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Company Information

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LUPIN LTD.

15 July 2024 | 01:09

Industry >> Pharmaceuticals

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ISIN No INE326A01037 BSE Code / NSE Code 500257 / LUPIN Book Value (Rs.) 313.41 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 16/07/2024 52Week High 1835 EPS 41.98 P/E 43.49
Market Cap. 83253.53 Cr. 52Week Low 922 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 5.83 / 0.44 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year
Year End :2023-03 

35. Commitments

a) Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for, net of advances, ' 2,195.0 million (31.03.2022'2,770.5 million).

b) Equity commitment in subsidiaries amounting to ' 1,232.6 million (31.03.2022'1,736.9 million) and other commitments in subsidiaries amounting to ' 500.0 million (31.03.2022'1,000.0 million).

c) Other commitments - Non-cancellable short-term leases is ' 3.4 million (31.03.2022'23.6 million).

Low value leases is ' 53.1 million (31.03.2022'249.4 million).

d) Dividends proposed of ' 4/- (31.03.2022'4/-) per equity share is subject to the approval of the shareholders of the Company at the Annual General Meeting, but not recognised as a liability in the financial statements is ' 1,820.1 million (31.03.2022'1,818.0 million).

e) There are product supply commitments pursuant to contracts with various customers under dossier agreements.

f) There are product procurement commitments pursuant to contracts with suppliers under supply agreements.

g) Financial and corporate guarantees issued by the Company on behalf of subsidiaries are disclosed in note 36.

36. Contingent Liabilities

(' in million) As at As at

Particulars 31.03.2023 31.03.2022

a) Income tax demands/matters on account of deductions/allowances in earlier years, 1,770.2 1,765.1 pending in appeals and potential tax demands in future years in respect of some

uncertain tax issues [' 353.9 million (31.03.2022'370.1 million) consequent to department preferring appeals against the orders of the Appellate Authorities passed in favour of the company].

Amount paid there against and included under “Non-Current Tax Assets (Net)”

' 1,360.3 million (31.03.2022'1,878.6 million)

b) Customs Duty, Excise duty, Service tax and Sales tax demands for input tax credit 127.7 121.8 disallowances and demand for additional Entry Tax arising from dispute on applicable

rate are in appeals and pending decisions. Amount paid there against and included under note 10 “Other Non-Current Assets” ' 23.9 million (31.03.2022'23.9 million)

c) Claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts [excluding interest (amount 2,039.3 1,830.2 unascertained) in respect of a claim] for transfer charges of land, octroi duty, local body

tax, employee claims, power*, trademarks, pricing and stamp duty.

Amount paid there against without admitting liability and included under note 10 “Other Non-Current Assets” ' 48.8 million (31.03.2022'201.8 million).

*Demand raised by Maharashtra State Electricity Development Corporation Limited (MSEDCL) challenging Group Captive Generating Plant (GCGP) status of power supplier's plant at Tarapur and Pune location.

d) Outstanding credit facilities against corporate guarantees given in respect of 32,454.5 29,271.6 credit facilities sanctioned by bankers of subsidiary companies for the purpose of

acquisitions, working capital and other business requirements aggregating ' 35,295.3 million (31.03.2022'32,012.6 million).

e) Financial guarantee aggregating to ' 5,502.1 million (31.03.2022'5,075.1 million) - -given to third party on behalf of subsidiaries for contractual obligations.

f) From time to time, Lupin Inc. (LI) and its subsidiaries are involved in various intellectual property claims and legal proceedings, which are considered normal to its business, the liability, if any, may fall on Lupin Limited. Some of this litigation has been resolved through settlement.

Future cash outflows in respect of the above, if any, is determinable only on receipt of judgment/decisions pending with the relevant authorities or settlement, as the case may be. The Company does not expect the outcome of the matters stated above to have a material adverse impact on the Company's financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. The Company believes that the probability of outflow is low to moderate considering the merits of the cases and stages of the litigation.

The Company does not envisage any likely reimbursements in respect of the above.

