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JSW ENERGY LTD.

29 February 2024 | 12:00

Industry >> Power - Generation/Distribution

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ISIN No INE121E01018 BSE Code / NSE Code 533148 / JSWENERGY Book Value (Rs.) 113.29 Face Value 10.00
Bookclosure 09/06/2023 52Week High 538 EPS 8.99 P/E 56.57
Market Cap. 83598.86 Cr. 52Week Low 221 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 4.49 / 0.39 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2022-03 

1 General information:

JSW Energy Limited ("the Company") is a public company incorporated on 10th March,1994 under the Companies Act, 1956 and has its primary listings on BSE Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited. The registered office of the Company is located at JSW Centre, Bandra Kurla Complex, Bandra (East), Mumbai, Maharashtra. The Company is primarily engaged in the business of generation of power with principal places located at Vijayanagar (Karnataka), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Nandyal (Andhra Pradesh) and Salboni (West Bengal).

2 .1 Recent accounting pronouncements:

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA") notifies new standards / amendments under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as issued from time to time. On 23rd March, 2022, MCA amended the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2022, as below:

(a) I nd AS 16 | Property, plant and equipment -The amendment clarifies that excess of net sale proceeds of items produced over the cost of testing, if any, shall not be recognised in the profit or loss but deducted from directly attributable costs considered as part of cost of an item of property, plant and equipment. The effective date for adoption of this amendment is annual periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2022.

(b) I nd AS 37 | Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets - The amendment specifies that the 'cost of fulfilling’ a contract comprises the 'costs that relate directly to the contract’. Costs that relate directly to a contract can either be incremental costs of fulfilling that contract (examples would be direct labour, materials) or an allocation of other costs that relate directly to fulfilling contracts (an example would be the allocation of the depreciation charge for an item of property, plant and equipment used in fulfilling the contract). The effective date for adoption of this amendment is annual

periods beginning on or after 1st April, 2022, although early adoption is permitted.

(c) I nd AS 103 | Business combinations - The amendment adds a new exception in Ind AS 103 for liabilities and contingent liabilities.

(d) Ind AS 109 | Financial instruments - The amendment clarifies which fees an entity includes when it applies the '10%’ test in assessing whether to derecognise a financial liability. An entity includes only fees paid or received between the entity (the borrower) and the lender, including fees paid or received by either the entity or the lender on the other’s behalf.

The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of these amendments.

2.2 Statement of compliance:

The Standalone Financial Statements of the Company which comprise the Balance Sheet as at 31st March, 2022, the Statement of Profit and Loss, the Statement of Cash Flows and the Statement of Changes in Equity for the year ended 31st March, 2022, and a summary of the significant accounting policies and other explanatory information (together hereinafter referred to as "Standalone Financial Statements") have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015, as amended from time to time, the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act") to the extent notified, guidelines issued by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and other accounting principles generally accepted in India. The Standalone Financial Statements have been approved by the Board of Directors in its meeting held on 3rd May, 2022.

2.3 Basis of preparation and presentation

The Standalone Financial Statements are prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as explained in the accounting policies given below which are consistently followed except where a new accounting standard or amendment to the existing accounting standards requires a change in the policy hitherto applied. Presentation requirements of Division II of Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013, "as amended", as applicable to the Standalone Financial Statements have been followed. The Standalone Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupees (’INR’) in crore rounded off to two decimal places as permitted by Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.

Current and non-current classification:

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current / noncurrent classification.

An asset is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

• it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in the normal operating cycle;

• it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

• it is expected to be realised within 12 months after the reporting date; or

• it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:

• it is expected to be settled in the Company’s normal operating cycle;

• it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

• it is due to be settled within 12 months after the reporting date; or the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the

counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current only.

2 .4 Significant accounting policies:

I. Revenue recognition:

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised when control of the goods including power generated or services is transferred to the customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services having regard to the terms of the contract including Power Purchase Agreements, relevant tariff regulations and the tariff orders by the regulator, as applicable. If the consideration in a contract includes a variable amount, the Company estimates the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for transferring the goods or services to the customer. The variable consideration is estimated having regard to various relevant factors including historical trend and constrained until it is highly probable that a significant revenue reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur when the associated uncertainty with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Compensation towards shortfall in offtake are recognised on collection or earlier when there is reasonable certainty to expect ultimate collection.

