish changes in accounting policies from changes in accounting estimates with effect from April 01, 2023.

Ind AS 12 - Income Taxes

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA") vide notification dated March 31, 2023 has issued an amendment to Ind AS 12 which narrowed the scope of the initial recognition exemption so that it does not apply to transactions that give rise to equal and offsetting temporary differences. Also there is corresponding amendment to Ind AS 101. The effective date for adoption of this amendment is annual periods beginning on or after April 01, 2023.

The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact on financial statements.

2.1. Basis of Preparation

The standalone financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS), including the rules notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time) and Presentation and disclosure requirements of Division II of Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 as amended from time to time.

The standalone financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost basis except for certain financial assets and liabilities (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments) which have been measured at fair value.

The functional and presentation currency of the Company is Indian Rupee ("'") which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates, and all values are rounded to nearest crore except when otherwise indicated.

The standalone financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2023 reflected an excess of current liabilities over current assets of ' 756.34 crore and losses from operations before tax amounting to ' 282.86 crore. However, net worth of the Company is positive of ' 403.27 crore. Further, Management is taking various initiatives including monetization of assets, recovery of outstanding claims in various infra business (highway sector/ EPC), raising finances from financial institutions/ group companies, strategic investors and from other strategic initiatives and refinancing of existing debts. Such initiatives will enable the Company to have sufficient funds to meet its financial obligations in an orderly manner. Accordingly, the standalone financial statements continue to be prepared on a going concern basis.


2.2. Summary of significant accounting policiesa. Current versus non-current classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the standalone financial statements based on current/ noncurrent classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

i. Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle,

ii. Held primarily for the purpose of trading,

iii. Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

iv. Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

i. It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle,

ii. It is held primarily for the purpose of trading,

iii. It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

iv. There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent assets and liabilities.

Advance tax paid is classified as non-current assets.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents. The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

b. Fair value measurement of financial instruments

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date using valuation techniques.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

a) In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

b) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant's ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the standalone financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

Level 3 — Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the standalone financial statements on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorisation (based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole) at the end of each reporting period.

c. Revenue from contracts with customer

The Company recognises revenue from contracts with customers when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring promised good or service to a customer. The

revenue is recognised to the extent of transaction price allocated to the performance obligation satisfied. Performance obligation is satisfied over time when the transfer of control of asset (good or service) to a customer is done over time and in other cases, performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time. For performance obligation satisfied over time, the revenue recognition is done by measuring the progress towards complete satisfaction of performance obligation. The progress is measured in terms of a proportion of actual cost incurred to-date, to the total estimated cost attributable to the performance obligation.

Transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring good or service to a customer excluding amounts collected on behalf of a third party. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method or most likely amount as appropriate in a given circumstance. Payment terms agreed with a customer are as per business practice and there is no financing component involved in the transaction price.

Costs to obtain a contract which are incurred regardless of whether the contract was obtained are charged-off in the statement of profit and loss immediately in the period in which such costs are incurred. Incremental costs of obtaining a contract, if any, and costs incurred to fulfil a contract are amortised over the period of execution of the contract in proportion to the progress measured in terms of a proportion of actual cost incurred to-date, to the total estimated cost attributable to the performance obligation.

Significant judgments are used in:

1. Determining the revenue to be recognised in case of performance obligation satisfied over a period of time; revenue recognition is done by measuring the progress towards complete satisfaction of performance obligation. The progress is measured in terms of a proportion of actual cost incurred to-date, to the total estimated cost attributable to the performance obligation.

2. Determining the expected losses, which are recognised in the period in which such losses become probable based on the expected total contract cost as at the reporting date.

Revenue from operations

Revenue from operation is exclusive of goods and service tax (GST). Revenue includes adjustments made towards

liquidated damages and variation wherever applicable. Escalation and other claims, which are not ascertainable/ acknowledged by customers are not taken into account.

Revenue from construction/project related activity is recognised as follows:

1. Cost plus contracts: Revenue from cost plus contracts is recognized over time and is determined with reference to the extent performance obligations have been satisfied. The amount of transaction price allocated to the performance obligations satisfied represents the recoverable costs incurred during the period plus the margin as agreed with the customer.

2. Fixed price contracts: Contract revenue is recognised over time to the extent of performance obligation satisfied and control is transferred to the customer. Contract revenue is recognised at allocable transaction price which represents the cost of work performed on the contract plus proportionate margin, using the percentage of completion method. Percentage of completion is the proportion of cost of work performed to-date, to the total estimated contract costs.

