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Company Information

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20 April 2021 | 12:00

Industry >> Auto - LCVs/HCVs

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ISIN No INE155A01022 52Week High 357 Book Value (Rs.) 187.20 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 09/08/2016 52Week Low 73 EPS 0.00 P/E 0.00
Market Cap. 98961.77 Cr. P/BV 1.59 Div Yield (%) 0.00 Market Lot 1.00


You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

1. Background and operations

Tata Motors Limited referred to as ("the Company" or "Tata Motors"), designs, manufactures and sells a wide range of automotive vehicles. The Company also manufactures engines for industrial and marine applications.

The Company is a public limited Company incorporated and domiciled in India and has its registered office at Mumbai, India. As at March 31, 2019, Tata Sons Private Limited, together with its subsidiaries owns 38.52% of the Ordinary shares and 0.09% of 'A' Ordinary shares of the Company, and has the ability to significantly influence the Company's operations.

These standalone financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors and authorized for issue on May 20, 2019.

2. Significant accounting policies

a. Basis of preparation

These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Ind AS as notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 read with Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the "Act"). The financial statements have been prepared on historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period as explained in the accounting policies below.

Joint operations

Certain of the Company's activities, are conducted through joint operations, which are joint arrangements whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. As per Ind AS 111 - Joint arrangements, in its separate financial statements, the Company being a joint operator has recognized its share of the assets, liabilities, income and expenses of these joint operations incurred jointly with the other partners, along with its share of income from the sale of the output and any assets, liabilities and expenses that it has incurred in relation to the joint operation.

Although not required by Ind ASs, the Company has provided in note 48 additional information of Tata Motors Limited on a standalone basis excluding its interest in its two Joint Operations viz. Tata Cummins Private Limited and Fiat India Automobiles Private Limited.

b. Use of estimates and judgments

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions, that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of these financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the years presented. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed at each balance sheet date. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognized in the financial statements are included in the following notes:

i) Note 3 and Note 5 - Property, plant and equipment and Intangible assets- useful life and impairment

ii) Note 29 - Recoverability / recognition of deferred tax assets

iii) Note 27 and 28 - Provision for product warranty

iv) Note 47- Assets and obligations relating to employee benefits

c. Revenue recognition

The Company generates revenue principally from-

i) Sale of products- commercial and passenger vehicles and spare parts

The Company recognizes revenues on the sale of products, net of discounts, sales incentives, customer bonuses and rebates granted, when products are delivered to dealers or when delivered to a carrier for export sales, which is when control including risks and rewards and title of ownership pass to the customer.

The consideration received in respect of transport arrangements for delivering of vehicles to the customers are recognized net of their costs within revenues in the income statement. Revenues are recognized when collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured.

ii) Sale of services- maintenance service and extended warranties for commercial and passenger vehicles

Income from sale of maintenance and extended warranties are recognized as income over the relevant period of service or extended warranty.

When the Company sells products that are bundled with maintenance service or extended period of warranty, such services are treated as a separate performance obligation only if the service or warranty is optional to the customer or includes an additional service component. In such cases, the transaction price allocated towards such maintenance service or extended period of warranty is recognized as a contract liability until the service obligation has been met.

The Company operates certain customer loyalty programs under which customer is entitled to reward points on the spend towards Company's products. The reward points earned by customers can be redeemed to claim discounts on future purchase of certain products or services. Transaction price allocated towards reward points granted to customers is recognized as a deferred income liability and transferred to income when customers redeem their reward points.

Sale of services include certain performance obligations that are satisfied over a period of time. Any amount received in advance in respect of such performance obligations that are satisfied over a period of time is recorded as contract liability and recorded as revenue when service is rendered to customers.

Refund liabilities comprise of obligation towards customers to pay for discounts and sales incentives.

d. Government Grants and Incentives

Other income includes export and other recurring and non-recurring incentives from Government (referred as "incentives").

Incentives are recognized when there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the relevant conditions and the incentive will be received. Incentives are recorded at fair value where applicable.