The Company is involved in various legal proceedings, including product liability related claims, employment claims and other regulatory matters relating to conduct of its business. The Company carries product liability insurance policy with an amount it believes is sufficient for its needs. In respect of other claims, the Company believes that the probability of outflow is low to moderate considering the merits of the case and the ultimate disposition of these matters may not have material adverse effect on its Financial Statements.

38. Revenue (Ind AS 115):

a) The operations of the Company are limited to only one segment viz. pharmaceuticals and related products. Revenue from contract with customers is from sale of manufactured goods and rendering of research services. Sale of goods are made at a point in time and revenue is recognised upon satisfaction of the performance obligations which is typically upon dispatch/delivery depending on the terms of the sale. The Company has a credit evaluation policy based on which the credit limits for the trade receivables are established. There is no significant financing component as the credit period provided by the Company is not significant.

Income from research services including sale of technology/know-how (rights, licenses and other intangibles) is recognized in accordance with the terms of the contract with customers when the related performance obligation is completed.

The Company enters into certain dossier sales, licensing and supply arrangements that, in certain instances, include certain performance obligations. Based on an evaluation of whether or not these obligations are inconsequential or perfunctory, the Company recognises or defers the upfront payments received under these arrangements.

Variable components such as discounts, chargebacks, rebates, refund liabilities etc. continues to be recognised as deductions from revenue in compliance with Ind AS 115.

39. Segment Reporting:

The Company has presented data relating to its segments based on its consolidated financial statements which are presented in the same Integrated Annual Report. Accordingly in terms of paragraph 4 of the Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS 108) "Operating Segments” no disclosures related to segments are presented in these standalone financial statements.

42. Share-based payment arrangements:(i) Employee stock options - equity settled

The Company implemented "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2003” (ESOP 2003), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2005” (ESOP 2005), "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2005” (SESOP 2005), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2011” (ESOP 2011), "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2011” (SESOP 2011), "Lupin Employees Stock Option Plan 2014” (ESOP 2014) and "Lupin Subsidiary Companies Employees Stock Option Plan 2014” (SESOP 2014) in earlier years, as approved by the Shareholders of the Company and the Nomination and Remuneration Committee of the Board of Directors (the Committee).

The Committee determines which eligible employees will receive options, the number of options to be granted, the vesting period and the exercise period. The options are granted at an exercise price, which is in accordance with the relevant SEBI guidelines in force, at the time of such grants. Each option entitles the holder to exercise the right to apply for and seek allotment of one equity share of ' 2 each. The options issued under the above schemes vest in a phased manner after completion of the minimum period of one year with an exercise period of ten years from the respective grant dates.

The weighted average grant date fair value of options granted under Category C during the years ended 31.03.2023 and 31.03.2022 was ' nil and ' nil per option, respectively.

The weighted average share price during the years ended 31.03.2023 and 31.03.2022 was ' 692.7 and ' 981.1 per share respectively.

Valuation of stock options

The fair value of stock options granted during the period has been measured using the Black-Scholes option pricing model at the date of the grant. The Black-Scholes option pricing model includes assumptions regarding dividend yields, expected volatility, expected terms and risk free interest rates. The key inputs and assumptions used are as follows:

Share price: The closing price on NSE as on the date of grant has been considered for valuing the options granted.

Exercise Price: Exercise Price is the market price or face value or such other price as determined by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee.

Expected Volatility: The historical volatility of the stock till the date of grant has been considered to calculate the fair value of the options.

Expected Option Life: Expected Life of option is the period for which the Company expects the options to be live.

The minimum life of a stock option is the minimum period before which the options cannot be exercised and the maximum life is the period after which the options cannot be exercised.

Expected dividends: Expected dividend yield has been calculated as an average of dividend yields for four years preceding the date of the grant.

Risk free interest rate: The risk free interest rate on the date of grant considered for the calculation is the interest rate applicable for a maturity equal to the expected life of the options based on the zero coupon yield curve for Government Securities.

These assumptions reflect management's best estimates, but these assumptions involve inherent market uncertainties based on market conditions generally outside of the Company's control. As a result, if other assumptions had been used in the current period, stock-based compensation expense could have been materially impacted. Further, if management uses different assumptions in future periods, stock based compensation expense could be materially impacted in future years. The estimated fair value of stock options is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was, in-substance, multiple awards.

