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LUPIN LTD.

15 July 2024 | 01:04

Industry >> Pharmaceuticals

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ISIN No INE326A01037 BSE Code / NSE Code 500257 / LUPIN Book Value (Rs.) 313.41 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 16/07/2024 52Week High 1835 EPS 41.98 P/E 43.52
Market Cap. 83308.25 Cr. 52Week Low 922 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 5.83 / 0.44 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2023-03 

IA. OVERVIEW:

Lupin Limited, (‘the Company’) incorporated in 1983, is an innovation led Transnational Pharmaceutical Company producing, developing and marketing a wide range of branded and generic formulations, biotechnology products and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) globally. The Company has significant presence in the Cardiovascular, Diabetology, Asthama, Pediatrics, Central Nervous System, Gastro-Intestinal, Anti-Infectives and Nonsteroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug therapy segments and is a global leader in the Anti-TB and Cephalosporins segments.

The Company along with its subsidiaries has manufacturing locations spread across India,

USA, Mexico and Brazil with trading and other incidental and related activities extending to the global markets. The Company’s shares are listed on Bombay Stock Exchange Limited and National Stock Exchange of India Limited. These Standalone Financial Statements were authorized for issue by the Company’s Board of Directors on May 09,2023.

The Company is a public limited company incorporated and domiciled in India. The address of its registered office is Kalpataru Inspire, 3rd floor, Western Express Highway, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400055.

IB. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:a) Basis of accounting and preparation of Standalone Financial Statements:Basis of preparation

i) These Standalone Financial Statements of the Company have been prepared and presented in all material aspects in accordance with the recognition and measurement principles laid down in Indian Accounting Standards (hereinafter referred to as the ‘Ind AS’) as notified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘the Act’) read with Rule 4 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended and other relevant provisions of the Act and accounting principles generally accepted in India.

Functional and Presentation Currency

ii) These Standalone Financial Statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is the functional currency of the Company.

All financial information presented in Indian rupees has been rounded to the nearest million, except otherwise indicated.

Basis of measurement

iii) These Standalone Financial Statements are prepared under the historical cost convention unless otherwise indicated.

Use of Estimates and Judgements

iv) The preparation of the Standalone Financial Statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the Management to make estimates and assumptions considered in the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) and the reported income and expenses during the year. The Management believes that the estimates used in preparation of the Standalone Financial Statements

are prudent and reasonable. Future results could differ due to these estimates and the differences between the actual results and the estimates are recognised in the periods in which the results are known/materialised. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis.

Information about critical judgements made in applying accounting policies, as well as estimates and assumptions that have the most significant effect to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are included in the following accounting policies.

- Measurement and likelihood of occurrence of provisions and contingencies (Refer note q)

- Impairment of non-financial assets (Refer note f)

- Impairment of financial assets (Refer note h)

- Provision for Income taxes and uncertain tax positions (Refer note j)

- Goodwill impairment (Refer note l)

b) Property, Plant and Equipment & Depreciation:

I. Recognition and Measurement:

Freehold land is carried at historical cost. Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

- its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.

- any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

- the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which the Company incurs either when the item

is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

- income and expenses related to the incidental operations, not necessary to bring the item to the location and condition necessary for

it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss. If significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, then they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant and equipment.

An item of property, plant and equipment and any significant part initially recognized is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Capital work-in-progress in respect of assets which are not ready for their intended use are carried at cost, comprising of direct costs, related incidental expenses and attributable interest.

II. Subsequent Expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

III. Depreciation

Depreciable amount for assets is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its estimated residual value.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment of the Company has been provided on the straight-line method as per the useful life prescribed in Schedule II to the Act, except in respect of the following categories of assets, in whose case the life of the assets has been assessed as under based on independent technical evaluation and management's assessment thereof, taking into account the nature of the asset, the estimated usage of the asset, the operating conditions of the asset, past history of replacement, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.

Particulars

Estimated Useful Life

Improvements on

Over the period of

Leased Premises

lease

Building

5 to 80 years

Plant and Equipment

10 to 15 years

Office Equipment (Desktop and Laptop)

4 years

Depreciation method, useful live and residual values are reviewed at each financial year end and adjusted if appropriate.

Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed of).

c) Intangible assets:

I. Recognition and Measurement:

Intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of an intangible asset comprises of its purchase price, including any import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from the taxing authorities), and any directly attributable expenditure on making the asset ready for its intended use.

Expenditure on research and development eligible for capitalisation are carried as Intangible assets under development where such assets are not yet ready for their intended use.

II. Subsequent Expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

III. Derecognition of Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are derecognised either on their disposal or where no future economic benefits are expected from their use.

Losses arising on such derecognition are recorded in the profit or loss, and are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds, if any, and the carrying amount of respective intangible assets as on the date of derecognition.

IV. Amortisation

Intangible assets are amortised over their estimated useful life on Straight Line Method as follows:

Particulars

Estimated Useful Life

Computer Software

5 to 6 years

Trademark and Licenses

4 to 5 years

Dossiers/Marketing Rights

10 years

Knowhow

5 years

The estimated useful lives of intangible assets and the amortisation period are reviewed at the end of each financial year and the amortisation method is revised to reflect the changed pattern, if any.

d) Non-current assets held for sale:

Assets are classified as held for sale and stated at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less

costs to sell if the asset is available for immediate sale and its sale is highly probable. Such assets or group of assets are presented separately in the Balance Sheet as "Assets Classified as Held for Sale”. Once classified as held for sale, intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are no longer amortised or depreciated.

e) Research and Development:

Revenue expenditure pertaining to research is charged to the respective heads in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred. Development costs of products are also charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year it is incurred, unless following conditions are satisfied in which case such expenditure is capitalized:

- a product’s technological feasibility has been established

- development costs can be measured reliably

- future economic benefits are probable

- the company intends to and has sufficient resources/ability to complete development and to use or sell the asset

The amount capitalised comprises of expenditure that can be directly attributed or allocated on a reasonable and consistent basis for creating, producing and making the asset ready for its intended use. Property, Plant and Equipment utilised for research and development are capitalised and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Property, Plant and Equipment.

Expenditure on in-licensed development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, is capitalised, if the cost can be reliably measured, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible and the Company has sufficient resources to complete the development and to use and sell the asset.

Payments to third parties that generally take the form of up-front payments and milestones for in-licensed products, compounds and intellectual property are capitalised since the probability of expected future economic benefits criterion is always considered to be satisfied for separately acquired intangible assets.

f) Impairment of non-financial assets:

The carrying values of Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangible assets at each balance sheet date are reviewed for impairment if any indication of impairment exists. The following intangible assets are tested for impairment each financial year even if there is no indication that the assets is impaired:

i) an intangible asset that is not yet available for use; and

ii) an intangible asset that is having indefinite useful life.

If the carrying amount of the Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangible assets exceed the estimated recoverable amount, an impairment is recognised for such excess amount.

The impairment loss is recognised as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount, in which case any impairment loss of the revalued asset is treated as a revaluation decrease to the extent a revaluation reserve is available for that asset.

The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor.

When there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset (other than a revalued asset) in earlier accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss, to the extent the amount was previously charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss. In case of revalued assets, such reversal is not recognised.

g) Foreign Currency Transactions/ Translations:

i) Transactions denominated in foreign currency are recorded at exchange rates prevailing

at the date of transaction or at rates that closely approximate the rate at the date of the transaction.

ii) Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated into the functional currency

at the exchange rate of the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

iii) Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at reporting date at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous Standalone Financial Statements are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

h) Financial Instruments:

Financial instrument is any contract that gives rise

to a financial asset of one entity and a financial

liability or equity instrument of another entity.

I. Financial Assets Classification

On initial recognition the Company classifies financial assets as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss on the basis of its business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

However, Company’s trade receivables that do not contain a significant financial component are measured at transaction price under Ind AS 115 "Revenue from Contracts with Customers”. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e. the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Financial assets at amortised cost

A ‘financial asset’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

i) the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

ii) contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. This category generally applies to trade and other receivables.

Financial assets included within the fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL) category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Subsequent Measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in below categories:

i) Debt instruments at amortised costs

ii) Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

iii) Derivative and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

iv) Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

Equity investments

All equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value. Equity instruments which are held for trading are classified as at FVTPL. For all other equity instruments, the Company decides to classify the same either as at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI) or FVTPL. The Company makes such election on an instrument-byinstrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

If the Company decides to classify an equity instrument as at FVTOCI, then all fair value changes on the instrument, excluding dividends, are recognized in other comprehensive income (OCI).