Incentives are recognized in the statement of profit and loss, either on a systematic basis when the company recognizes, as expenses, the related costs that the incentives are intended to compensate or, immediately if the costs have already been incurred. Incentives related to assets are shown as government grants and amortized over the useful life of the asset. Incentives related to income are presented as an offset against the related expenditure, and government grants that are awarded as incentives with no ongoing performance obligations to the Company are recognized as income in the period in which the grant is received.

e. Cost recognition

Costs and expenses are recognized when incurred and are classified according to their nature.

Expenditure capitalized represents employee costs, stores and other manufacturing supplies, and other expenses incurred for construction including product development undertaken by the Company.

f. Provisions

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

Product warranty expenses

The estimated liability for product warranties is recorded when products are sold. These estimates are established using historical information on the nature, frequency and average cost of warranty claims and management estimates regarding possible future incidences based on actions on product failures. The timing of outflows will vary as and when warranty claim will arise, being typically up to six years.

The Company also has back-to-back contractual arrangement with its suppliers in the event that a vehicle fault is proven to be a supplier's fault. Estimates are made of the expected reimbursement claim based upon historical levels of recoveries from supplier, adjusted for inflation and applied to the population of vehicles under warranty as on Balance Sheet date.

Supplier reimbursements are recognized as separate asset.

g. Foreign currency

These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees, which is the functional currency of Tata Motors Limited.

Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of transaction. Foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are re-measured into the functional currency at the exchange rate prevailing on the balance sheet date.

Exchange differences arising on settlement of transactions and translation of monetary items are recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent, exchange differences which are regarded as an adjustment to interest costs on foreign currency borrowings, are capitalized as part of borrowing costs.

h. Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises of current tax and deferred tax. Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss except when they relate to items that are recognized outside profit and loss (whether in other comprehensive income or directly in equity), in which case tax is also recognized outside profit and loss.

Current income taxes are determined based on respective taxable income of each taxable entity and tax rules applicable in respective tax jurisdictions.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases, and unutilized business loss and depreciation carry-forwards and tax credits. Such deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed separately for each taxable entity. Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, unused tax losses, depreciation carry-forwards and unused tax credits could be utilized.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured based on the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the asset is realized or the liability is settled, based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Current and deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Company intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

i. Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents are short-term (three months or less from the date of acquisition), highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

j. Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share has been computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. Partly paid up shares are included as fully paid equivalents according to the fraction paid up. Diluted earnings per share has been computed using the weighted average number of shares and dilutive potential shares, except where the result would be anti-dilutive.

k. Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost of raw materials, components and consumables are ascertained on a moving weighted average basis. Cost, including fixed and variable production overheads, are allocated to work-in-progress and finished goods determined on a full absorption cost basis. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost of completion and selling expenses.

l. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation less accumulated impairment, if any.

Freehold land is measured at cost and is not depreciated.

Cost includes purchase price, taxes and duties, labour cost and direct overheads for self-constructed assets and other direct costs incurred up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use.

Interest cost incurred for constructed assets is capitalized up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use, based on borrowings incurred specifically for financing the asset or the weighted average rate of all other borrowings, if no specific borrowings have been incurred for the asset.

The useful lives is reviewed at least at each year end. Changes in expected useful lives are treated as change in accounting estimates.

Assets held under finance leases are depreciated over their expected useful lives on the same basis as owned assets or, where shorter, the term of the relevant lease.

Depreciation is not recorded on capital work-in-progress until construction and installation are complete and the asset is ready for its intended use.

m. Other intangible assets

Intangible assets purchased are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment, if any.

The amortization period for intangible assets with finite useful lives is reviewed at least at each year-end. Changes in expected useful lives are treated as changes in accounting estimates.

Internally generated intangible asset

Research costs are charged to the statement of Profit and Loss in the year in which they are incurred.

