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Company Information

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LARSEN & TOUBRO LTD.

29 February 2024 | 12:00

Industry >> Construction & Engineering

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ISIN No INE018A01030 BSE Code / NSE Code 500510 / LT Book Value (Rs.) 635.41 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 02/08/2023 52Week High 3738 EPS 74.48 P/E 46.69
Market Cap. 488875.26 Cr. 52Week Low 2100 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 5.47 / 0.69 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year
Year End :2023-03 

Property, Plant and Equipment & Capital work-in-progress (contd.)

a) Additions during the year and capital work-in-progress of building include X 19.47 crore (previous year X 8.83 Crore) being borrowing cost capitalised in accordance with Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 23 on "Borrowing Costs".

b) The rate used to determine the amount of borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation is 6.68% (previous year: 6.23%).

c) Owned assets given on operating lease have been presented separately under respective class of assets as "Leased out" pursuant to Ind AS 116 "Leases".

d) Out of its leasehold land at Hazira, the Company has given certain portion of land for the use to its joint venture company and the lease deed is under execution.

e) Depreciation is provided based on useful life supported by the technical evaluation considering business specific usage, the consumption pattern of the assets and the past performance of similar assets.

(f) The aggregate number of equity shares allotted as fully paid up by way of bonus shares in immediately preceding five years ended March 31, 2023 are 46,67,64,755 (previous period of five years ended March 31, 2022: 46,67,64,755 shares)

(g) The aggregate number of equity shares issued pursuant to contract, without payment being received in cash in immediately preceding last five years ended on March 31,2023 - Nil (previous period of five years ended March 31,2022: Nil)

(h) Stock option schemes i. Terms:

A. The grant of options to the employees under the stock option schemes is on the basis of their performance and other eligibility criteria. The options are vested equally over a period of 4 years for series 2003(B) and 5 years in the case of series 2006(A) subject to the discretion of the management and fulfillment of certain conditions.

B. Options can be exercised anytime within a period of 7 years from the date of grant and would be settled by way of issue of equity shares. Management has discretion to modify the exercise period.

iv. Weighted average share price at the date of exercise for stock options exercised during the year is X 1779.07 (previous year:

X 1635.25) per share.

v. A. In respect of stock options granted pursuant to the Company's stock options schemes, the fair value of the options is treated

as discount and accounted as employee compensation over the vesting period.

B. Expense on Employee Stock Option Schemes debited to the Statement of Profit and Loss during 2022-23 is X 28.16 crore (previous year: X 49.11 crore) [Note 34]. The entire amount pertains to equity-settled employee share-based payment plans. The expense includes X 0.19 crore (previous year: X 0.34 crore) charged by subsidiary companies towards the stock options granted to Company's employees.

vi. During the year, the Company has recovered X 1.12 crore (previous year: X 2.15 crore) from its subsidiary companies towards the stock options granted to their employees, pursuant to the employee stock option schemes.

vii. Weighted average fair values of options granted during the year is X 1496.52 (previous year: X 1113.62) per option.

(i) Capital Management:

The Company continues its policy of a conservative capital structure which has ensured that it retains the highest credit rating even amidst an adverse economic environment. Low gearing levels also enable the Company to navigate business stresses on one hand and raise growth capital on the other. This policy also provides flexibility of fund-raising options for future, which is especially important in times of global economic volatility. The gross debt equity ratio is 0.25:1 as at March 31,2023 (as at March 31,2022 0.30:1).

During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company paid the final dividend of X 22 per equity share for the year ended March 31, 2022 amounting to X 3091.42 crore.

The Board of directors, at their meeting held on May 10, 2023 recommended the final dividend of X 24 per equity share for the year ended March 31,2023 subject to approval from shareholders. On approval, the total dividend outgo is expected to be X 3373.16 crore based on number of shares outstanding as at March 31, 2023.

[1] Capital reserve: It represents the gains of capital nature which mainly include the excess of value of net assets acquired over consideration paid by the Company for business amalgamation transactions in earlier years.

[2] Capital reserve on business combination: It arises on transfer of business between entities under common control. It represents the difference, between the amount recorded as share capital issued plus any additional consideration in the form of cash or other assets and the amount of share capital of the transferor [refer Note 1(ii)(ab)].

[3] Capital redemption reserve: Created on redemption of preference shares out of profits in accordance with of Section 55(2)(c) the Companies Act, 2013.