(ii) Employee stock options - Cash settled

The cost of cash-settled transactions is measured initially at fair value at the grant date using a Binomial Option Pricing Model. This fair value is expensed over the period until the vesting date with recognition of a corresponding liability. The liability is re-measured to fair value at each reporting date up to, and including the settlement date, with changes in fair value recognised in employee benefits expense.

43. Post-Employment Benefits:(i) Defined Contribution Plans:

The Company makes contributions towards provident and pension fund and superannuation fund to a defined contribution retirement benefit plan for qualifying employees. The superannuation fund is administered by the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC). Under the plan, the Company is required to contribute a specified percentage of payroll cost to the retirement benefit plan to fund the benefits.

The Company recognised ' 163.4 million (31.03.2022'173.2 million) for superannuation contribution and ' 264.7 million (31.03.2022'282.0 million) for provident and pension fund contributions in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

(ii) Defined Benefit Plan:

A) The Company makes annual contributions to the Group Gratuity cum Life Assurance Schemes administered by the LIC a funded defined benefit plan for qualifying employees. The scheme provides for payment as under:

i) On normal retirement/early retirement/withdrawal/resignation:

As per the provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 with vesting period of 5 years of service.

ii) On death in service:

As per the provisions of the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 without any vesting period.

In addition to the above-mentioned scheme the Company also pays additional gratuity as ex-gratia and the said amount is provided as non-funded liability based on actuarial valuation.

The most recent actuarial valuation of plan assets and the present value of the defined benefit obligation for gratuity were carried out as at 31.03.2023. The present value of the defined benefit obligations and the related current service cost and past service cost were measured using the Projected Unit Credit Method.

Based on the actuarial valuation obtained in this respect the following table sets out the status of the gratuity plan and the amounts recognised in the Company's financial statements as at the Balance Sheet date.

B) The provident fund plan of the Company, except at one plant, is operated by "Lupin Limited Employees Provident Fund Trust” ("Trust”), a separate legal entity. Eligible employees receive benefits from the said Provident Fund.

Both the employees and the Company make monthly contributions to the Provident Fund Plans equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee's salary.

The minimum interest rate payable by the Trust to the beneficiaries every year is being notified by the Government of India. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate. The Board of Trustees administer the contributions made by the Company to the schemes and also defines the investment strategy to act in the best interest of the plan participants.

The Company has an obligation to service the shortfall on account of interest generated by the fund and on maturity of fund investments and hence the same has been classified as Defined Benefit Plan in accordance with Ind AS 19 "Employee Benefits”. As per the Guidance Note from the Actuarial Society of India, the Company has obtained the actuarial valuation of interest rate obligation in respect of Provident Fund as at 31.03.2023 and based on the same, there is no shortfall towards interest rate obligation.

Based on the actuarial valuation obtained, the following is the details of fund and plan assets.

Deferred tax assets have not been recognized on capital losses of ' 1,087.3 million (previous year Nil) because currently there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will be utilizing the benefits in near future. This loss can be carried forward till 31/03/2031.

Management judgement is required in determining provision for income tax, deferred income tax, assets and liabilities and recoverability of deferred income tax assets. The recoverability of deferred income tax assets is based on estimates of taxable income and the period over which deferred income tax assets will be recovered. Any changes in future taxable income would impact the recoverability of deferred tax assets.

47. Patent Litigation Settlement for Glumetza:

During the previous year, the Company and its subsidiary, agreed to settle the dispute with respect to antitrust class action filed, without admitting any violation of law with the two plaintiffs representing a majority of the claims for an amount of USD 252.9 million (' 18,783.8 million) [including USD 4.9 million (' 374.8 million) towards litigation and settlement related expenses] which was recognized as business compensation expense.

48. Acquisition through Business Combination:Brand Acquisition - Anglo French Drugs and Industries Limited (AFDIL):

The Company has acquired market leading brands in nutraceuticals, CNS, skin and respiratory segments from Anglo French Drugs and Industries Limited and its Associates to strengthen the Company's India Formulation business. The purchase price allocation carried out during the current year resulted in goodwill of ' 158.6 million. The following table summarizes the allocation of purchase price consideration, for the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed and the resultant Goodwill.