Impairment loss (termed as provision for foreseeable losses in the standalone financial statements) is recognized in the statement of profit and loss to the extent the carrying amount of the contract asset exceeds the remaining amount of consideration that the Company expects to receive towards remaining performance obligations (after deducting the costs that relate directly to fulfil such remaining performance obligations). In addition, the Company recognises impairment loss (termed as provision for expected credit loss on contract assets in the standalone financial statements) on account of credit risk in respect of a contract asset using expected credit loss model on similar basis as applicable to trade receivables.

Contract balancesContract assets

A contract asset is the right to consideration in exchange for goods or services transferred to the customer. If the Company performs by transferring goods or services to a customer before the customer pays consideration or before payment is due, a contract asset is recognised for the earned consideration that is conditional. Contract assets are transferred to receivables when the rights become unconditional and contract liabilities are recognized as and when the performance obligation is satisfied.

Trade receivables

The trade receivables are measured at transaction price and do not contain significant financing component. Trade receivable represents the Group's right to an amount of consideration that is unconditional (i.e., only the passage of time is required before payment of the consideration is due). Refer to accounting policies of financial assets in financial instruments - initial recognition and subsequent measurement.

Contract liabilities

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration (or an amount of consideration is due) from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognised when the payment is made or the payment is due (whichever is earlier). Contract liabilities are recognised as revenue when the Company performs under the contract.

Income from management/ technical services

Income from management/ technical services is recognised as per the terms of the agreement on the basis of services rendered.

Sale of electrical energy/ Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)

a. Revenue from energy units sold is recognised on accrual basis as per the terms of the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) and Letter of Intent (LOI) [collectively hereinafter referred to as 'the PPAs'] and tariff rates determined by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission ('CERC'). Revenue includes unbilled revenue accrued up to the end of the year.

Revenue from energy units sold on a merchant basis is recognised in accordance with billings made to the customers based on the units of energy delivered and rates agreed with customers.

b. Revenue from sale of infirm power are recognised as per the guidelines of CERC. Revenue prior to date of commercial operation are reduced from Project cost.

c. Revenue/charges from Unscheduled Interchange for the deviation in generation with respect to scheduled units are recognized/ charged at rate notified by CERC from time to time, are adjusted to revenue from sale of energy.

d. Revenue from sale of power is net of prompt payment rebate eligible to the customers.

e. Claims for delayed payment charges and any other claims, which the Company is entitled to under the PPAs, are accounted for in the year of acceptance by the customers. Similarly commission, liquidated damages and any other charges are accounted for in the year of acceptance.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable except the interest income received from customers for delayed payments which are accounted on the basis of reasonable certainty / realisation.

For all debt instruments measured either at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, interest income is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortised cost of a financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in finance income in the statement of profit and loss. Interest income is included in other operating income in the statement of profit and loss.

Dividends

Dividend income is recognised when the Company's right to receive the payment is established, which is generally when shareholders approve the dividend.

d. Taxes on income Current income tax

Tax expense for the year comprises current and deferred tax. The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statement of profit and loss because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities. The Company's liability for current tax is calculated using the tax rates and tax laws

that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Current income tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Current tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and establishes provisions where appropriate.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities in the standalone financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of the taxable profit and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability model. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all the taxable temporary differences. In contrast, deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.

Deferred tax assets are recognized for all deductible temporary differences, carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses, to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, and the carry forward of unused tax credits and unused tax losses can be utilized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilized.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the year when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax relating to items recognised outside profit or loss is recognised outside profit or loss (either in other comprehensive income or in equity). Deferred tax items are recognised in correlation to the underlying transaction either in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

e. Property, plant and equipment

Freehold land is carried at historical cost and is not depreciated. All other items of property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset are derecognised when replaced. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the statement of profit and loss during the reporting period in which they are incurred.

The Company identifies and determines cost of each component/ part of the asset separately, if the component/ part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of the asset having useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining asset. These components are depreciated over their useful lives; the remaining asset is depreciated over the life of the principal asset.

Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:

Category of asset*

Estimated useful life

Plant and equipment

4 - 15 years*

Office equipments

5 years

Furniture and fixtures

10 years

Vehicles

8 - 10 years

Computers

3 years

* The Company, based on technical assessment made by the technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of plant and equipment over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013.

Further, the management has estimated the useful lives of asset individually costing ' 5,000 or less to be less than one year, whichever is lower than those indicated in

Schedule II. The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognised is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss arising on derecognition of the asset (calculated as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset) is included in the standalone statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

f. Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite.

Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over the useful economic life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period with the effect of any change in the estimate being accounted for on a prospective basis. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the standalone statement of profit and loss unless such expenditure forms part of carrying value of another asset.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the standalone statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognised.

A summary of the policies applied to the Company's intangible assets is

, as follows:

Intangible assets

Useful lives

Amortisation method used

Internally generated or acquired

Other concession and operator rights

Definite (25 years)

Straight-line basis

Acquired


g. Borrowing cost

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds including interest expense calculated using the effective interest method. Borrowing cost also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised as part of the cost of the asset until such time as the assets are substantially ready for the intended use or sale. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

h. Leases

The determination of whether an arrangement is (or contains) a lease is based on the substance of the

arrangement at the inception of the lease. The arrangement is, or contains, a lease if fulfilment of the arrangement is dependent on the use of a specific asset or assets and the arrangement conveys a right to use the asset or assets, even if that right is not explicitly specified in an arrangement.

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease.

The Company as a lessee

Assets acquired on leases where a significant portion of risk and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Lease rental are charged to statement of profit and loss on straight-line basis except where scheduled increase in rent compensate the lessor for expected inflationary costs.

The Company enters into leasing arrangements for various assets. The assessment of the lease is based on several

factors, including, but not limited to, transfer of ownership of leased asset at end of lease term, lessee's option to extend/purchase etc.

At lease commencement date, the Company recognises a right-of-use asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet. The right-of-use asset is measured at cost, which is made up of the initial measurement of the lease liability, any initial direct costs incurred by the Company, an estimate of any costs to dismantle and remove the asset at the end of the lease (if any), and any lease payments made in advance of the lease commencement date (net of any incentives received).

The Company depreciates the right-of-use assets on a straight-line basis from the lease commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term. The Company also assesses the right-of-use asset for impairment when such indicators exist. At lease commencement date, the Company measures the lease liability at the present value of the lease payments unpaid at that date, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease if that rate is readily available or the Company's incremental borrowing rate. Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability are made up of fixed payments (including in substance fixed payments) and variable payments based on an index or rate. Subsequent to initial measurement, the liability will be reduced for payments made and increased for interest. It is re-measured to reflect any reassessment or modification, or if there are changes in in-substance fixed payments. When the lease liability is remeasured, the corresponding adjustment is reflected in the right-of-use asset. The Company has elected to account for short-term leases using the practical expedients. Instead of recognising a right-of-use asset and lease liability, the payments in relation to these are recognised as an expense in statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

The Company as a lessor

Leases are classified as finance leases when substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership transfer from the Company to the lessee. Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recorded as receivables at the Company's net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the lease.

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Rental income from operating lease is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised over the lease term on the same basis as rental income.

i. Inventories

Raw materials, components, stores and spares are valued at lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Cost of raw materials, components and stores and spares is determined on a weighted average basis.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Costs incurred that relate to future activities on the contract are recognised as "Contract work in progress".

Contract work in progress comprising construction costs and other directly attributable overheads is valued at lower of cost and net realisable value.

j. Impairment of non-financial assets

As at the end of each accounting year, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its Property, plant and equipment, intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If such indication exists, the said assets are tested for impairment so as to determine the impairment loss, if any. Goodwill and the intangible assets with indefinite life are tested for impairment each year.

Impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is determined:

(i) in the case of an individual asset, at the higher of the fair value less costs of disposal and the value in use; and

(ii) in the case of a cash generating unit (a group of assets that generates identified, independent cash flows), at the higher of the cash generating unit's net fair value less costs of disposal and the value in use.

(The amount of value in use is determined as the present value of estimated future cash flows from the continuing use of an asset and from its disposal at the end of its useful life. For this purpose, the discount rate (pre-tax) is determined based on the weighted average cost of capital of the company suitably adjusted for risks specified to the estimated cash flows of the asset).

For this purpose, a cash generating unit is ascertained as the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets.