[4] Debenture redemption reserve (DRR): The Ministry of Corporate Affairs vide notification dated August 16, 2019, amended the Companies (Share capital and Debenture) Rules, 2014 by which the Company is no longer required to create DRR towards the debentures issued. Earlier to this amendment, the Company was required to maintain a DRR of 25% of the value of debentures issued, either by a public issue or on a private placement basis and the amounts credited to the DRR was not to be utilised by the Company except to redeem debentures. The above amount represents the DRR created out of profits of the Company prior to the said notification.

[5] General reserve: The Company created a General Reserve in earlier years pursuant to the provisions of the Companies Act,1956 where in certain percentage of profits were required to be transferred to General Reserve before declaring dividends. As per Companies Act 2013, the requirements to transfer profits to General Reserve is not mandatory. General Reserve is a free reserve available to the company.

23(b) The Company has fund based and non-fund based facilities (viz. bank guarantees, letter of credits and derivatives) from banks. These facilities are secured by hypothecation of inventories and trade receivables. Amount of inventories and trade receivables that are pledged as collateral to the extent of: X 6932 crore as at March 31, 2023 (March 31,2022: X 6932 crore)

23(c) The Company has been sanctioned working capital limits in excess of X 5 crores, in aggregate, at points of time during the year, from banks or financial institutions on the basis of security of current assets. The quarterly returns filed by the Company with such banks or financial institutions are in agreement with the Books of Account of the Company of the respective quarters.

1. The Company does not expect any reimbursements in respect of the above contingent liabilities except in respect of matters at (j)

2. It is not practicable to estimate the timing of cash outflows, if any, in respect of matters at (a) to (d) above pending resolution of the arbitration/appellate proceedings. Further, the liability mentioned in (a) to (d) above includes interest except in cases where the Company has determined that the possibility of such levy is remote.

3. In respect of matters at (e), the cash outflows, if any, could generally occur up to four years, being the period over which the validity of the guarantees extends except in a few cases where the cash outflows, if any, could occur any time during the subsistence of the borrowing to which the guarantees relate.

4. In respect of matters at (f), the cash outflows, if any, could generally occur up to seven years, being the period over which the validity of the guarantees extends.

5. In respect of matters at (g) to (i), the cash outflows, if any, could generally occur up to completion of projects undertaken by the respective joint operations.

6. In respect of matters at (j), the cash outflows, if any, is fully reimbursable by the third parties under an agreement entered in to with them.

Disclosure pursuant to Ind AS 103 "Business Combinations":

During the previous year, L&T Hydrocarbon Engineering Limited (LTHE), a wholly owned subsidiary, was merged with the Company under a Scheme of Arrangement approved by National Company Law Tribunal, Mumbai on January 28, 2022. The merger was effective from the appointed date April 1, 2021. LTHE had a registered office in Mumbai, India and was engaged in the business of EPC solutions for the global Oil & Gas industry from front-end design through detailed engineering, modular fabrication, procurement, project management, construction, installation, and commissioning.

No fresh shares were issued to effect the merger as LTHE was a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. Further the merger was accounted in accordance with the Scheme of Arrangement and accounting standards using pooling of interest method, involving the following:

i. The assets and liabilities of LTHE were reflected at their carrying amounts. No adjustment was made to reflect the fair values, or recognise any new asset or liability.

ii. The balance of the Retained Earnings appearing in the financial statements of the LTHE was aggregated with the corresponding balance appearing in the financial statements of the Company.

iii. Restating the financials of the Company from April 1, 2020.

Disclosure pursuant to Ind AS 108 "Operating Segment" (contd.)

(e) Basis of identifying operating segments, reportable segments, segment profit and definition of each reportable segment:

(i) Basis of identifying Operating segments:

Operating segments are identified as those components of the Company (a) that engage in business activities to earn revenues and incur expenses (including transactions with any of the Company's other components); (b) whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the Company's executive management to make decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment; and (c) for which discrete financial information is available.

The Company has four reportable segments as described under "segment composition" below. The nature of products and services offered by these businesses are different and are managed separately given the different sets of technology and competency requirements.

(ii) Reportable segments

An operating segment is classified as reportable segment if reported revenue (including inter-segment revenue) or absolute amount of result or assets exceed 10% or more of the combined total of all the operating segments.

(iii) Segment profit

Performance of a segment is measured based on segment profit (before interest and tax), as included in the internal management reports that are reviewed by the corporate executive management.

(iv) Effective from April 1, 2022, the operating segments have been reorganised by the Company's Corporate Executive Management to reflect business portfolio as per the Strategic Plan - Lakshya 2026 where the Company will focus on Projects and Hi-Tech Manufacturing businesses.

