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Company Information

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ITC LTD.

28 September 2021 | 03:49

Industry >> Cigarettes & Tobacco Products

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ISIN No INE154A01025 52Week High 246 Book Value (Rs.) 47.60 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 11/06/2021 52Week Low 163 EPS 10.68 P/E 22.26
Market Cap. 292915.76 Cr. P/BV 4.99 Div Yield (%) 4.52 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2021-03 

cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013 and Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

Property, Plant and Equipment - Tangible Assets

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. For this purpose, cost includes deemed cost which represents the carrying value of property, plant and equipment recognised as at 1st April, 2015 measured as per the previous Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

Cost is inclusive of inward freight, duties and taxes and incidental expenses related to acquisition. In respect of major projects involving construction, related pre-operational expenses form part of the value of assets capitalised. Expenses capitalised also include applicable borrowing costs for qualifying assets, if any. All upgradation / enhancements are charged off as revenue expenditure unless they bring similar significant additional benefits.

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of property, plant and equipment is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

Depreciation of these assets commences when the assets are ready for their intended use which is generally on commissioning. Items of property, plant and equipment are depreciated in a manner that amortizes the cost (or other amount substituted for cost) of the assets after commissioning, less its residual value, over their useful lives as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013 on a straight line basis. Land is not depreciated.

The estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment

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Statement of Compliance

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013. The financial statements have also been prepared in accordance with the relevant presentation requirements of the Companies Act, 2013. The Company adopted Ind AS from 1st April, 2016.

Basis of Preparation

The financial statements are prepared in accordance with the historical cost convention, except for certain items that are measured at fair values, as explained in the accounting policies.

Fair Value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, regardless of whether that price is directly observable or estimated using another valuation technique. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a liability, the Company takes into account the characteristics of the asset or liability if market participants would take those characteristics into account when pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date. Fair value for measurement and / or disclosure purposes in these financial statements is determined on such a basis, except for share-based payment transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 102 - Share-based Payment, leasing transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 116 - Leases, and measurements that have some similarities to fair value but are not fair value, such as net realisable value in Ind AS 2 - Inventories or value in use in Ind AS 36 - Impairment of Assets.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of the accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the year. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period; they are recognised in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Operating Cycle

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company's normal operating

Buildings

30-60 Years

Leasehold Improvements

Shorter of lease period or estimated useful lives

Plant and Equipment

7-25 Years

Furniture and Fixtures

8-10 Years

Vehicles

8-10 Years

Office Equipment

5 Years

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets or, where shorter, the term of the relevant lease.

Property, plant and equipment's residual values and useful lives are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and changes, if any, are treated as changes in accounting estimate.

Intangible Assets

Intangible Assets that the Company controls and from which it expects future economic benefits are capitalised upon acquisition and measured initially:

a. for assets acquired in a business combination, at fair value on the date of acquisition.

b. for separately acquired assets, at cost comprising the purchase price (including import duties and non-refundable taxes) and directly attributable costs to prepare the asset for its intended use.

Internally generated assets for which the cost is clearly identifiable are capitalised at cost. Research expenditure is recognised as an expense when it is incurred. Development costs are capitalised only after the technical and commercial feasibility of the asset for sale or use has been established. Thereafter, all directly attributable expenditure incurred to prepare the asset for its intended use are recognised as the cost of such assets. Internally generated brands, websites and customer lists are not recognised as intangible assets. The carrying value of intangible assets includes deemed cost which represents the carrying value of intangible assets recognised as at 1st April, 2015 measured as per the previous GAAP

The useful life of an intangible asset is considered finite where the rights to such assets are limited to a specified period of time by contract or law (e.g. patents, licences, trademarks, franchise and servicing rights) or the likelihood of technical, technological obsolescence (e.g. computer software, design, prototypes) or commercial obsolescence (e.g. lesser known brands are those to which adequate marketing support may not be provided). If, there are no such limitations, the useful life is taken to be indefinite. Intangible assets that have finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives by the straight line method unless it is practical to reliably determine the pattern of benefits arising from the asset. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized.

All intangible assets are tested for impairment. Amortization expenses and impairment losses and reversal of impairment losses are taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Thus, after initial recognition, an intangible asset is carried at its cost less accumulated amortization and / or impairment losses.