Product development costs incurred on new vehicle platform, engines, transmission and new products are recognized as intangible assets, when feasibility has been established, the Company has committed technical, financial and other resources to complete the development and it is probable that asset will generate future economic benefits.

The costs capitalized include the cost of materials, direct labour and directly attributable overhead expenditure incurred up to the date the asset is available for use.

Interest cost incurred is capitalized up to the date the asset is ready for its intended use, based on borrowings incurred specifically for financing the asset or the weighted average rate of all other borrowings if no specific borrowings have been incurred for the asset.

Product development cost is amortized on a straight line basis over a period of 24 months to 120 months.

Product development expenditure is measured at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment, if any.

n. Goodwill

Cash generating units to which goodwill is allocated are tested for impairment annually at each balance sheet date, or more frequently when there is an indication that the unit may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the cash generating unit is less than the carrying amount of the unit, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to that unit and then to the other assets of the unit pro rata on the basis of carrying amount of each asset in the unit. Goodwill impairment loss recognized is not reversed in subsequent period.

o. Leases

At the inception of a lease, the lease arrangement is classified as either a finance lease or an operating lease, based on the substance of the lease arrangement.

Assets taken on finance lease

A finance lease is recognized as an asset and a liability at the commencement of the lease, at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Initial direct costs, if any, are also capitalized and, subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset. Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expense and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expense is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Assets taken on operating lease

Leases other than finance leases are operating leases, and the leased assets are not recognized on the Company's balance sheet. Payments made under operating leases are recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

Assets given on finance lease

All assets given on finance lease are shown as receivables at an amount equal to net investment in the lease. Initial direct costs in respect of lease are expensed in the period in which such costs are incurred. Income from lease assets is accounted by applying the interest rate implicit in the lease to the net investment.

p. Impairment

At each balance sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that any property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with finite lives may be impaired. If any such impairment exists the recoverable amount of an asset is estimated to determine the extent of impairment, if any. Where it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

Intangible assets not yet available for use, are tested for impairment annually at each balance sheet date, or earlier, if there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (or cash-generating unit) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (or cash-generating unit) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognized immediately in the statement of Profit and Loss.

q. Employee benefits

i) Gratuity

Tata Motors Limited and its Joint operations have an obligation towards gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan covering eligible employees. The plan provides for a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death while in employment or on termination of employment of an amount equivalent to 15 to 30 days salary payable for each completed year of service. Vesting occurs upon completion of five years of service. Tata Motors Limited makes annual contributions to gratuity funds established as trusts. Tata Motors Limited account for the liability for gratuity benefits payable in the future based on an actuarial valuation.

ii) Superannuation

Tata Motors Limited have two superannuation plans, a defined benefit plan and a defined contribution plan. An eligible employee on April 1, 1996 could elect to be a member of either plan.

Employees who are members of the defined benefit superannuation plan are entitled to benefits depending on the years of service and salary drawn. The monthly pension benefits after retirement range from 0.75% to 2% of the annual basic salary for each year of service. Tata Motors Limited account for superannuation benefits payable in future under the plan based on an actuarial valuation.

With effect from April 1, 2003, this plan was amended and benefits earned by covered employees have been protected as at March 31, 2003. Employees covered by this plan are prospectively entitled to benefits computed on a basis that ensures that the annual cost of providing the pension benefits would not exceed 15% of salary.

During the year ended March 31, 2015, the employees covered by this plan were given a one-time option to exit from the plan prospectively. Furthermore, the employees who opted for exit were given one- time option to withdraw accumulated balances from the superannuation plan.