The changes in segment composition are summarised as follows:

a) Hydrocarbon and Power business primarily involved in EPC/turnkey solutions in Energy sector re-organised as "Energy Projects" segment to reflect the integrated pursuit of opportunities in a rapidly transforming Energy sector including Green Energy space.

b) Heavy Engineering and Defence Engineering business, engaged in manufacturing of complex equipment reorganised as "Hi-Tech Manufacturing" segment to leverage the extensive engineering, manufacturing and fabrication expertise across the various customer segments.

The Revised Segment Composition

Infrastructure Projects segment comprises engineering and construction of (a) building and factories, (b) transportation infrastructure, (c) heavy civil infrastructure, (d) power transmission & distribution, (e) water & effluent treatment and (f) minerals and metals.

Energy Projects segment comprises EPC/ turnkey solutions in (a) Hydrocarbon business covering Oil & Gas industry from front-end design through detailed engineering, modular fabrication, procurement, project management, construction, installation and commissioning and (b) Power business covering Coal-based and Gas-based thermal power plants including power generation equipment with associated systems and/or balance-of-plant packages and (c) EPC solutions in Green Energy space.

Hi-Tech Manufacturing segment comprises (a) design, manufacture and supply of (i) custom designed, engineered critical equipment & systems to core sector industries like Fertiliser, Refinery, Petrochemical, Chemical, Oil & Gas and Thermal & Nuclear Power (ii) equipment, systems and platforms for Defence and Aerospace sectors and (b) design, construction and repair/refit of defence vessels.

Others segment includes (a) realty, (b) smart world & communication projects (including military communications), (c) marketing and servicing of construction equipment & mining machinery and parts thereof, (d) manufacture and sale of rubber processing machinery and (e) E-commerce/digital platforms & data centres.

iv) Attrition Rate:

a) For gratuity plan the attrition rate varies from 2% to 12% (previous year: 1% to 10%) for various age groups.

b) For Company pension plan, the attrition rate varies from 0% to 2% (previous year: 0% to 2%) for various age groups.

c) For post-retirement medical benefit plan, the attrition rate varies from 1% to 13% (previous year: 1% to 11%) for various

age groups.

v) The estimates of future salary increases, considered in actuarial valuation, take into account inflation, seniority, promotion and other relevant factors, such as supply and demand in the employment market.

vi) The interest payment obligation of trust-managed provident fund is assumed to be adequately covered by the interest income on long-term investments of the fund. Any shortfall in the interest income over the interest obligation is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

vii) The obligation of the Company under the post-retirement medical benefit plan is limited to the overall ceiling limits. At present, healthcare cost, as indicated in the principal actuarial assumption given supra, has been assumed to increase at 5.00% p.a.

h) Characteristics of defined benefit plans and associated risks:

1 Gratuity plan:

The Company operates gratuity plan through a trust wherein every employee is entitled to the benefit equivalent to fifteen days last salary drawn for each completed year of service. The same is payable on termination of service or retirement whichever is earlier. The benefit vests after five years of continuous service. The Company's scheme is more favorable as compared to the obligation under Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.

The defined benefit plan for gratuity of the Company is administered by separate gratuity funds that are legally separate from the Company. The trustees nominated by the Company are responsible for the administration of the plan. There are no minimum funding requirements of these plans. The funding of these plans are based on gratuity fund's actuarial measurement framework set out in the funding policies of the plan. These actuarial measurements are similar compared to the assumptions set out in (g) supra. Employees do not contribute to any of these plans.

Unfunded gratuity represents a small part of gratuity plan which is not material. Further, the unfunded portion includes amounts payable in respect of the Company's foreign operations which result in gratuity payable to employees engaged as per local laws of country of operation.

2 Post-retirement medical care plan:

The Post-retirement medical benefit plan provides for reimbursement of health care costs to certain categories of employees post their retirement. The reimbursement is subject to an overall ceiling sanctioned based on cadre of the employee at the time of retirement. The plan is unfunded. Employees do not contribute to the plan.

3 Company's pension plan:

In addition to contribution to state-managed pension plan (EPS scheme), the Company operates a post retirement pension scheme, which is discretionary in nature for certain cadres of employees. The quantum of pension depends on the cadre of the employee at the time of retirement. The plan is unfunded. Employees do not contribute to the plan.