The useful lives of intangible assets are reviewed annually to determine if a reset of such useful life is required for assets with finite lives and to confirm that business circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for assets so classified. Based on such review, the useful life may change or the useful life assessment may change from indefinite to finite. The impact of such changes is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate.

Investment Property

Properties that are held for long-term rental yields and / or for capital appreciation are classified as investment properties. Investment properties are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and impairment, if any. Depreciation is recognised using the straight line method so as to amortise the cost of investment properties over their useful lives as specified in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. Freehold land and properties under construction are not depreciated.

Transfers to, or from, investment properties are made at the carrying amount when and only when there is a change in use.

An item of investment property is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected to arise from the continued use of asset. Any gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an item of investment property is determined as the difference between the sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the property and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Income received from investment property is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the term of the lease.

Impairment of Assets

Impairment loss, if any, is provided to the extent, the carrying amount of assets or cash generating units exceed their recoverable amount.

Recoverable amount is higher of an asset's net selling price and its value in use. Value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the continuing use of an asset or cash generating unit and from its disposal at the end of its useful life.

Impairment losses recognised in prior years are reversed when there is an indication that the impairment losses recognised no longer exist or have decreased. Such reversals are recognised as an increase in carrying amounts of assets to the extent that it does not exceed the carrying amounts that would have been determined (net of amortization or depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised in previous years.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost is calculated on weighted average method. Cost comprises expenditure incurred in the normal course of business in bringing such inventories to their present location and condition and includes, where applicable, appropriate overheads based on normal level of activity. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price less estimated costs for completion and sale.

Obsolete, slow moving and defective inventories are identified from time to time and, where necessary, a provision is made for such inventories.

Foreign Currency Transactions

The functional and presentation currency of the Company is Indian Rupee.

Transactions in foreign currency are accounted for at the exchange rate prevailing on the transaction date. Gains / losses arising on settlement as also on translation of monetary items are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Exchange differences arising on monetary items that, in substance, form part of the Company's net investment in a foreign operation (having a functional currency other than Indian Rupee) are accumulated in Foreign Currency Translation Reserve.

Derivatives and Hedge Accounting

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gains / losses are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of recognition in profit or loss / inclusion in the initial cost of non-financial asset depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

The Company complies with the principles of hedge accounting where derivative contracts are designated as hedge instruments. At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Company documents the relationship between the hedge instrument and the hedged item, along with the risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking hedge transaction, which can be a fair value hedge or a cash flow hedge.

(i) Fair value hedges

Changes in fair value of the designated portion of derivatives that qualify as fair value hedges are recognised in profit or loss immediately, together with

any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk. The change in the fair value of the designated portion of hedging instrument and the change in fair value of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss in the line item relating to the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. The fair value adjustment to the carrying amount of the hedged item arising from the hedged risk is amortised to profit or loss from that date.

(ii) Cash flow hedges

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in the other comprehensive income and accumulated as 'Cash Flow Hedging Reserve'. The gains / losses relating to the ineffective portion are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Amounts previously recognised and accumulated in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss when the hedged item affects the Statement of Profit and Loss. However, when the hedged item results in the recognition of a non - financial asset, such gains / losses are transferred from equity (but not as reclassification adjustment) and included in the initial measurement cost of the non - financial asset.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or when it no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. Any gains / losses recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity at that time remain in equity and is reclassified when the underlying transaction is ultimately recognised. When an underlying transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gains / losses accumulated in equity are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Investment in Subsidiaries, Associates and Joint Ventures

Investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are carried at cost less accumulated impairment, if any.

Financial instruments, Financial assets, Financial liabilities and Equity Instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the relevant instrument and are initially measured at

fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value on initial recognition of financial assets or financial liabilities. Purchase or sale of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date when the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset.

Financial Assets

Recognition: Financial assets include Investments, Trade Receivables, Advances, Security Deposits, Cash and Cash equivalents. Such assets are initially recognised at transaction price when the Company becomes party to contractual obligations. The transaction price includes transaction costs unless the asset is being fair valued through the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Classification: Management determines the classification of an asset at initial recognition depending on the purpose for which the assets were acquired. The subsequent measurement of financial assets depends on such classification.

Financial assets are classified as those measured at:

(a) amortised cost, where the financial assets are held solely for collection of cash flows arising from payments of principal and / or interest.