The Company maintains a separate irrevocable trust for employees covered and entitled to benefits. The Company contributes up to 15% or Rs,1,50,000 whichever is lower of the eligible employee's salary to the trust every year. The Company recognizes such contribution as an expense when incurred and has no further obligation beyond this contribution.

iii) Bhavishya kalyan yojana (BKY)

Bhavishya Kalyan Yojana is an unfunded defined benefit plan for employees of Tata Motors Limited. The benefits of the plan include pension in certain cases, payable up to the date of normal superannuation had the employee been in service, to an eligible employee at the time of death or permanent disablement, while in service, either as a result of an injury or as certified by the appropriate authority. The monthly payment to dependents of the deceased/disabled employee under the plan equals 50% of the salary drawn at the time of death or accident or a specified amount, whichever is greater. Tata Motors Limited account for the liability for BKY benefits payable in the future based on an actuarial valuation.

iv) Provident fund and family pension

In accordance with Indian law, eligible employees of Tata Motors Limited and its Joint operations are entitled to receive benefits in respect of provident fund, a defined contribution plan, in which both employees and the Company make monthly contributions at a specified percentage of the covered employees' salary (currently 12% of employees' salary). The contributions, as specified under the law, are made to the provident fund and pension fund set up as an irrevocable trust by Tata Motors Limited for its employees. The interest rate payable to the members of the trust shall not be lower than the statutory rate of interest declared by the Central Government under the Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and shortfall, if any, shall be made good by the Company. The liability in respect of the shortfall of interest earnings of the Fund is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation. The liability towards interest is a defined benefit. There is no shortfall as at March 31, 2019.

v) Post-retirement Medicare scheme

Under this unfunded scheme, employees of Tata Motors Limited receive medical benefits subject to certain limits on amounts of benefits, periods after retirement and types of benefits, depending on their grade and location at the time of retirement. Employees separated from the Company as part of an Early Separation Scheme, on medical grounds or due to permanent disablement are also covered under the scheme. Tata Motors Limited account for the liability for post-retirement medical scheme based on an actuarial valuation.

vi) Compensated absences

The Company provides for the encashment of leave or leave with pay subject to certain rules. The employees are entitled to accumulate leave subject to certain limits, for future encashment. The liability is provided based on the number of days of unutilized leave at each balance sheet date on the basis of an independent actuarial valuation.

vii) Remeasurement gains and losses

Remeasurement comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling and the return on assets (excluding interest) relating to retirement benefit plans, are recognized directly in other comprehensive income in the period in which they arise. Remeasurement recorded in other comprehensive income is not reclassified to statement of Profit and Loss.

Actuarial gains and losses relating to long-term employee benefits are recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they arise.

viii) Measurement date

The measurement date of retirement plans is March 31.

ix) The present value of the defined benefit liability and the related current service cost and past service cost are measured using projected unit credit method.

r. Share based payments

The Company recognises compensation expense relating to share based payments in accordance with Ind AS 102 Share-based Payment. Stock options granted by the Company to its employees are accounted as equity settled options. Accordingly, the estimated fair value of options granted that is determined on the date of grant, is charged to statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the vesting period of options which is the requisite service period, with a corresponding increase in equity.

s. Dividends

Any dividend declared by Tata Motors Limited for any financial year is based on the profits available for distribution as reported in the standalone statutory financial statements of Tata Motors Limited (without joint operations) prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in India, or Ind AS. Indian law mandates that dividend be declared out of distributable profits, after setting off un-provided losses and depreciation of previous years. In case of inadequacy or absence of profits in a particular year, a Company may pay dividend out of accumulated profits of previous years transferred to retained earnings, however in the absence of accumulated profits, Company may declare dividend out of free reserve subject to certain conditions. Accordingly, in certain years the net income reported in the financial statements may not be fully distributable. The amount available for distribution is 'Nil as at March 31, 2019 ('Nil as at March 31, 2018).

t. Segments

The Company primarily operates in the automotive segment. The automotive segment comprises two reportable segments i.e commercial vehicles and passenger vehicles.

u. Investments in subsidiaries, Joint Ventures and Associates

Investments in subsidiaries, Joint Ventures and Associates are measured at cost as per Ind AS 27 - Separate Financial Statements.

v. Financial instruments

i) Classification, initial recognition and measurement

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity. Financial assets other than equity instruments are classified into categories: financial assets at fair value through profit and loss and at amortized cost. Financial assets that are equity instruments are classified as fair value through profit and loss or fair value through other comprehensive income. Financial liabilities are classified into financial liabilities at fair value through profit and loss and other financial liabilities.