4 Trust managed provident fund plan:

The Company manages provident fund plan through a provident fund trust for its employees which is permitted under the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952. The plan mandates contribution by employer at a fixed percentage of employee's salary. Employees also contribute to the plan at a fixed percentage of their salary as a minimum contribution and additional sums at their discretion. The plan guarantees interest at the rate notified by Employees' Provident Fund Organisation. The contribution by employer and employee together with interest are payable at the time of separation from service or retirement whichever is earlier. The benefit under this plan vests immediately on rendering of service.

The interest payment obligation of trust-managed provident fund is assumed to be adequately covered by the interest income on long term investments of the fund. Any shortfall in the interest income over the interest obligation is recognized immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as actuarial loss. Any loss/gain arising out of the investment risk and actuarial risk associated with the plan is also recognized as expense or income in the period in which such loss/gain occurs.

All the above defined benefit plans expose the Company to general actuarial risks such as interest rate risk and market (investment) risk.

i) The Company will assess the impact of Code on Wages, 2019 and the Code on Social Security, 2020 and give effect in the financial statements when the date of implementation of these codes and the Rules/Schemes thereunder are notified.

NOTE [46]

Disclosure pursuant to Ind AS 20 "Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance"

(i) The Company's exports qualify for various export benefits offered in the form of duty credit scrips under foreign trade policy framed by Department General of Foreign Trade India (DGFT). Income accounted towards such export incentives and duty drawback amounts to

X 86.06 crore (previous year X 93.53 crore).

(ii) The Company's defence manufacturing facility is eligible for certain incentives under Gujarat Aerospace and Defence Policy, 2016.

Income accounted towards such incentives amounts to NIL (previous year: X 13.05 crore).

b) Nature of provisions:

i. Product warranties: The Company gives warranties on certain products and services, undertaking to repair or replace the items that fail to perform satisfactorily during the warranty period. Provision made as at March 31, 2023 represents the amount of the expected cost of meeting such obligations of rectification/replacement. The timing of the outflows is expected to be within a period of 1 to 3 years from the date of Balance Sheet.

ii. Expected tax liability in respect of indirect taxes represents mainly the differential sales tax liability on account of non-collection of declaration forms.

iii. Provision for litigation related obligations represents liabilities that are expected to materialise in respect of matters in appeal.

iv. Contractual rectification cost represents the estimated cost the Company is likely to incur during defect liability period as per the contract obligations in respect of completed construction contracts accounted under Ind AS 115 "Revenue from Contracts with customers".

v Other provisions mainly includes onerous contracts.

c) Disclosure in respect of contingent liabilities is given as part of Note 29 to the Balance Sheet.

The Company regularly reviews its foreign currency and interest rate related exposures - both hedged and open. The Company primarily follows cash flow hedge accounting for Highly Probable Forecasted Exposures (HPFE), hence, the movement in mark to market (MTM) of the hedge contracts undertaken for such exposures is likely to be offset by contra movements in the underlying exposures values. However, till the point of time that the HPFE becomes an on-balance sheet exposure, the changes in MTM of the hedge contracts will impact the Balance Sheet of the Company. Further, given the effective horizons of the Company's risk management activities which coincide with the durations of the projects under execution, which could extend across 3-4 years and given the business uncertainties associated with the timing and estimation of the project exposures, the recognition of the gains and losses related to these instruments may not always coincide with the timing of gains and losses related to the underlying economic exposures and, therefore, may affect the Company's financial condition and operating results. The Company monitors the potential risk arising out of the market factors like exchange rates, interest rates, price of traded investment products etc. on a regular basis. For on-balance Sheet exposures, the Company monitors the risks on net unhedged exposures.

(i) Foreign exchange rate risk:

The Company has both receivable and payable exposures in foreign currency. Accordingly, changes in exchange rates may affect the Company's revenues, cost, and profitability. There is a risk that the Company may also have to adjust the pricing due to competitive pressures when there has been significant volatility in foreign currency exchange rates.

The Company may enter foreign currency forward and option contracts with financial institutions to protect against foreign exchange risks associated with existing assets and liabilities, firm commitments, forecasted future cash flows and net investments in foreign subsidiaries. In addition, the Company has entered, and may enter in future, into non-designated foreign currency contracts to partially offset the foreign currency exchange gains and losses on its foreign-denominated debt issuances. The Company's practice is to hedge a portion of its material net foreign exchange exposures with tenors in line with the project/business life cycle. The Company may also choose not to hedge certain foreign exchange exposures.