There is no recycling of the amounts from OCI to Statement of Profit and Loss, even on sale of such investments.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture

Investments in subsidiaries and joint venture are carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any. Where an indication of impairment exists, the carrying amount of the investment is assessed and written down immediately to its recoverable amount. On disposal of investments in subsidiaries and joint venture, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amounts are recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a Company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Company’s balance sheet) when:

- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

- The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay

to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either:

i) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or

ii) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset,but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks

and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement.

In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

Impairment of financial assets

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

i) financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, and bank balance.

ii) trade receivables.

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on trade receivables which do not contain a significant financing component.

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

II. Financial Liabilities

Classification

The Company classifies all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortised cost, except for financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities, including derivatives that are liabilities, are subsequently measured at fair value with changes in fair value being recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Initial recognition and measurement

Financial liabilities are classified, at initial recognition, as financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss, at amortised cost (loans, borrowings and payables) or as derivatives designated as hedging instruments in an effective hedge, as appropriate.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts, financial guarantee contracts and derivative financial instruments.

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term.

This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind-AS 109 are satisfied. For liabilities designated as FVTPL, fair value gains/losses attributable to changes in own credit risk are recognized in OCI. These gains/losses are not subsequently transferred to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. All other changes in fair value of such liability are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Loans and borrowings

After initial recognition, interest-bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at

amortised cost using the EIR method. Gains and losses are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss when the liabilities are derecognised.

Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included as finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

This category generally applies to interest-bearing loans and borrowings.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability.

The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Embedded derivatives

If the hybrid contract contains a host that is a financial asset within the scope Ind-AS 109, the Company does not separate embedded derivatives. Rather, it applies the classification requirements contained in Ind AS 109 to the entire hybrid contract. Derivatives embedded in all other host contracts are accounted for as separate derivatives and recorded at fair value if their economic characteristics and risks are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not held for trading or designated at fair value through profit or loss. These embedded derivatives are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss, unless designated as effective hedging instruments. Reassessment only occurs if there is either a change in the terms of the contract that significantly modifies the cash flows.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

Derivative financial instruments

The Company uses derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward contracts, interest rate swaps and currency options to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign exchange risks. Such derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Hedge Accounting

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates such forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles. These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognised directly in (OCI) and accumulated in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” under Other Equity, net of applicable deferred income taxes and the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in the "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the same period during which the forecasted transaction affects Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting.

For forecasted transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognised in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” is retained until the forecasted transaction occurs. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognised in "Cash Flow Hedge Reserve Account” is immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

III. Measurement

The Company determines the fair value of its financial instruments on the basis of the following hierarchy:

(a) Level 1: The fair value of financial instruments quoted in active markets is based on their quoted closing price at the balance sheet date.

(b) Level 2: The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by using valuation techniques using observable market data. Such valuation techniques include discounted cash flows, standard valuation models based on market parameters for interest rates, yield curves or foreign exchange rates, dealer quotes for similar instruments and use of comparable arm’s length transactions.

(c) Level 3: The fair value of financial instruments that are measured on the basis of entity specific valuations using inputs that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

i) Business combinations:

i) The Company accounts for each business combination by applying the acquisition method. The acquisition date is the date on which control is transferred to the acquirer. Judgment is applied in determining the acquisition date and determining whether control is transferred from one party to another.

ii) Control exists when the Company is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through power over the entity. In assessing control, potential voting rights are considered only if the rights are substantive.

iii) The Company measures goodwill as of the applicable acquisition date at the fair value of the consideration transferred, including the recognized amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree, less the net recognized amount of the identifiable assets acquired

and liabilities assumed (including contingent liabilities in case such a liability represents a present obligation and arises from a past event, and its fair value can be measured reliably). When the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the consideration transferred, a bargain purchase gain is recognized as capital reserve.

iv) Consideration transferred includes the fair values of the assets transferred, liabilities

incurred by the Company to the previous owners of the acquiree, and equity interests issued by the Company. Consideration transferred also includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Consideration transferred does not include amounts related to settlement of pre-existing relationships.