II. Leases:

(a) The Company as lessee:

The Company assesses whether a contract is or contains a lease, at inception of the contract. The Company recognises a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability

with respect to all lease arrangements in which it is the lessee, except for short-term leases (defined as leases with a lease term of 12 months or less) and leases of low value assets (such as tablets and personal computers, small items of office furniture and telephones). For these leases, the Company recognises the lease payments as an operating expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which economic benefits from the leased assets are consumed.

The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date, discounted by using the rate implicit in the lease. If this rate cannot be readily determined, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate.

The lease liability is subsequently measured by increasing the carrying amount to reflect interest on the lease liability (using the effective interest method) and by reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments made.

The right-of-use assets comprise the initial measurement of the corresponding lease liability, lease payments made at or before the commencement day, less any lease incentives received and any initial direct costs. They are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.

Right-of-use assets are depreciated over the shorter period of lease term and useful life of the right-of-use asset. If a lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset or the cost of the right-of-use asset reflects that the Company expects to exercise a purchase option, the related right-of-use asset is depreciated over the useful life of the underlying asset. The depreciation starts at the commencement date of the lease.

For a contract that contain a lease component and one or more additional lease or non-lease components, the Company allocates the consideration in the contract to each lease component on the basis of the relative standalone price of the lease component and the aggregate standalone price of the non-lease components.

(b) The Company as lessor:

Leases for which the Company is a lessor are classified as finance or operating leases. Whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee, the contract is classified as a finance lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Rental income from operating leases is recognised on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating and arranging an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Amounts due from lessees under finance leases are recognised as receivables at the amount of the Company’s net investment in the leases. Finance lease income is allocated to accounting periods so as to reflect a constant periodic rate of return on the Company’s net investment outstanding in respect of the leases.

Subsequent to initial recognition, the Company regularly reviews the estimated unguaranteed residual value and applies the impairment requirements of Ind AS 109, recognising an allowance for expected credit losses on the lease receivables.

Finance lease income is calculated with reference to the gross carrying amount of the lease receivables, except for credit-impaired financial assets for which interest income is calculated with reference to their amortised cost (i.e. after a deduction of the loss allowance).

All other borrowing costs are recognised in statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred.

The Company suspends capitalisation of borrowing costs during extended periods in which it suspends active development of a qualifying asset.

The Company determines the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation as the actual borrowing costs incurred on that borrowing during the period less any interest income earned on temporary investment of specific borrowings pending their expenditure on qualifying assets, to the extent that an entity borrows funds specifically for the purpose of obtaining a qualifying asset. If any specific borrowing remains outstanding after the related asset is ready for its intended use or sale, that borrowing becomes part of the funds that an entity borrows generally when calculating the capitalisation rate on general borrowings. In case if the Company borrows generally and uses the funds for obtaining a qualifying asset, borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation are determined by applying a capitalisation rate to the expenditure on that asset.

Borrowing Cost includes exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the finance cost.

V. Employee benefits:

a) Short term employee benefits:

A liability is recognised for benefits accruing to employees in respect of wages and salaries in the period the related service is rendered at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for that service. Liabilities recognised in respect of short-term employee benefits are measured at the undiscounted amount of the benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the related service.

When a contract includes both lease and nonlease components, the Company applies Ind AS 115 to allocate the consideration under the contract to each component.

III. Foreign currencies:

The Company’s Standalone Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupee. The transactions in currencies other than the entity’s functional currency (foreign currencies) are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise except for:

I exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks (see below the policy on hedge accounting in 2.4 (XVI) (G); and

II exchange differences on foreign currency borrowings relating to assets under construction for future productive use, which are included in the cost of those assets when they are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on those foreign currency borrowings.

IV. Borrowing costs:

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.

b) Long term employee benefits:

Liabilities recognised in respect of longterm employee benefits are measured at the present value of the estimated future cash outflows expected to be made by the Company in respect of services provided by employees up to the reporting date. The liabilities for earned leave and sick leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. The benefits are discounted using the market yields at the end of the reporting period that have terms approximating to the terms of the related obligation. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in profit or loss.

c) Retirement benefit costs and termination benefits:

A liability for a termination benefit is recognised at the earlier of when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of the termination benefit and when the entity recognises any related restructuring costs.

Defined contribution plans:

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit plans are recognised as an expense when employees have rendered service entitling them to the contributions. Payments made to state-managed retirement benefit plans are accounted for as payments to defined contribution plans where the Company’s obligations under the plans are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit plan.