(b) fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI), where the financial assets are held not only for collection of cash flows arising from payments of principal and interest but also from the sale of such assets. Such assets are subsequently measured at fair value, with unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value being recognised in other comprehensive income.

(c) fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), where the assets are managed in accordance with an approved investment strategy that triggers purchase and sale decisions based on the fair value of such assets. Such assets are subsequently measured at fair value, with unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value being recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

Trade Receivables, Advances, Security Deposits, Cash and Cash equivalents etc. are classified for measurement at amortised cost while investments may fall under any of

the aforesaid classes. However, in respect of particular investments in equity instruments that would otherwise be measured at fair value through profit or loss, an irrevocable election at initial recognition may be made to present subsequent changes in fair value through other comprehensive income.

Impairment: The Company assesses at each reporting date whether a financial asset (or a group of financial assets) such as investments, trade receivables, advances and security deposits held at amortised cost and financial assets that are measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are tested for impairment based on evidence or information that is available without undue cost or effort. Expected credit losses are assessed and loss allowances recognised if the credit quality of the financial asset has deteriorated significantly since initial recognition. Reclassification: When and only when the business model is changed, the Company shall reclassify all affected financial assets prospectively from the reclassification date as subsequently measured at amortised cost, fair value through other comprehensive income or fair value through profit or loss without restating the previously recognised gains, losses or interest and in terms of the reclassification principles laid down in the Ind AS relating to Financial Instruments.

Derecognition: Financial assets are derecognised when the right to receive cash flows from the assets has expired, or has been transferred, and the Company has transferred substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership. Concomitantly, if the asset is one that is measured at:

(a) amortised cost, the gain or loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss;

(b) fair value through other comprehensive income, the cumulative fair value adjustments previously taken to reserves are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss unless the asset represents an equity investment, in which case the cumulative fair value adjustments previously taken to reserves are reclassified within equity.

Income Recognition: Interest income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the right to receive dividend is established.

Financial Liabilities

Borrowings, trade payables and other financial liabilities are initially recognised at the value of the respective contractual

obligations. They are subsequently measured at amortised cost. Any discount or premium on redemption / settlement is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as finance cost over the life of the liability using the effective interest method and adjusted to the liability figure disclosed in the Balance Sheet.

Financial liabilities are derecognised when the liability is extinguished, that is, when the contractual obligation is discharged, cancelled or on expiry.

Offsetting Financial Instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is included in the Balance Sheet where there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Equity Instruments

Equity instruments are recognised at the value of the proceeds, net of direct costs of the capital issue.

Revenue

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable for goods supplied and services rendered, net of returns and discounts to customers. Revenue from the sale of goods is shown to include Excise Duties and National Calamity Contingent Duty which are payable on manufacture of goods but excludes taxes such as VAT and Goods and Services Tax which are payable in respect of sale of goods and services.

Revenue from the sale of goods and services is recognised when the Company performs its obligations to its customers and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably and recovery of the consideration is probable. The timing of such recognition in case of sale of goods is when the control over the same is transferred to the customer, which is mainly upon delivery and in case of services, in the period in which such services are rendered.

Government Grant

The Company may receive government grants that require compliance with certain conditions related to the Company's operating activities or are provided to the Company by way of financial assistance on the basis of certain qualifying criteria.

Government grants are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the grant will be received upon the Company complying with the conditions attached to the grant. Accordingly, government grants:

(a) related to or used for assets, are deducted from the carrying amount of the asset.

(b) related to incurring specific expenditures are taken to the Statement of Profit and Loss on the same basis and in the same periods as the expenditures incurred.

(c) by way of financial assistance on the basis of certain qualifying criteria are recognised as they become receivable.

In the unlikely event that a grant previously recognised is ultimately not received, it is treated as a change in estimate and the amount cumulatively recognised is expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Dividend Distribution

Dividends paid (including income tax thereon) are recognised in the period in which the interim dividends are approved by the Board of Directors, or in respect of the final dividend when approved by shareholders.

Employee Benefits

The Company makes contributions to both defined benefit and defined contribution schemes which are mainly administered through duly constituted and approved Trusts.

Provident Fund contributions are in the nature of defined contribution scheme. In respect of employees who are members of constituted and approved trusts, the Company recognises contribution payable to such trusts as an expense including any shortfall in interest between the amount of interest realised by the investment and the interest payable to members at the rate declared by the Government of India. In respect of other employees, provident funds are deposited with the Government and recognised as expense.