If recoverable amount of an asset (or cash generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, such deficit is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss as impairment loss and the carrying amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash generating unit) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss is recognised for the asset (or cash generating unit) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

k. Government Grant

Government grants are recognised where there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with. When the grant relates to an expense item, it is recognised as income on a systematic basis over the periods that the related costs, for which it is intended to compensate, are expensed. When the grant relates to an asset, it is recognised as income in equal amounts over the expected useful life of the related asset. When the Group receives grants of non-monetary assets, the asset and the grant are recorded at fair value amounts and released to profit or loss over the expected useful life in a pattern of consumption of the benefit of the underlying asset i.e. by equal annual instalments. When loans or similar assistance are provided by governments or related institutions, with an interest rate below the current applicable market rate, the effect of this favourable interest is regarded as a government grant. The loan or assistance is initially recognised and measured at fair value and the government grant is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of the loan and the proceeds received. The loan is subsequently measured as per the accounting policy applicable to financial liabilities.

l. Provisions and contingent liabilities

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. When the Company expects some or all of a provision to be reimbursed, for example, under an insurance contract, the reimbursement is recognised as a separate asset, but only when the reimbursement is virtually certain. The expense relating to a provision is presented in the statement of profit and loss net of any reimbursement.

If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

A provision for onerous contracts is recognised when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

A contingent liability is a possible obligation that arises from past events whose existence will be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events beyond the control of the Company or a present obligation that is not recognized because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation. A contingent liability also arises in extremely rare cases where there is a liability that cannot be recognized because it cannot be measured reliably. The Company does not recognize a contingent liability but discloses its existence in the standalone financial statements.

Provisions and contingent liability are reviewed at each balance sheet date.

m. Retirement and other employee benefits

Retirement benefit in the form of provident fund, pension fund and superannuation fund are defined contribution

schemes. The Company has no obligation, other than the contribution payable. The Company recognizes contribution payable to provident fund, pension fund and superannuation fund as expenditure, when an employee renders the related service. If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the balance sheet reporting date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the balance sheet date, then excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the pre-payment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payment or a cash refund.

Accumulated leave, which is expected to be utilized within the next twelve months, is treated as short-term employee benefit. The Company measures the expected cost of such absences as the additional amount that it expects to pay as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the reporting date.

The Company treats accumulated leave expected to be carried forward beyond twelve months, as long-term employee benefit for measurement purposes. Such longterm compensated absences are provided for based on the actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method at the year-end.

The Company presents the leave as a current liability in the standalone balance sheet, to the extent it does not have an unconditional right to defer its settlement for twelve months after the reporting date.

The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit plan is determined using the projected unit credit method using actuarial valuation to be carried out at each balance sheet date.

In case of funded plans, the fair value of the plan assets is reduced from the gross obligation under the defined benefit plans to recognise the obligation on a net basis.

Re-measurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling, excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability and the return on plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability), are recognised immediately in the standalone balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Re-measurements are not reclassified to the statement of profit and loss in

subsequent periods.

Past service costs are recognised in the statement of profit and loss on the earlier of:

a. The date of the plan amendment or curtailment, and

b. The date that the Company recognises related restructuring costs

Net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The Company recognises the following changes in the net defined benefit obligation as an expense in the statement of profit and loss:

a. Service costs comprising current service costs, past-service costs, gains and losses on curtailments and non-routine settlements; and

b. Net interest expense or income.

n. Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contract embodying the related financial instruments. All financial assets, financial liabilities and financial guarantee contracts are initially measured at transaction cost and where such values are different from the fair value, at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset or financial liability. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are immediately recognised in the statement of profit and loss. In case of interest free or concession loans/debentures/preference shares given to subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures, the excess of the actual amount of the loan over initial measure at fair value is accounted as an equity investment. On de-recognition of such financial instruments in its entirety, the difference between the carrying amount measured at the date of de-recognition and the consideration received is adjusted with equity component of the investments.

The Company has made an irrevocable election to measure investments in equity instruments issued by subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOCI). Amounts recognised in Other Comprehensive Income are not subsequently

reclassified to the statement of profit and loss.

Investment in preference shares/ debentures of the subsidiaries are treated as equity instruments if the same are convertible into equity shares or are redeemable out of the proceeds of equity instruments issued for the purpose of redemption of such investments. Investment in preference shares/ debentures not meeting the aforesaid conditions are classified as debt instruments at amortised cost.

Effective interest method

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial instrument and of allocating interest income or expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts future cash receipts or payments through the expected life of the financial instrument, or where appropriate, a shorter period.

(a) Financial assetsMeasurement and valuation1. Financial assets at amortised cost

Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

2. Financial assets measured at fair value

Financial assets are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if these financial assets are held within a business model whose objective is to hold these assets in order to collect contractual cash flows or to sell these financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Financial asset not measured at amortised cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income is carried at fair value through the statement of profit and

loss.

For financial assets maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

Impairment of financial assets

Loss allowance for expected credit losses is recognised for financial assets measured at amortised cost and fair value through the statement of profit and loss.