Defined benefit plans:

For defined benefit retirement plans, the cost of providing benefits is determined

using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period. Remeasurements comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest) are recognised immediately in the balance sheet with a charge or credit to other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements recognised in other comprehensive income are not reclassified. Actuarial valuations are being carried out at the end of each annual reporting period for defined benefit plans.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the balance sheet represents the deficit or surplus in the Company’s defined benefit plans. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.

The Company pays gratuity to the employees whoever has completed five years of service with the Company at the time of resignation/ superannuation. The gratuity is paid @ 15 days salary for each completed year of service as per the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.

d) Share-based payment arrangements:

Equity-settled share-based payments to employees and others providing similar services are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date.

The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straightline basis over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity. At the end of each reporting period, the Company

revises its estimate of the number of equity instruments expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in statement of profit and loss such that the cumulative expense reflects the revised estimate, with a corresponding adjustment to the equity-settled employee benefits reserve.

The Company has created an Employee Welfare Trust for providing share-based payment to its employees. The Company uses the Trust as a vehicle for distributing shares to employees under the employee remuneration schemes. The Trust buys shares of the Parent Company from the market or directly from the Parent Company, for giving shares to employees. The Company treats Trust as its extension and shares held by the Trust are treated as treasury shares. Own equity instruments that are reacquired (treasury shares) are recognised at cost and deducted from Equity. No gain or loss is recognised in profit and loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments. Any difference between the carrying amount and the consideration, if reissued, is recognised in other equity.

VI. Taxation:

I ncome tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

Current tax:

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in profit or loss because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax:

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Standalone Financial Statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

A deferred tax asset arising from unused tax losses or tax credits (credit on account of Minimum Alternative Tax) is recognised only to the extent that the Company has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised by the Company. The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered. Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities. For operations carried out under tax holiday

period (80IA benefits of Income Tax Act, 1961), deferred tax assets or liabilities, if any, have been established for the tax consequences of those temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases that reverse after the tax holiday ends.

Current tax and deferred tax for the year:

Current and deferred tax are recognised in statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

VII. Property, plant and equipment:

The cost of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price net of any trade discounts and rebates, any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the tax authorities), any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use, including relevant borrowing costs for qualifying assets and any expected costs of decommissioning.

Cost of major inspection/overhauling is recognised in the carrying amount of the item of property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied. Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection/overhauling (as distinct from physical parts) is de-recognised.

Properties in the course of construction are carried at cost, less any recognised impairment loss, as capital work in progress. Upon completion, such properties are transferred to the appropriate categories of property, plant and equipment and the depreciation commences.

Where an obligation (legal or constructive) exists to dismantle or remove an asset or restore a site to its former condition at the end of its useful life, the present value of the estimated cost of dismantling, removing or restoring the site is capitalized along with the cost of acquisition or construction upon completion and a corresponding liability is recognised.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of the asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

VIII. Other intangible assets:

Intangible assets with finite useful lives that are acquired separately are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses. Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

An intangible asset is derecognised on disposal, or when no further economic benefits are expected from use or disposal. Gain/loss on de-recognition are recognised in statement of profit and loss.

IX. Depreciation and amortisation:

Depreciation commences when the assets are ready for their intended use. Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value. Depreciation is recognized so as to write off the cost of assets (other than freehold land and properties under construction) less their residual values over their useful lives, using straight-line method as per the useful lives and residual value prescribed in Schedule II to the Act except in case of the following class of assets wherein useful lives are determined based on technical assessment made by a technical expert engaged by the management taking into account the nature of assets, the estimated usage of assets, the operating conditions of the assets,

anticipated technological changes, in order to reflect the actual usage.

Estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:

Class of Property,

Useful life

plant and equipment

in Years

Buildings

12-35

Plant and equipment

12-35

Furniture and fixtures

5-10

Vehicles

10

Office equipment

5

When significant parts of property, plant and equipment are required to be replaced at intervals, the Company depreciates them separately based on their specific useful lives.

Freehold land is not depreciated. Leasehold land acquired by the Company, with an option in the lease deed, entitling the Company to purchase on outright basis after a certain period at no additional cost is not amortized.

Major overhaul costs are depreciated over the estimated life of the economic benefit derived from the overhaul. The carrying amount of the remaining previous overhaul cost is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss if the next overhaul is undertaken earlier than the previously estimated life of the economic benefit.

Computer software is amortised over an estimated useful life of 3 years.