- The recoverable amounts of the above goodwill as at 31.03.2023 have been assessed using a value-in-use model.

Value in use is generally calculated as the net present value of the projected post-tax cash flows plus a terminal value of the cash generating unit to which the goodwill is allocated. Initially a post-tax discount rate is applied to calculate the net present value of the post-tax cash flows.

The key assumptions used in the estimation of the recoverable amount are set out below:

- The values assigned to the key assumptions represent management's assessment of future trends in the relevant industries and have been based on historical data from both external and internal sources.

- The cash flow projections are based on five years specific estimates, five years estimates developed using internal forecasts and a terminal growth rate thereafter considering the value in use of cash generating units is better reflected by projections for 10 years due to the business life cycle and longer term gestation of products. The planning horizon reflects the assumptions for short-to-midterm market developments and have been adjusted for the risks of competition, product life cycle etc.

- Discount rate reflects the current market assessment of the risks. The discount rate is estimated based on the weighted average cost of capital. Post-tax discount rate used ranged from 11.3 % for the year ended 31.03.2023.

- The Company believes that any reasonably possible change in the key assumptions on which a recoverable amount is based would not cause the aggregate carrying amount to exceed the aggregate recoverable amount of the above goodwill.

The amount required to be spent by the company during the year is ' 290.3 million (31.03.2022'334.8 million).

Actual amount spent during the year is ' 292.4 million. Excess amount of ' 2.1 million is carried forward to next year and presented under prepaid expenses. No amount was spent during the year towards construction/acquisition of any asset relating to CSR expenditure and there are no outstanding amounts payables towards any other purposes.

Unspent amount as on 31.03.2023 has been deposited by the implementing agency for the ongoing projects with specified bank Account within the timelines.

52. Financial Instruments:Financial instruments - Fair values and risk management:

A. Accounting classification and fair values:

Carrying amounts and fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities, including their levels in the fair value hierarchy, are presented below. It does not include the fair value information for financial assets and financial liabilities not measured at fair value if the carrying amount is a reasonable approximation of fair value.

B. Measurement of fair values:

Valuation techniques and significant unobservable inputs:

The following table shows the valuation techniques used in measuring Level 2 and Level 3 fair values for financial instruments measured at fair value in the statement of financial position as well as the significant unobservable inputs used.

C. Financial risk management:

The Company has exposure to the following risks arising from financial instruments:

- Credit risk;

- Liquidity risk; and

- Market risk

The Company’s board of directors has overall responsibility for the establishment and oversight of the Company’s risk management framework. The board of directors has established the Risk Management Committee, which is responsible for developing and monitoring the Company’s risk management policies.

The committee reports to the board of directors on its activities.

The Company’s risk management policies are established to identify and analyse the risks faced by the Company, to set appropriate risk limits and controls and to monitor risks and adherence to limits.

Risk management policies and systems are reviewed periodically to reflect changes in market conditions and the Company’s activities. The Company, through its training, standards and procedures, aims to maintain a disciplined and constructive control environment in which all employees understand their roles and obligations.

The audit committee oversees how management monitors compliance with the company’s risk management policies and procedures, and reviews the adequacy of the risk management framework in relation to the risks faced by the Company. The audit committee is assisted in its oversight role by internal audit. Internal audit undertakes both regular and adhoc reviews of risk management controls and procedures, the results of which are reported to the audit committee.

i. Credit risk:

Credit risk is the risk of financial loss to the Company if a customer or counterparty to a financial instrument fails to meet its contractual obligations, and arises principally from the Company’s receivables from customers and investment securities. Credit risk is managed through credit approvals, establishing credit limits and continuously monitoring the creditworthiness of customers to which the Company grants credit terms in the normal course of business. The Company establishes an allowance for doubtful debts and impairment that represents its estimate of incurred losses in respect of trade and other receivables and investments.

Trade receivables

The Company's exposure to credit risk is influenced mainly by the individual characteristics of each customer. The demographics of the customer, including the default risk of the industry and country in which the customer operates, also has an influence on credit risk assessment.