The Company makes contribution to defined contribution pension plan. The contribution payable is recognised as an expense, when an employee renders the related service. The Company also makes contribution to defined benefit pension and gratuity plan. The cost of providing benefits under the defined benefit obligation is calculated by independent actuary using the projected unit credit method. Service costs and net interest expense or income is reflected in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Gain or Loss on account of remeasurements are recognised immediately through other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur.

The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated leave for which the Company records the liability based on actuarial valuation computed using projected unit credit method. These benefits are unfunded.

For cash settled SAR units granted to eligible employees, a liability is initially measured at fair value at the grant date and is subsequently remeasured at each reporting period, until settled. The fair value of ESAR units granted is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for employees of the Company. In case of employees on deputation to group companies, the Company generally seeks reimbursements from the concerned group company. The value of such payments, net of reimbursements, is considered as capital contribution / investment.

Leases

The Company assesses at contract inception whether a contract is, or contains, a lease. A contract is, or contains, a lease if it conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

Company as a Lessee

Right-of-Use (ROU) assets are recognised at inception of a contract or arrangement for significant lease components at cost less lease incentives, if any. ROU assets are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, if any. The cost of ROU assets includes the amount of lease liabilities recognised, initial direct cost incurred and lease payments made at or before the lease commencement date. ROU assets are generally depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and estimated useful lives of the underlying assets on a straight line basis. Lease term is determined based on consideration of facts and circumstances that create an economic incentive to exercise an extension option, or not to exercise a termination option. Lease payments associated with short-term leases and low value leases are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

The Company recognises lease liabilities measured at the present value of lease payments to be made on the date of recognition of the lease. Such lease liabilities do not include variable lease payments (that do not depend on an index or a rate), which are recognised as expense in the periods in which they are incurred. Interest on lease liability is recognised using the effective interest method. Lease liabilities are subsequently increased to reflect the accretion of interest and reduced for the lease payments made. The carrying amount of lease liabilities is also remeasured upon modification of lease arrangement or upon change in the assessment of the lease term. The effect of such remeasurements is adjusted to the value of the ROU assets.

Actual disbursements made under the Workers' Voluntary Retirement Scheme are accounted as revenue expenses.

Employee Share Based Compensation

Stock Options

Stock Options are granted to eligible employees under the ITC Employee Stock Option Schemes (“ITC ESOS”), as may be decided by the Nomination & Compensation Committee / Board. Eligible employees for this purpose include employees of the Company including Directors and those on deputation and employees of the Company's subsidiary companies including Managing Director /Wholetime Director of a subsidiary.

Under Ind AS, the cost of ITC Stock Options (Stock Options) is recognised based on the fair value of Stock Options as on the grant date.

While the fair value of Stock Options granted is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss for employees of the Company (other than those out on deputation), the value of Stock Options, net of reimbursements, granted to employees on deputation and to employees of the wholly owned and other subsidiary companies is considered as capital contribution / investment.

The Company generally seeks reimbursement of the value of Stock Options from such companies, as applicable. It may, if so recommended by the Corporate Management Committee and approved by the Audit Committee, decide not to seek such reimbursements from:

(a) Wholly owned subsidiaries who need to conserve financial capacity to sustain their business and growth plans and to address contingencies that may arise, taking into account the economic and market conditions then prevailing and opportunities and threats in the competitive context.

(b) Other companies not covered under (a) above, who need to conserve financial capacity to sustain their business and growth plans and where the quantum of reimbursement is not material - the materiality threshold being ' 5 Crores for each entity for a financial year.

Cash Settled Stock Appreciation Linked Reward (SAR) Plan

Cash Settled SAR units are granted to eligible employees under the ITC Employee Cash Settled Stock Appreciation Linked Reward Plan (“ITC ESARP”). The eligible employees for this purpose are such present and future permanent employees of the Company, including a Director of the Company, as may be decided by the CMC / Nomination & Compensation Committee / Board.

Company as a Lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset are classified as operating leases. Where the Company is a lessor under an operating lease, the asset is capitalised within property, plant and equipment or investment property and depreciated over its useful economic life. Payments received under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the term of the lease.

Taxes on Income

Taxes on income comprise current taxes and deferred taxes. Current tax in the Statement of Profit and Loss is provided as the amount of tax payable in respect of taxable income for the period using tax rates and tax laws enacted during the period, together with any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and the amounts used for taxation purposes (tax base), at the tax rates and tax laws enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax assets are recognised for the future tax consequences to the extent it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilised.