Financial instruments are recognized on the balance sheet when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Initially, a financial instrument is recognized at its fair value. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial instruments are recognized in determining the carrying amount, if it is not classified as at fair value through profit and loss. Subsequently, financial instruments are measured according to the category in which they are classified.

Financial assets at amortized cost: Financial assets having contractual terms that give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding and that are held within a business model whose objective is to hold such assets in order to collect such contractual cash flows are classified in this category. Subsequently, these are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method less any impairment losses.

Equity investments at fair value through other comprehensive income: These include financial assets that are equity instruments and are designated as such upon initial recognition irrevocably. Subsequently, these are measured at fair value and changes therein are recognized directly in other comprehensive income, net of applicable income taxes.

Dividends from these equity investments are recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss when the right to receive payment has been established.

When the equity investment is derecognized, the cumulative gain or loss in equity is transferred to retained earnings.

Financial assets at fair value through profit and

loss: Financial assets are measured at fair value through profit and loss unless it is measured at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income on initial recognition. The transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit and loss are immediately recognized in profit and loss.

Equity instruments: An equity instrument is any contract that evidences residual interests in the assets of the Company after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit and

loss: Derivatives, including embedded derivatives separated from the host contract, unless they are designated as hedging instruments, for which hedge accounting is applied, are classified into this category. These are measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of Profit and Loss.

Financial guarantee contracts: These are initially measured at their fair values and, are subsequently measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined or the amount initially recognized less, the cumulative amount of income recognized.

Other financial liabilities: These are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

ii) Determination of fair value:

The fair value of a financial instrument on initial recognition is normally the transaction price (fair value of the consideration given or received). Subsequent to initial recognition, the Company determines the fair value of financial instruments that are quoted in active markets using the quoted bid prices (financial assets held) or quoted ask prices (financial liabilities held) and using valuation techniques for other instruments. Valuation techniques include discounted cash flow method and other valuation models.

iii) Derecognition of financial assets and financial liabilities:

The Company derecognises a financial asset only when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the asset expires or it transfers the financial asset and substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset to another entity. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognizes its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for amounts it may have to pay. If the Company retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of a transferred financial asset, the Company continues to recognize the financial asset and also recognizes a collateralized borrowing for the proceeds received.

Financial liabilities are decrecognized when these are extinguished, that is when the obligation is discharged, cancelled or has expired.

iv) Impairment of financial assets:

The Company recognizes a loss allowance for expected credit losses on a financial asset that is at amortized cost. Loss allowance in respect of financial assets is measured at an amount equal to life time expected credit losses and is calculated as the difference between their carrying amount and the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the original effective interest rate.

w. Hedge accounting:

The Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge its risks associated with foreign currency fluctuations relating to highly probable forecast transactions. The Company designates these forward contracts in a cash flow hedging relationship by applying the hedge accounting principles.

These forward contracts are stated at fair value at each reporting date. Changes in the fair value of these forward contracts that are designated and effective as hedges of future cash flows are recognized in other comprehensive income and the ineffective portion is recognized immediately in the statement of Profit and Loss. Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to the statement of Profit and Loss in the periods in which the forecasted transactions occurs.

Forward premium in forward contract are not considered part of the hedge. These are treated as cost of hedge and the changes in fair value attributable to forward premium is recognized in the other comprehensive income along with the changes in fair value determined to be effective portion of the hedge.

Hedge accounting is discontinued when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated, or exercised, or no longer qualifies for hedge accounting. For forecast transactions, any cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in equity is retained there until the forecast transaction occurs.