As at 31.03.2023, the carrying amount of the Company's largest customer (a wholly owned subsidiary in the USA) was ' 9,257.4 million (31.03.2022'12,801.7 million)

Expected credit loss assessment

The Company allocates each exposure to a credit risk grade based on a variety of data that is determined to be predictive of the risk of loss (e.g. timeliness of payments, available press information etc.) and applying experienced credit judgement.

Exposures to customers outstanding at the end of each reporting period are reviewed by the Company to determine incurred and expected credit losses. Historical trends of impairment of trade receivables do not reflect any significant credit losses. Given that the macroeconomic indicators affecting customers of the Company have not undergone any substantial change, the Company expects the historical trend of minimal credit losses to continue.

Cash and cash equivalents

As at the year end, the Company held cash and cash equivalents of ' 856.6 million (31.03.2022 ' 591.0 million). The cash and cash equivalents are held with banks.

Other Bank Balances

Other bank balances are held with banks.

Derivatives

The derivatives are entered into with banks.

Investment in mutual funds, non-convertible debentures and commercial papers

The Company limits its exposure to credit risk by generally investing in liquid securities, Non-Convertible debentures and Commercial papers only with counterparties that have a good credit rating. The Company does not expect any losses from non-performance by these counter parties.

Other financial assets

Other financial assets are neither past due nor impaired.

ii. Liquidity risk:

Liquidity risk is the risk that the Company will encounter difficulty in meeting the obligations associated with its financial liabilities that are settled by delivering cash or another financial asset. The Company’s approach to managing liquidity is to ensure, as far as possible, that it will have sufficient liquidity to meet its liabilities when they are due, under both normal and stressed conditions, without incurring unacceptable losses or risking damage to the Company’s reputation.

The Company has obtained fund and non-fund based working capital lines from various banks. The Company invests its surplus funds in bank fixed deposit and liquid and liquid plus schemes of mutual funds, non-convertible debentures, commercial papers which carry no/low mark to market risks. The Company monitors funding options available in the debt and capital markets with a view to maintaining financial flexibility.

Exposure to liquidity risk

The following are the remaining contractual maturities of financial liabilities at the reporting date. The amounts are gross and undiscounted, and include estimated interest payments and exclude the impact of netting agreements.

iii. Market Risk:

Market risk is the risk that changes in market prices such as foreign exchange rates, interest rates and equity prices will affect the Company’s income or the value of its holdings of financial instruments. Market risk is attributable to all market risk sensitive financial instruments including foreign currency receivables and payables and long term debt. The Company is exposed to market risk primarily related to foreign exchange rate risk. Thus, the Company exposure to market risk is a function of revenue generating and operating activities in foreign currency. The objective of market risk management is to avoid excessive exposure in our foreign currency revenues and costs. The Company uses derivatives to manage market risk. Generally, the Company seeks to apply hedge accounting to manage volatility in profit or loss.

Currency risk

The Company is exposed to currency risk on account of its operations in other countries. The functional currency of the Company is Indian Rupee. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and foreign currencies has changed substantially in recent periods and may continue to fluctuate in the future. Consequently, the Company uses both derivative instruments, i.e., foreign exchange forward contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign currency exchange rates in respect of its highly probable forecasted transactions and recognized assets and liabilities.

The Company enters into foreign currency forward contracts which are not intended for trading or speculative purposes but for hedge purposes to establish the amount of reporting currency required or available at the settlement date of certain payables/receivables.

The Company also enters into derivative contracts in order to hedge and manage its foreign currency exposures towards future export earnings. Such derivatives contracts are entered into by the Company for hedging purposes only and are accordingly classified as cash flow hedge.

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk can be either fair value interest rate risk or cash flow interest rate risk. Fair value interest rate risk is the risk of changes in fair values of fixed interest bearing financial assets or borrowings because of fluctuations in the interest rates, if such assets/borrowings are measured at fair value through profit or loss. Cash flow interest rate risk is the risk that the future cash flows of floating interest bearing borrowings will fluctuate because of fluctuations in the interest rates.