Right-of-use assets are depreciated over the shorter period of the lease term and the useful life of the underlying asset. If a lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset or the cost of the right-of-use asset reflects that the Company expects to exercise a purchase option, the related right-of-use asset is depreciated over the useful life of the underlying asset.

The estimated useful lives, residual values and depreciation method are reviewed at the end of each reporting period, with the effect of any changes in estimate accounted for on a prospective basis.

X. Impairment of tangible and intangible assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. When a reasonable and consistent basis of allocation can be identified, corporate assets are also allocated to individual cash-generating units, or otherwise they are allocated to the smallest Company of cash-generating units for which a reasonable and consistent allocation basis can be identified.

Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs of disposal and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

I f the recoverable amount of an asset (or cashgenerating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised immediately in statement of profit and loss.

Any reversal of the previously recognised impairment loss is limited to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognised.

XI. Inventories:

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realisable value. Costs of inventories are determined on weighted average basis.

Cost of inventories includes cost of purchase price, cost of conversion and other cost incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale. Materials and other supplies held for use in the production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished products in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. However, when a decline in the price of materials indicates that the cost of the finished products exceeds net realisable value, the materials are written down to net realisable value.

XII. Earnings per share:

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) for the year by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for treasury shares, bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit / (loss) for the year as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. Potential equity shares are deemed to be dilutive only if their conversion to equity shares would decrease the net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations. Potential dilutive equity shares are deemed to be converted as at the

beginning of the period, unless they have been issued at a later date.

XIII. Provisions, contingencies and commitments:

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event and it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.

The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

When some or all of the economic benefits required to settle a provision are expected to be recovered from a third party, a receivable is recognised as an asset if it is virtually certain that reimbursement will be received and the amount of the receivable can be measured reliably.

Present obligations arising under onerous contracts are recognised and measured as provisions. An onerous contract is considered to exist where the Company has a contract under which the unavoidable incremental costs of meeting the obligations under the contract exceed the economic benefits expected to be received from the contract. The unavoidable costs under a contract reflect the least net cost of exiting from the contract, which is the lower of the cost of fulfilling it and any compensation or penalties arising from failure to fulfil it.

A disclosure for contingent liabilities is made where there is:

(a) a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future

events not wholly within the control of the entity; or

(b) a present obligation that arises from past events but is not recognized because:

(i) it is not probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; or

(ii) the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with sufficient reliability.

A contingent asset is a possible asset that arises from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the entity.

Commitments are future liabilities for contractual expenditure, classified and disclosed as follows:

(a) estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for;

(b) uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid;

(c) funding related commitment to associate and joint venture companies; and

(d) other non-cancellable commitments, if any, to the extent they are considered material and relevant in the opinion of management.

Commitments include the amount of purchase orders (net of advances) issued to parties for completion of assets.

XIV. Non-current assets held for sale:

The Company classifies non-current assets as held for sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered principally through a sale rather than through continuing use. This condition is regarded as met only when the asset is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such asset and its sale is highly probable. Also, such assets are classified as held for sale only if the management expects to complete the sale within one year from the date of classification. Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and the fair value less cost to sell, except for financial assets which are measured as per Ind AS 109 "Financial Instruments". Non-current assets are not depreciated or amortised.

XV. Financial guarantee contracts:

The Company provides certain guarantees in respect of the indebtedness of other undertakings, claims under the contract or other arrangements in the ordinary course of business. The Company evaluates each guarantee arrangement and elects to account it as an insurance contract or a financial guarantee contract. Financial guarantee contract liabilities are measured initially at their fair values and, if not designated as at FVTPL, are subsequently measured at the higher of the amount of the obligation under the contract and the amount initially recognised less cumulative amortisation over the period of guarantee. For the guarantee arrangements designated as insurance contracts, at the end of each reporting period, the Company performs a liability adequacy test, (i.e. it assesses the likelihood of a payout based on current undiscounted estimates of future cash flows), and any deficiency is recognized in Statement of Profit and Loss.

XVI. Financial instruments:

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments.

Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through Statement of Profit and Loss (FVTPL)) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair

value through profit and loss are recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss.

(A) Investment in subsidiaries, associate and joint venture:

The Company has accounted for its investments in subsidiaries, associate and joint venture at cost.