To provide a meaningful assessment of the foreign currency risk associated with the Company's foreign currency derivative positions against off-balance sheet exposures and unhedged portion of on-balance sheet financial assets and liabilities, the Company uses a multi-currency correlated value-at-risk ("VAR") model. The VAR model uses a Monte Carlo simulation to generate thousands of random market price paths for foreign currencies against Indian rupee taking into account the correlations between them. The VAR is the expected loss in value of the exposure due to overnight movement in spot exchange rates, at 95% confidence interval. The VAR model is not intended to represent actual losses but is used as a risk estimation tool. The model assumes normal market conditions and is a historical best fit model. Because the Company uses foreign currency instruments for hedging purposes, the loss in fair value incurred on those instruments is generally offset by increases in the fair value of the underlying exposures for on-balance sheet exposures. The overnight VAR for the Company at 95% confidence level is X 31.93 crore as at March 31, 2023 and X69.70 crore as at March 31, 2022.

Actual future gains and losses associated with the Company's investment portfolio and derivative positions may differ materially from the sensitivity analysis performed as at March 31, 2023 due to the inherent limitations associated with predicting the timing and amount of changes in foreign currency exchanges rates and the Company's actual exposures and position.

The Company's exposure to changes in interest rates relates primarily to the Company's outstanding floating rate debt. While most of the Company's outstanding debt in local currency is on fixed rate basis and hence not subject to interest rate risk, a major portion of foreign currency debt is linked to international interest rate benchmarks like LIBOR. The Company also hedges a portion of these risks by way of derivatives instruments like interest rate swaps and currency swaps.

The Company is well placed to complete transitioning all of its USD LIBOR linked loans to SOFR linked loans by FY24.

(b) Liquidity Risk Management:

The Company manages liquidity risk by maintaining sufficient cash and marketable securities and by having access to funding through adequate committed credit lines. Given the need to fund diverse businesses, the Company maintains flexibility by need based drawing from committed credit lines. Management regularly monitors the position of cash and cash equivalents. The maturity profiles of financial assets and financial liabilities including debt financing plans and liquidity ratios are considered while reviewing the liquidity position.

The Company's investment policy and strategy are focused on preservation of capital and supporting the Company's liquidity requirements. The Company uses a combination of internal and external management to execute its investment strategy and achieve its investment objectives. The Company typically invests in money market funds, large debt funds, Government of India securities, equity funds and other highly-rated securities under a exposure limit framework. The investment policy focuses on minimising the potential risk of principal loss. To provide a meaningful assessment of the price risk associated with the Company's investment portfolio, the Company performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the impact of change in prices of the securities on the value of the investment portfolio assuming a 0.5% movement in the fair market value of debt funds and debt securities and a 5% movement in the NAV of the equity funds as below:

(c) Credit Risk Management:

The Company's customer profile include public sector enterprises, state owned companies and large private corporates. Accordingly, the Company's customer credit risk is low. The Company's average project execution cycle is around 24 to 36 months. General payment terms include mobilisation advance, monthly progress payments with a credit period ranging from 45 to 90 days and certain retention money to be released at the end of the project. In some cases, retentions are substituted with bank/corporate guarantees. The Company has a detailed review mechanism of overdue customer receivables at various levels within the organisation to ensure proper attention and focus for realisation.

(d) Commodity price risk management:

The Company bids for and executes EPC projects on a turnkey basis. EPC projects entail procurement of various equipment and materials which may have direct or indirect linkages to commodity prices like steel (both long and flat steel), copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, nickel, cement etc. Accordingly, the Company is exposed to the price risk on these commodities. To mitigate the risk of commodity prices, the company relies on contractual provisions like pass through of prices, price variation provisions etc., and further uses hedging instruments where available (refer Note 53 (h)(ii)). There is a certain residual risk carried by the Company that cannot be hedged against.

The table given in the Risk Management section of Management Discussion and Analysis lists out the commodity exposure for the year (only for projects that been awarded and are under execution).

(i) During the year, the Company renewed the loan of X 324.61 crore to L&T Sapura Shipping Private Limited (LTSSPL), a subsidiary!11 as the vessel owned by it was under major repairs since its accident in March 2020 and LTSSPL was unable to generate sufficient revenue till the vessel got re-commissioned in October 2022. Thus, during the year, there were delays in repayment of interest by LTSSPL. However, there were no overdue interest as at March 31, 2023.

(ii) L&T Special Steels and Heavy Forgings Private Limited (LTSSHF), a subsidiary111, has not repaid the loan and net interest thereon aggregating to X 1980.27 crore to the Company due to insufficient funds. LTSSHF is in discussion with its promoters viz. the Company and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, for exploring options to restructure its balance sheet.