The risk estimates provided assume a change of 100 basis points interest rate for the interest rate benchmark as applicable to the borrowings summarised above. This calculation also assumes that the change occurs at the balance sheet date and has been calculated based on risk exposures outstanding as at that date. The period end balances are not necessarily representative of the average debt outstanding during the period.

Commodity rate risk

The Company's operating activities involve purchase and sale of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), whose prices are exposed to the risk of fluctuation over short periods of time. Commodity price risk exposure is evaluated and managed through procurement and other related operating policies. As of 31.03.2023 and 31.03.2022 the Company had not entered into any material derivative contracts to hedge exposure to fluctuations in commodity prices.

53. Capital Management:

The Company’s policy is to maintain a strong capital base so as to maintain investor, creditor and market confidence and to sustain future development of the business. Management monitors the return on capital as well as the level of dividends to ordinary shareholders.

The Board of Directors seeks to maintain a balance between the higher returns that might be possible with higher levels of borrowings and the advantages and security afforded by a sound capital position.

The Company monitors capital using a ratio of ‘adjusted net debt’ to ‘total equity’. For this purpose, adjusted net debt is defined as total liabilities, comprising interest-bearing loans and borrowings, less cash and cash equivalents, other bank balances and current investments.

54. Hedge accounting:

The Company’s risk management policy is to hedge above 15% of its estimated net foreign currency exposure in respect of highly probable forecast sales over the following 12-24 months at any point in time. The Company uses forward exchange contracts to hedge its currency risk. Such contracts are generally designated as cash flow hedges.

The forward exchange forward contracts are denominated in the same currency as the highly probable forecast sales, therefore the hedge ratio is 1:1. These contracts have a maturity of 12-24 months from the reporting date.

The Company’s policy is for the critical terms of the forward exchange contracts to align with the hedged item.

The Company determines the existence of an economic relationship between the hedging instrument and hedged item based on the currency, amount and timing of their respective cash flows. The Company assesses whether the derivative designated in each hedging relationship is expected to be and has been effective in offsetting changes in the cash flows of the hedged item using the hypothetical derivative method.

Offsetting arrangements

(i) Trade receivables and payables

The Company has certain customers which are also supplying materials. Under the terms of agreement there are no amounts payable by the Company that are required to be offset against receivables.

(ii) Derivatives

The Company enters into derivative contracts for hedging future sales. In general, under such agreements, the amounts owed by each counterparty on a single day in respect of all the transactions outstanding in the same currency are aggregated into a single net amount that is payable by one party to the other.

66. Donations under Note 34 includes donations for political purpose made through Electoral Bonds ' 180.0 million (31.03.2022 - ' Nil)

67. Other Statutory Information

(A) The Company has not entered into any transactions with Struck off Companies under section 248 of the Companies Act, 2013 or section 560 of the Companies Act, 1956 for the year ended 31 March 2023 and 31 March 2022.

(B) The Company has not traded or invested in Crypto Currency or Virtual Currency.

(C) The Company does not have any transaction not recorded in the books of account that has been surrendered or not disclosed as income during the year in the tax assessments under the Income Tax Act, 1961 for the year ended 31 March 2023 and 31 March 2022.

(D) The Company has complied with number of layers prescribed under clause (87) of Section 2 of the Act read with the Companies (Restriction on number of Layers) Rules, 2017.

(E) There is no charge or satisfaction of charge which is yet to be registered with ROC beyond the statutory period.

(F) The Company do not have any Benami property, where any proceeding has been initiated or pending against the Company for holding any Benami property.

(G) No funds have been advanced or loaned or invested (either from borrowed funds or share premium or any other sources or kind of funds), other than in the ordinary course of business by the Company to or in any other person(s) or entity(ies), including foreign entities (“Intermediaries”) with the understanding, whether recorded in writing or otherwise, that the Intermediary shall lend or invest in party identified by or on behalf of the Company (Ultimate Beneficiaries). The Company has not received any fund from any party(s) (Funding Party) with the understanding that the Company shall whether, directly or indirectly lend or invest in other persons or entities identified by or on behalf of the Company or provide any guarantee, security or the like on behalf of the Ultimate Beneficiaries.