(B) Financial assets:

(a) Recognition and initial measurement:

A financial asset is initially recognised at fair value and, for an item not at FVTPL, transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue. Purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on the trade date, which is the date on which the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

(b) Classification of financial assets:

Financial assets are classified, at initial recognition and subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income (OCI), and fair value through profit and loss. A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated at FVTPL:

• The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

• The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A debt instrument is classified as FVTOCI only if it meets both of the following conditions and is not recognised at FVTPL:

• The asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

• The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognised in the Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). However, the Company recognises interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to Statement of Profit and Loss. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the effective interest rate (EIR) method.

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading and contingent consideration recognised by an acquirer in a business combination to which Ind AS 103 applies are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument-byinstrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognised in the OCI. There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of investment. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

All other financial assets are classified as measured at FVTPL.

In addition, on initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVTOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets at FVTPL are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting year, with any gains and losses arising on remeasurement recognised in statement of profit and loss. The net gain or loss recognised in standalone statement of profit and loss incorporates any dividend or interest earned on the financial asset and is included in the other income line item. Dividend on financial assets at FVTPL is recognised when:

• The Company’s right to receive the dividends is established;

• It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the dividends will flow to the entity;

• The dividend does not represent a recovery of part of cost of the investment and the amount of dividend can be measured reliably.

Perpetual debt instruments / loans, which provide it’s holder with the contractual right to receive payments on account of interest at fixed dates extending into the indefinite future, either with no right to receive a return of principal or a right to a return of principal under terms that make it very unlikely or very far in the future, are considered as investment in equity instrument of the holder. The Company has elected to measure investment in equity instruments of it’s subsidiaries at cost.

(c) Derecognition of financial assets:

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expire, or when it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another party.

(d) Impairment:

The Company applies the expected credit loss model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets measured at amortised cost. Expected credit losses are the weighted average of credit losses with the respective risks of default occurring as the weights. Credit loss is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the Company expects to receive (i.e. all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate (or credit-adjusted effective interest rate for purchased or originated credit-impaired financial assets). The Company estimates cash flows by considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument through the expected life of that financial instrument.

The Company measures the loss allowance for a financial instrument at an amount equal to the lifetime expected credit losses if the credit risk on that financial instrument has increased significantly since initial recognition. If the credit risk on a financial instrument has not increased significantly since initial recognition, the Company measures the loss allowance for that financial instrument at an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses. 12-month expected credit losses are portion of the lifetime expected credit losses and represent the lifetime cash shortfalls that will result if default occurs within the 12 months after the reporting date and thus, are not cash shortfalls that are predicted over the next 12 months.

For trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115, the Company always

measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

(e) Income from financial assets:

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the shareholder's right to receive payment has been established.

Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset's net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Delayed payment charges are recognised on collection or earlier when there is reasonable certainty to expect ultimate collection.

(f) Effective interest method:

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a debt instrument and of allocating interest income over the relevant year. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts (including all fees and points paid or received that form an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction costs and other premiums or discounts) through the expected life of the debt instrument, or, where appropriate, a shorter year, to the net carrying amount on initial recognition. Income is recognised on an effective interest basis for debt instruments other than those financial assets classified as at FVTPL.

C. Financial liabilities and equity instruments:

(a) Classification as debt or equity:

Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

(b) Equity instruments:

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recognised at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs. Repurchase of the Company's own equity instruments is recognised and deducted directly in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of the Company's own equity instruments.

(c) Financial liabilities:

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities 'at FVTPL' or 'other financial liabilities'

Financial liabilities at FVTPL:

Financial liabilities are classified as at FVTPL when the financial liability is either held for trading or it is designated as at FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as held for trading if:

• It has been incurred principally for the purpose of repurchasing it in the near term; or

• On initial recognition it is part of a portfolio of identified financial instruments that the Company manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profittaking; or

• It is a derivative that is not designated and effective as a hedging instrument.

A financial liability other than a financial liability held for trading may be designated as at FVTPL upon initial recognition if:

• such designation eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise;

• the financial liability forms part of a group of financial assets or financial

liabilities or both, which is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with the Company’s documented risk management or investment strategy, and information about the grouping is provided internally on that basis; or

• it forms part of a contract containing one or more embedded derivatives, and Ind AS 109 permits the entire combined contract to be designated as at FVTPL in accordance with Ind AS 109.