v) Any contingent consideration is measured at fair value at the date of acquisition. If an obligation to pay contingent consideration that meets the definition of a financial instrument is classified as equity, then it is not remeasured and settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise subsequent changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vi) Transaction costs that the Company incurs in connection with a business combination, such as finder’s fees, legal fees, due diligence fees and other professional and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.

vii) On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Company recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.

viii) Any goodwill that arises on account of such business combination is tested annually for impairment.

j) Income tax:

Income tax expense consists of current and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

In this case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

Current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. It is measured using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

Current tax assets and liabilities are offset only if, the Company:

i) has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and

ii) Intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Deferred tax

Deferred taxes are recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses, unused tax credits and deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realised; such reductions are reversed when the probability of future taxable profits improves.

Deferred tax is not recognized for the temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of transaction.

Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at each reporting date and recognised to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used.

The Company recognises deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

i) When the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and

ii) it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred taxes are measured at the tax rates that are expected to be applied to temporary differences when they reverse, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date.

The measurement of deferred taxes reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset only if:

i) The Company has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and

ii) The deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on the same taxable entity.

Accruals for uncertain tax positions require management to make judgments of potential exposures. Accruals for uncertain tax positions are measured using either the most likely amount or the expected value amount depending on which method the entity expects to better predict the resolution of the uncertainty. Tax benefits are not recognised unless the management based upon its interpretation of applicable laws and regulations and the expectation of how the tax authority will resolve the matter concludes that such benefits will be accepted by the authorities. Once considered probable of not being accepted, management reviews each material tax benefit and reflects the effect of the uncertainty in determining the related taxable amounts.

k) Inventories:

Inventories of all procured materials, Stock-in-Trade, finished goods and work-in-progress are valued at the lower of cost (on moving weighted average basis) and the net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost of raw material, packing materials and Stock-inTrade includes all charges in bringing the goods to their present location and condition, including non-creditable taxes and other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. However, raw materials and packing materials are considered to be realisable at cost if the finished products, in which they will be used, are expected to be sold at or above cost.

Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, non-creditable duties and taxes as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

l) Goodwill impairment

Goodwill is tested for impairment annually. If events or changes in circumstances indicate a potential impairment, as part of the review process, the carrying amount of the Cash Generating Units (CGUs) (including allocated goodwill) is compared with its recoverable amount by the Company.

The recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use, both of which are calculated by the Company using a discounted cash flow analysis. Calculating the future net cash flows expected to be generated to determine if impairment exists and to calculate the impairment involves significant assumptions, estimation and judgment. The estimation and judgment involves, but is not limited to, industry trends including pricing, estimating long-term revenues, revenue growth and operating expenses.

m) Revenue Recognition:

Sale of Goods

The majority of the Company’s contracts related to product sales include only one performance obligation, which is to deliver products to customers based on purchase orders received. Revenue from sales of products is recognized at a point in time when control of the products is transferred to the customer, generally upon delivery, which the Company has determined is when physical possession, legal title of the products transfer to the customer and the Company is entitled to payment. The timing of the transfer of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of the sales agreements.

Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the transaction price which is consideration received or receivable, net of returns, Goods and Service Tax (GST) and applicable trade discounts, allowances and chargeback. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer.

In arriving at the transaction price, the Company considers the terms of the contract with the customers and its customary business practices.

The transaction price is the amount of consideration the Company is entitled to receive in exchange for transferring promised goods or services, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

The Company accounts for refund liabilities (sales returns) accrual by recording an allowance for sales returns concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This allowance is based on the Company’s estimate of expected sales returns. The Company considers its historical experience of sales returns, levels of inventory in the distribution channel, estimated shelf life, product discontinuances, price changes of competitive products, and the introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact the Company’s business and markets.

The Company disaggregates revenue from contracts with customers by major Products/Service lines, geography and timing of the revenue recognition.

Any amount of variable consideration is recognised as revenue only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur.

The Company estimates the amount of variable consideration using the expected value method.

Income from research services

Income from research services including sale of technology/know-how (rights, licenses and other intangibles) is recognised in accordance with the terms of the contract with customers when the related performance obligation is completed, or when risks and rewards of ownership are transferred, as applicable.