The Company recognises impairment loss on trade receivables using expected credit loss model, which involves use of provision matrix constructed on the basis of historical credit loss experience as permitted under Ind AS 109 -Impairment loss on investments.

For financial assets whose credit risk has not significantly increased since initial recognition, loss allowance equal to twelve months expected credit losses is recognised. Loss allowance equal to the lifetime expected credit losses is recognised if the credit risk on the financial instruments has significantly increased since initial recognition.

De-recognition of financial assets

The Company de-recognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109.

If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the assets and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay.

If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognise the financial asset and also recognises a collateralised borrowing for the proceeds received.

On de-recognition of a financial asset in its entirety, the difference between the carrying

amounts measured at the date of de-recognition and the consideration received is recognised in standalone statement of profit and loss.

For trade and other receivables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

(b) Financial liabilities and equity instrumentsClassification as debt or equity

Financial liabilities and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Measurement and valuation1. Equity instruments

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

2. Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method where the time value of money is significant. Interest bearing bank loans, overdrafts and issued debt are initially measured at fair value and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the settlement or redemption of borrowings is recognised over the term of the borrowings in the statement of profit and loss.

For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the balance sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts issued by the Company are those contracts that require a payment to be made to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because the specified debtor fails to make a payment when due in accordance with the terms of a debt instrument. Financial guarantee contracts are recognised initially as a liability at fair value, adjusted for transaction costs that are directly attributable to the issuance of the guarantee. Subsequently, the liability is measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined as per impairment requirements of Ind AS 109 and the amount recognised less cumulative amortisation.

Put option liability

The potential cash payments related to put options issued by the Company over the equity of subsidiary companies to non-controlling interests are accounted for as financial liabilities when such options may only be settled other than by exchange of a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of shares in the subsidiary. The financial liability for such put option is accounted for under Ind AS 109.

The amount that may become payable under the option on exercise is initially recognised at fair value under other financial liabilities with a corresponding debit to investments.

If the put option is exercised, the entity derecognises the financial liability by discharging the put obligation. In the event that the option expires unexercised, the liability is derecognised with a corresponding adjustment to investment

De-recognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the de-recognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The

difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

(c) Off-setting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the standalone balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

o. Derivative financial instruments

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward currency contracts to hedge its foreign currency risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

p. Convertible preference shares/ debentures

Convertible preference shares/debentures are separated into liability and equity components based on the terms of the contract.

On issuance of the convertible preference shares/ debentures, the fair value of the liability component is determined using a market rate for an equivalent nonconvertible instrument. This amount is classified as a financial liability measured at amortised cost (net of transaction costs) until it is extinguished on conversion or redemption.

The remainder of the proceeds is allocated to the conversion option that is recognised and included in equity since conversion option meets Ind AS 32 criteria for conversion right. Transaction costs are deducted from equity, net of associated income tax. The carrying amount of the conversion option is not re-measured in subsequent years.

Transaction costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the convertible preference shares/ debentures based on the allocation of proceeds to the liability and equity components when the instruments are initially recognised.

q. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the standalone balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term

deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company's cash management.

r. Foreign currencies

In preparing the financial statements, transactions in the currencies other than the Company's functional currency are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the date of transaction. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in the foreign currencies are re-translated at the rates prevailing at the end of the reporting period. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Exchange differences arising on translation of long term foreign currency monetary items recognised in the standalone financial statements before the beginning of the first Ind AS financial reporting period in respect of which the Company has elected to recognise such exchange differences in equity or as part of cost of assets as allowed under Ind AS 101 -"First time adoption of Indian Accounting Standard" are recognised directly in equity or added/ deducted to/ from the cost of assets as the case may be. Such exchange differences recognised in equity or as part of cost of assets is recognised in the statement of profit and loss on a systematic basis.

Exchange differences arising on the retranslation or settlement of other monetary items are included in the statement of profit and loss for the year.

s. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders (after deducting attributable taxes) by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for events including a bonus issue.

For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares

outstanding during the period are adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential ordinary shares shall be treated as dilutive when, and only when, their conversion to ordinary shares would decrease earnings per share or increase loss per share from continuing operations.

t. Exceptional items

An item of income or expense which due to its size, type or incidence requires disclosure in order to improve an understanding of the performance of the Company is treated as an exceptional item and the same is disclosed in the financial statements.

u. Corporate social responsibility ('CSR') expenditure

The Company charges its CSR expenditure during the year if any, to the statement of profit and loss.