(d) Derecognition of financial liabilities:

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, the Company’s obligations are discharged, cancelled or have expired. An exchange between a lender of debt instruments with substantially different terms is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. Similarly, a substantial modification of the terms of an existing financial liability (whether or not attributable to the financial difficulty of the debtor) is accounted for as an extinguishment of the original financial liability and the recognition of a new financial liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid and payable is recognised in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

D. Derivative financial instruments:

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as forward foreign exchange contracts, to hedge its foreign currency risks.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the derivative contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in statement of profit and loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective

as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in statement of profit and loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

The contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage requirements are not considered as derivative instruments.

E. Offsetting of financial instruments:

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Balance Sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

F. Fair Value measurement:

The Company measures financial instruments, such as, derivatives at fair value at each balance sheet date.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

i) I n the principal market for the asset or liability; or

ii) In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.

The principal or the most advantageous market must be accessible by the Company.

The fair value of an asset or a liability is measured using the assumptions that

market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability, assuming that market participants act in their economic best interest.

A fair value measurement of a nonfinancial asset takes into account a market participant's ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant that would use the asset in its highest and best use.

The Company uses valuation techniques that are appropriate in the circumstances and for which sufficient data are available to measure fair value, maximising the use of relevant observable inputs and minimising the use of unobservable inputs.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorised within the fair value hierarchy, described as follows, based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement as a whole:

Level 1 - Quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is directly or indirectly observable

Level 3 - Valuation techniques for which the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement is unobservable

For the purpose of fair value disclosures, the Company has determined classes of assets and liabilities on the basis of the nature, characteristics and risks of the asset or liability and the level of the fair value hierarchy as explained above.

G. Hedge accounting:

The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives in

respect of foreign currency, as either cash flow hedge or fair value hedge. Hedges of foreign currency risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Company documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to hedged risk.

(i) Fair value hedges:

Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognized in statement of profit and loss immediately, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in the hedged item attributable to hedged risk are recognized in statement of profit and loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit and loss from that date.

(ii) Cash flow hedges:

The effective portion of changes in fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated under the heading of cash flow hedging reserve. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in statement of profit and loss.

Amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity relating to effective portion as described above are reclassified to statement of profit and loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit and loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item. However, when the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, such gains or losses are transferred from equity (but not as a reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the non-financial asset or non-financial liability.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gain or loss recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised when the forecast transaction is ultimately recognised in statement of profit and loss. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in equity is recognised immediately in statement of profit and loss.

XVII. Statement of cash flows:

Statement of Cash Flows is prepared segregating the cash flows into operating, investing and financing activities. Cash flow from operating activities is reported using indirect method adjusting the net profit for the effects of:

i. changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables, transactions of a non-cash nature;

ii. non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, and unrealised foreign currency gains and losses etc.; and

iii. all other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash at banks and on hand, short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less and liquid investments, which are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

XVIII. Segment reporting:

Operating segments are those components of the business whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision making body in the Company to make decisions for performance assessment and resource allocation. The reporting of segment information is the same as provided to the management for the purpose of the performance assessment and resource allocation to the segments.

XIX. Exceptional items:

An item of income or expense which by its size, type or incidence requires disclosure in order to improve an understanding of the performance of the Company is treated as an exceptional item and the same is disclosed in the notes to accounts.

3 Key sources of estimation uncertainty and critical accounting judgements:

In applying the Company’s accounting policies, which are described in note 2.4, the directors are required to make judgements that have a significant impact on the amounts recognized and to make estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

A) Key sources of estimation uncertainty:

i) Useful lives of property, plant and equipment:

The useful lives of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at least once a year. Such lives are dependent upon an assessment of both the technical lives of the assets, and also their likely economic lives based on various internal and external factors including relative efficiency, the operating conditions of the asset, anticipated technological changes, historical trend of plant load factor, historical planned and scheduled maintenance. It is possible that the estimates made based on existing experience are different from the actual outcomes and could cause a material adjustment to the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment.

ii) Provisions and Contingencies:

In the normal course of business, contingent liabilities arise from litigations and claims. Potential liabilities that are possible but not probable of crystallising or are very difficult to quantify reliably are treated as contingent liabilities. Such contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes but are not recognised. Potential liabilities that are remote are neither recognized nor disclosed as contingent liability. The management decides whether the matters needs to be classified as 'remote,' 'possible' or 'probable' based on expert advice, past judgements, terms of the contract, regulatory provisions etc.

iii) Fair value measurements:

When the fair values of financial assets or financial liabilities recorded or disclosed in the Financial Statements cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair values are measured using valuation techniques including the Discounted Cash Flows model. The inputs to these models are taken from observable markets where possible, but where this is not

feasible, a degree of judgment is required in establishing fair values. Judgements include consideration of inputs such as liquidity risk, credit risk and volatility.