Income tax, insofar as it relates to items disclosed under other comprehensive income or equity, is disclosed separately under other comprehensive income or equity, as applicable.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets and liabilities and when the deferred tax balances relate to the same taxation authority. Current tax assets and tax liabilities are offset where the entity has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends either to settle on net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Claims

Claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts are disclosed after a careful evaluation of the facts and legal aspects of the matter involved.

Provisions

Provisions are recognised when, as a result of a past event, the Company has a legal or constructive obligation; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation; and the amount can be reliably estimated. The amount so recognised is a best estimate of the consideration required to settle the obligation at the reporting date, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation.

In an event when the time value of money is material, the provision is carried at the present value of the cash flows estimated to settle the obligation.

Operating Segments

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker (CODM). The CODM, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Corporate Management Committee.

Segments are organised based on businesses which have similar economic characteristics as well as exhibit similarities in nature of products and services offered, the nature of production processes, the type and class of customer and distribution methods.

Segment revenue arising from third party customers is reported on the same basis as revenue in the financial statements. Inter-segment revenue is reported on the basis of transactions which are primarily market led. Segment results represent profits before finance charges, unallocated corporate expenses and taxes.

“Unallocated Corporate Expenses” include revenue and expenses that relate to initiatives / costs attributable to the enterprise as a whole.

Financial and Management Information Systems

The Company's Accounting System is designed to unify the Financial and Cost Records and also to comply with the relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, to provide financial and cost information appropriate to the businesses and facilitate Internal Control.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the results of operations during the reporting period end. Although these estimates are based upon management's best knowledge of current events and actions, actual results could differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

A. Judgements in applying accounting policies

The judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see note B below), that the Company has made in the process of applying its accounting policies and that have a significant effect on the amounts recognised in these financial statements pertain to useful life of intangible assets. The Company is required to determine whether its intangible assets have indefinite or finite life which is a subject matter of judgement. Certain trademarks have been considered of having an indefinite useful life taking into account that there are no technical, technological or commercial risks of obsolescence or limitations under contract or law. Other trademarks have been amortised over their useful economic life. Refer notes to the financial statements.

B. Key sources of estimation uncertainty

The following are the key assumptions concerning the future, and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that may have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year.

1. Useful lives of property, plant and equipment, investment property and intangible assets:

As described in the significant accounting policies, the Company reviews the estimated useful lives of property, plant and equipment, investment property and intangible assets at the end of each reporting period.

2. Fair value measurements and valuation processes:

Some of the Company's assets and liabilities are measured at fair value for financial reporting purposes. In estimating the fair value of an asset or a

liability, the Company uses market-observable data to the extent it is available. Where Level 1 inputs are not available, the Company engages third party valuers, where required, to perform the valuation. Information about the valuation techniques and inputs used in determining the fair value of various assets, liabilities and share based payments are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

3. Actuarial Valuation:

The determination of Company's liability towards defined benefit obligation to employees is made through independent actuarial valuation including determination of amounts to be recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss and in other comprehensive income. Such valuation depends upon assumptions determined after taking into account inflation, seniority, promotion and other relevant factors such as supply and demand factors in the employment market. Information about such valuation is provided in notes to the financial statements.

4. Claims, Provisions and Contingent Liabilities:

The Company has ongoing litigations with various regulatory authorities and third parties. Where an outflow of funds is believed to be probable and a reliable estimate of the outcome of the dispute can be made based on management's assessment of specific circumstances of each dispute and relevant external advice, management provides for its best estimate of the liability. Such accruals are by nature complex and can take number of years to resolve and can involve estimation uncertainty. Information about such litigations is provided in notes to the financial statements.

5. COVID -19:

The Company has considered the possible effects that may arise out of the still unfolding COVID -19 pandemic on the carrying amounts of property, plant & equipment, intangible assets, investments, inventories, trade receivables, etc. For this purpose, the Company has considered internal and external sources of information up to the date of approval of these financial statements, including credit reports and related information, economic forecasts, market value of certain investments etc. Based on the current estimates, the Company does not expect any significant impact on such carrying values. The impact of COVID -19 on the Company's financial statements may differ from that estimated as at the date of approval of these financial statements.