If the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the net cumulative gain or loss recognized in equity is immediately transferred to the statement of Profit and Loss for the year.

x. Recent accounting pronouncements

i) New accounting pronouncements adopted by the Company during the current financial year

Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers

The standard outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersede most revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance applicable for previous periods. The core principle of the new standard is for companies to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the consideration (that is, payment) to which the Company expects to be entitled to exchange for those goods or services. The new standard also requires entities to give enhanced disclosures about revenue and provide guidance for transactions that were not previously addressed comprehensively (for example, service revenue and contract modifications) and improve guidance for multiple-element arrangements. The Company adopted Ind AS 115 effective from April 1, 2018, with a modified retrospective approach. The figures for the comparative periods are not restated. There is no significant impact on Company's profit after tax as a result of adoption of Ind AS 115.

Adoption of the standard has given rise to new financial statement categories in the statement of financial position, being "contract assets" and "contract liabilities." These items arise through advance payment received from customers or advance delivery of goods and services in excess of or ahead of billing at the contract level. In addition, disclosure requirements are extended.

Ind AS 21 - The Effect of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates

The amendment effective April 1, 2018, clarifies on the accounting of transaction that include the receipt or payment of advance consideration in a foreign currency. The appendix explains that the date of the transaction, for the purpose of determining rate, is the date of initial recognition of the non-monetary prepayment asset or deferred income liability. If there are multiple payments or receipts in advance, a date of transaction is established for each payment or receipt. There is no impact in the standalone financial statements on adoption of this amendment.

ii) New accounting standards not yet adopted by the Company

i) New accounting standard- Ind AS 116 - Leases

In March 2019, MCA issued Ind AS 116 - Leases which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract and replaces the previous standard on leasing, Ind AS 17 -Leases. Ind AS 116, which is not applicable to service contracts, but only applicable to leases or lease components of a contract, defines a lease as a contract that conveys to the customer (lessee) the right to use an asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Ind AS 116 eliminates the classification of leases for the lessee as either operating leases or finance leases as required by Ind AS 17 and instead, introduces a single lessee accounting model whereby a lessee is required to recognize assets and liabilities for all leases with a term that is greater than 12 months, unless the underlying asset is of low value, and to recognize depreciation of leased assets separately from interest on lease liabilities in the statement of Profit and Loss. As Ind AS 116 substantially carries forward the lessor accounting requirements in Ind AS 17, a lessor will continue to classify its leases as operating leases or finance leases and to account for those two types of leases differently.

The Company will be adopting Ind AS 116 with a modified retrospective approach with effect from April 1, 2019. The cumulative effect of initially applying this Standard will be recorded as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. Figures for comparative periods will not be restated.

The Company will use the exemption option available for existing leases and apply the available exemptions regarding the recognition of short term leases and low value leasing assets. Basis assessment, the Company arrangements under operating leases, which are currently off Balance sheet, will be recorded as right to use assets and the future obligations in respect of such leases will be recorded as a liability in the Balance sheet as at April 1, 2019.

The Company will use following practical expedients of Ind AS 116 at the date of initial application:

1) With leases previously classified as operating leases according to Ind AS 17, the lease liability will be measured at the present value of the outstanding lease payments, discounted by the incremental borrowing rate at April 1, 2019. The respective right-of-use asset is generally recognized at an amount equal to the lease liability;

2) An impairment review is not performed for right of use assets. Instead, right-of-use asset is adjusted by the amount of any provision for onerous leases recognized in the Balance sheet;

3) Regardless of their original lease term, leases for which the lease term ends latest on March 31,

2020, are recognized as short-term leases;

4) At the date of initial application, the measurement of a right-to-use asset excludes the initial direct costs; and

5) Hindsight is considered when determining the lease term if the contract contains options to extend or terminate the leases.

ii) Following amendments to certain standards will be effective from financial year beginning April 1,2019.

1) Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments

Prepayment of loans

The amendments notified in Ind AS 109 pertain to classification of a financial instrument with prepayment feature with negative compensation. Negative compensation arises where the terms of the contract of the financial instrument permit the holder to make repayment or permit the lender or issuer to put the instrument to the borrower for repayment before the maturity at an amount less than the unpaid amounts of principal and interest. Earlier, there was no guidance on classification of such instruments.