iv) Income Taxes:

Significant judgements are involved in determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/ recovered for uncertain tax positions. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets arising from unused tax credits, the management considers convincing evidence about availability of sufficient taxable income against which such unused tax credits can be utilized. The amount of the deferred income tax assets considered realizable, however, could change if estimates of future taxable income changes in the future.

v) Defined benefit plans:

The present value of defined benefit obligations are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual development in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary escalations and mortality rates etc. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

vi) Impairment of investment:

Determining whether impairment in the value of investment in JSW Hydro Energy Limited requires an estimation of the value in use of it's underlying business. In considering the value in use, the Management has made assumption relating to plant availability, plant load factor, useful life of the assets, additional capacity and capital cost approval from the regulators, input cost escalations, operational margins etc. for arriving at the

future cash flows expected to arise from the cash-generating units, and discount rates in order to calculate the present value of such cash flows. Any subsequent changes to the cash flows due to changes in the above mentioned factors could impact the carrying value of the investment.

vii) Loss allowance assessment for a loan / guarantee given to subsidiary and a related party:

a) Assessment for loss allowance for a loan given to subsidiary involves assumptions relating to the valuation of it’s underlying business. In considering the value in use, the Management has made assumption relating to timing of resumption of commercial operations of mining activity, mineable reserves / resources, annual production, yield, future prices of coal, renewal of mining licenses, operational margins and discount rate. Any subsequent changes in the assumptions could materially impact the carrying value of the assets.

b) Recoverability of loans given to and fair value of financial guarantee given on behalf of, a related party serving as a mine development operator for lignite mine of a joint venture entity is assessed on the basis of projected cash flows derived on the presumption that it will continue as the operator having regard to it being selected as the preferred bidder in the fresh competitive bidding process carried out as per the regulator's direction, its net worth and other external and internal sources of information.

viii) Expected credit loss:

The measurement of expected credit loss on financial assets is based on the evaluation of collectability and the management's judgement considering external and internal

sources of information. A considerable amount of judgement is required in assessing the ultimate realization of the loans having regard to, the past collection history of each party and ongoing dealings with these parties, and assessment of their ability to pay the debt on designated dates.

ix) Onerous contract:

While ascertaining the unavoidable costs of meeting the obligations under a power purchase contract, the Management has exercised significant judgement in arriving at cost of fuel, plant load factor, components of incremental unavoidable cost of executing the contract and it's escalations.

x) Relating to the global health pandemic from COVID-19:

The Company has considered the possible effects that may result from the pandemic relating to COVID-19 in the preparation of these financial statements. The Company's substantial generation capacities are tied up under medium to long term power purchase / job work agreements, which insulates revenue of the Company. The Company has evaluated the possible effects on the carrying amounts of property, plant and equipment, inventory, loans and receivables basis the internal and external sources of information and concluded, exercising reasonable estimates and judgements, that the carrying amounts of these assets are recoverable. Having regard to the above, and the Company's liquidity position coupled with expected future cash flows, there is no uncertainty in meeting financial obligations in the foreseeable future. The impact of COVID-19 may differ from that estimated as at the date of approval of these financial statements.

B) Critical accounting judgements in applying accouting policy:

The following are the critical judgements, apart from those involving estimations (which are presented separately above), that the directors have made in the process of applying the Company’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts

recognised in financial statements:

i) Evaluation of contracts to determine

whether it contains lease arrangements:

In respect of power plant unit at Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, while assessing the applicability of the principles relating to arrangements in the nature of lease prescribed under Ind AS 116, Leases, the management has exercised judgements in evaluating the customer’s right with regard to use the underlying asset and pricing terms of the arrangement to reach a conclusion that the arrangement for supply of power through aforesaid power plant unit is in the nature of a lease.

ii) Tariff related disputes with customers:

Tariff related disputes with the customers arise mainly on account of differences in interpretation of the terms of the power purchase agreements / regulations. A significant judgment is required in determining likelihood of entitlement to the revenue. The Company recognizes such revenues having regard to legal advice, judicial precedence and interpretation of the terms of the agreements / regulations. The final outcome of such disputes may have impact on the revenue recognised by the Company. The Company has also estimated the expected timing of realisation of these balances, which is in turn dependent on the expected ultimate settlement of legal disputes, for classification of such receivables between current and noncurrent.