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements that, in certain instances, include certain performance obligations. Based on an evaluation of whether or not these obligations are inconsequential or perfunctory, the Company recognise or defer the upfront payments received under these arrangements.

Interest income

Interest income is recognised with reference to the Effective Interest Rate method.

Dividend income

Dividend from investment is recognised as revenue when right to receive is established.

Income from Export Benefits and Other Incentives

Export benefits available under prevalent schemes are accrued as revenue in the year in which the goods

are exported and/or services are rendered only when there reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the amounts will be received.

n) Employee Benefits:

Short term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefits are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.

Defined contribution plans

Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are expensed as the related service is provided and the Company will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

If the contribution payable to the scheme for service received before the reporting date exceeds the contribution already paid, the deficit payable to the scheme is recognised as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid.

Defined benefit plans

The Company’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.

The calculation of defined benefit obligations is performed periodically by an independent qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method.

When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan.

To calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any applicable minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses and the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised immediately in other comprehensive income (OCI). Net interest expense (income) on the net defined liability (asset) is computed by applying the discount rate, used to measure the net defined liability (asset). Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

Other long-term employee benefits

The Company’s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The obligation is measured on the basis of a periodical independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Remeasurement are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

Other Benefit Plans

Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed within one year from the reporting date is recognised on the basis of undiscounted value of estimated amount required to be paid or estimated value of benefit expected to be availed by the employees. Liability in respect of compensated absences becoming due or expected to be availed more than one year after the reporting date is estimated on the basis of an actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary using the projected unit credit method at the year-end. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the profit or loss and are not deferred.

o) Share-based payment transactions:

Employees Stock Options Plans ("ESOPs”):

The grant date fair value of options granted to employees is recognized as an employee expense, with a corresponding increase in equity, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to the options. The expense is recorded for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in substance, multiple awards. The increase in equity recognized in connection with share based payment transaction is presented as a separate component in Other Equity under "Employee Stock Options Outstanding Reserve”.

The amount recognized as an expense is adjusted to reflect the actual number of stock options that vest.

Cash-settled Transactions: The cost of cash-settled transactions is measured initially at fair value at the grant date using a Binomial Option Pricing Model. This fair value is expensed over the period until the vesting date with recognition of a corresponding liability. The liability is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date up to, and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expense.

The approach used to account for vesting conditions when measuring equity-settled transactions also applies to cash-settled transactions.

p) Leases:

At inception of a contract, the Company assesses whether a contract is, or contains, a lease. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company uses the definition of a lease in Ind AS 116.

Company as a lessee

The Company accounts for each lease component within the contract as a lease separately from non-lease components of the contract and allocates the consideration in the contract to each lease component on the basis of the relative standalone price of the lease component and the aggregate standalone price of the non-lease components.

i) Right-of-Use Assets

The Company recognises right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term at the lease commencement date. The cost of the right-of-use asset measured at inception shall comprise of the amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before the commencement date less any lease incentives received, plus any initial direct costs incurred and an estimate of costs to be incurred by the lessee in dismantling and removing the underlying asset or restoring the underlying asset or site on which it is located. The right-of-use assets is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated depreciation, accumulated impairment losses, if any and adjusted for any remeasurement of the lease liability.

The right-of-use assets is depreciated using the straight-line method from the commencement date over the shorter of lease term or useful life of right-of-use asset. The estimated useful lives of right-of- use assets are determined on the same basis as those of property, plant and equipment. Right-of-use assets are tested for impairment whenever there is any indication that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Impairment loss, if any, is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

ii) Lease Liabilities

The Company measures the lease liability at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date of the lease. The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the Company uses incremental borrowing rate. The lease payments shall include fixed payments, variable lease payments, residual value guarantees, exercise price of a purchase option where the Company is reasonably certain to exercise that option and payments of penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term reflects the lessee exercising an option to terminate the lease.