According to the amendments, these type of instruments can be classified as measured at amortized cost, or measured at fair value through profit and loss, or fair value through other

comprehensive income by the lender or issuer if the respective conditions specified under Ind AS 109 are satisfied. Similarly, the holder may classify them either measured at fair value through profit and loss or measured at amortized cost in accordance with conditions of Ind AS 109.

2) Ind AS 12, Income Taxes

(a) Deferred taxes on Dividends

An entity is required to create a corresponding liability for payment of Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) when it recognizes a liability to pay a dividend. The liability for DDT shall be recorded in statement of Profit and Loss, other comprehensive income or equity, as the case may be. Currently, the Company is recognizing dividend distribution tax on dividends paid to shareholders in the statement of changes in equity. As per the amendment, the Company will recognize dividend distribution tax on dividend distributed to shareholders as income tax expense in its statement of Profit and Loss.

(b) Uncertain tax treatment

Another amendment relates to tax consequence of an item whose tax treatment is uncertain. Tax treatment of an item is considered as uncertain when there is uncertainty whether the relevant taxation authority will accept the tax treatment of that item or not. For example, if an entity has not included a particular income in taxable profit, it will be considered as uncertain tax treatment if its acceptability by taxation authority is uncertain. The amendment has been brought by introducing a new Appendix C to Ind AS 12.

If there is uncertainty over tax treatment of an item:

(i) An entity should determine an approach or method that predicts the resolution of the uncertainty. Based on the approach, the entity shall determine whether to consider each uncertain tax treatment separately or together with one or more other uncertain tax treatments.

(ii) It shall assess whether it is probable that the taxation authority will accept the uncertain tax treatment, assuming that the authority has full right to examine the treatment and has full knowledge of all related information.

(iii) If it is probable that the taxation authority will accept the tax treatment, there will be no impact on the amount of taxable profits/losses, tax bases, unused tax losses/credits and tax rates. In vice-versa case, the entity shall show the effect of the uncertainty for each uncertain tax treatment on amount of related aforesaid items by using either the most likely outcome or the expected outcome of the uncertainty.

3) Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits

When a change to a plan by way of either an amendment, curtailment or settlement takes place, Ind AS 19 requires a company to premeasured its net defined benefit liability or asset.

The amendments to Ind AS 19 require a company to use the updated assumptions from this remeasurement to determine current service cost and net interest for the remainder of the reporting period after the change to the plan. Until now, Ind AS 19 did not specify how to determine these expenses for the period after the change to the plan.

4) Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures

Ind AS 109 excludes interest in associates and joint ventures that are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures from its scope. This amendment to Ind AS 28 clarifies that Ind AS 109 should be applied to financial instruments, including long-term interests in associates and joint venture, that, in substance, form part of an entity's net investment in associate or joint venture, to which the equity method is not applied.

The Company is evaluating impact of above amendments issued by MCA to existing accounting standards.

(2) Given the delay in completing the sale, the Company has reassessed the position on "Held for Sale" for the investment in the Company's subsidiary Tata Technologies Ltd. Accordingly, the Company concluded that these investments no longer meets the criteria of "Held for Sale" as per Ind AS 105. The investments in Tata Technologies Ltd is transferred from current to non-current investments.

(3) The Company had given a letter of comfort to ANZ Bank, London for GBP 2 million (Rs,18.10 crores as at March 31, 2019) against loan extended by the bank to Tata Motors European Technical Centre PLC. UK (TMETC). Also the Company has given an undertaking to ANZ Bank, London to retain 51% ownership of TMETC at all times during the tenor of the loan.

(4) The Company has given a letter of comfort to Tata Capital Financial Services Limited amounting to Rs,15 crores against credit facility extended to Concorde Motors (India) Limited (CMIL). The Company will not dilute its stake in CMIL below 100% during the tenor of the facility.

(5) Trilix Srl., Turin (Italy) is a limited liability Company. The Company has acquired additional 20% shareholding of Trilix Srl, Turin (Italy) during the year.