The lease liability is subsequently remeasured by increasing the carrying amount to reflect interest on the lease liability, reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments made and remeasuring the carrying amount to reflect any reassessment or lease modifications or to reflect revised in-substance fixed lease payments. The company recognises the amount of the re-measurement of lease liability due to modification as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset and statement of profit and loss depending upon the nature of modification. Where the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is reduced to zero and there is a further reduction in the measurement of the lease liability, the Company recognises any remaining amount of the re-measurement in statement of profit and loss.

iii) Short-term lease and leases of low value assets

The Company has elected not to apply the requirements of Ind AS 116 Leases to short-term leases of all assets that have a lease term of 12 months or less and leases for which the underlying asset is of low value. The lease

payments associated with these leases are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

q) Provisions and Contingent Liabilities:

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation in respect of which a reliable estimate can be made. If effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using an appropriate discount rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the Notes to the Standalone Financial Statements. Contingent liabilities are disclosed for:

i) possible obligations which will be confirmed only by future events not wholly within the control of the Company, or

ii) present obligations arising from past events where it is not probable that an outflow

of resources will be required to settle the obligation or a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation cannot be made.

r) Cash and Cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents comprises cash on hand, cash at bank and short term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, that are readily convertible into known amounts of cash and subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.

s) Borrowing costs:

Borrowing costs are interest and other costs that the Company incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds and is measured with reference to the effective interest rate (EIR) applicable to the respective borrowing. Borrowing costs include interest costs measured at EIR and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, allocated to qualifying assets, pertaining to the period from commencement of activities relating to construction/development of the qualifying asset up to the date of capitalisation of such asset are added to the cost of the assets. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted.

All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period which they are incurred.

t) Government Grants:

Government grants are initially recognised at fair value if there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Company will comply with the conditions associated with the grant;

- In case of capital grants, they are then recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss as other income on a systematic basis over the useful life of the asset.

- In case of grants that compensate the Company for expenses incurred are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis in the periods in which the expenses are recognised.

Export benefits available under prevalent schemes are accrued in the year in which the goods are exported and there is no uncertainty in receiving the same.

u) Earnings per share:

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year is adjusted for the events for bonus issue, bonus element in a rights issue to existing shareholders, share split and reverse share split (consolidation of shares). Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the profit/(loss) after tax as adjusted for dividend, interest and other charges to expense or income (net of any attributable taxes) relating to the dilutive potential equity shares, by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and the weighted average number of equity shares which could

have been issued on conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The calculation of diluted earnings per share does not assume conversion, exercise, or other issue of potential ordinary shares that would have an antidilutive effect on earnings per share.

v) Insurance claims:

Insurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted/expected to be admitted and to the extent that the amount recoverable can be measured reliably and it is reasonable to expect the ultimate collection.

w) Current vs Non Current:

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the balance sheet based on current/non-current classification. An asset is treated as current when it is:

- Expected to be realised or intended to be sold or consumed in normal operating cycle

- Held primarily for the purpose of trading

- Expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- Cash or cash equivalent unless restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is current when:

- It is expected to be settled in normal operating cycle

- It is held primarily for the purpose of trading

- It is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period, or

- There is no unconditional right to defer the settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period.

The Company classifies all other liabilities as non-current.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.

The operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and

their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

The Company has identified twelve months as its operating cycle.

1C. RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS:

Ministry of Corporate Affairs ("MCA”) notifies new standard or amendments to the existing standards under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as issued from time to time.

On 31 March 2023, MCA amended the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2023, applicable, as below:

Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements

The amendments require companies to disclose their material accounting policies rather than their significant accounting policies. Accounting policy information, together with other information, is material when it can reasonably be expected to influence decisions of primary users of general purpose financial statements.

Ind AS 12 - Income Taxes

The amendments clarify how companies account for deferred tax on transactions such as leases and decommissioning obligations. The amendments narrowed the scope of the recognition exemption in paragraphs 15 and 24 of Ind AS 12 (recognition exemption) so that it no longer applies to transactions that, on initial recognition, give rise to equal taxable and deductible temporary differences.

Ind AS 8 - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

The amendments will help entities to distinguish between accounting policies and accounting estimates. The definition of a change in accounting estimates has been replaced with a definition of accounting estimates. Under the new definition, accounting estimates are "monetary amounts in financial statements that are subject to measurement uncertainty”. Entities develop accounting estimates if accounting policies require items in financial statements to be measured in a way that involves measurement uncertainty.

The Company does not expect this amendment to have any significant impact in its financial statements.