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ASIAN PAINTS LTD.

07 August 2020 | 12:00

Industry >> Paints/Varnishes

Select Another Company

ISIN No INE021A01026 52Week High 1917 Book Value (Rs.) 105.61 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 05/08/2020 52Week Low 1431 EPS 28.20 P/E 64.05
Market Cap. 173255.10 Cr. P/BV 17.10 Div Yield (%) 0.66 Market Lot 1.00

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

COMPANY BACKGROUND

Asian Paints Limited (the ‘Company') is a public limited Company domiciled and incorporated in India under the Indian Companies Act, 1913. The registered office of the Company is located at 6A, Shantinagar, Santacruz East, Mumbai, India.

The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing, selling and distribution of paints, coatings, products related to home decor, bath fittings and providing related services.

1. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND KEY ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGEMENTS

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES:

1.1. Basis of preparation of financial statements

These financial statements are the separate financial statements of the Company (also called standalone financial statements) prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (‘Ind AS') notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended).

These financial statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis of accounting except for certain financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as stated in the accounting policies set out below. The accounting policies have been applied consistently over all the periods presented in these financial statements except as mentioned below in 1.2.

1.2. Application of New Accounting Pronouncements

The company has applied the following Ind AS pronouncements pursuant to issuance of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2018. The effect is described below:

a. The Company has adopted Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contract with Customers with effect from 1st April 2018 and it is detailed in note 1.4(f).

b. The Company has elected to recognize cumulative effect of initially applying Ind AS 115 retrospectively as an adjustment to opening balance sheet as at 1st April 2018 on the contracts that are not completed contract as at that date. There was no impact of above on the opening balance sheet as at 1st April 2018 and on the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year ended 31st March, 2019.

c. The Company has adopted Appendix B to Ind AS 21, Foreign currency transactions and advance consideration with effect from 1st April 2018 prospectively to all assets, expenses and income initially recognized on or after 1st April 2018 and the impact on implementation of the Appendix is immaterial.

1.3. Current / Non-Current Classification

Any asset or liability is classified as current if it satisfies any of the following conditions:

i. the asset/liability is expected to be realized/settled in the Company's normal operating cycle;

ii. the asset is intended for sale or consumption;

iii. the asset/liability is held primarily for the purpose of trading;

iv. the asset/liability is expected to be realized/settled within twelve months after the reporting period;

v. the asset is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date;

vi. in the case of a liability, the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.

All other assets and liabilities are classified as non-current.

For the purpose of current/non-current classification of assets and liabilities, the Company has ascertained its normal operating cycle as twelve months. This is based on the nature of services and the time between the acquisition of assets or inventories for processing and their realization in cash and cash equivalents.

1.4. Summary of Significant accounting policies

a) Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. At the acquisition date, identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at fair value. For this purpose, the liabilities assumed include contingent liabilities representing present obligation and they are measured at their acquisition date fair values irrespective of the fact that outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is not probable. The consideration transferred is measured at fair value at acquisition date and includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. However, deferred tax asset or liability and any liability or asset relating to employee benefit arrangements arising from a business combination are measured and recognized in accordance with the requirements of Ind AS 12, Income Taxes and Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits, respectively.

Where the consideration transferred exceeds the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the excess is recorded as goodwill. Alternatively, in case of a bargain purchase wherein the consideration transferred is lower than the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the Company after assessing fair value of all identified assets and liabilities, record the difference as a gain in other comprehensive income and accumulate the gain in equity as capital reserve. The costs of acquisition excluding those relating to issue of equity or debt securities are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

In case of business combinations involving entities under common control, the above policy does not apply. Business combinations involving entities under common control are accounted for using the pooling of interests method. The net assets of the transferor entity or business are accounted at their carrying amounts on the date of the acquisition subject to necessary adjustments required to harmonise accounting policies. Any excess or shortfall of the consideration paid over the share capital of transferor entity or business is recognised as capital reserve under equity.

b) Goodwill

Goodwill is an asset representing the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the consideration transferred over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, measured in accordance with Ind AS 103, ‘Business Combinations'.

Goodwill is considered to have indefinite useful life and hence is not subject to amortization but tested for impairment at least annually. After initial recognition, goodwill is measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses.

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination, is from the acquisition date, allocated to each of the Company's cash generating units (CGUs) that are expected to benefit from the combination. A CGU is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets. Each CGU or a combination of CGUs to which goodwill is so allocated represents the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purpose and it is not larger than an operating segment of the Company.

A CGU to which goodwill is allocated is tested for impairment annually, and whenever there is an indication that the CGU may be impaired, by comparing the carrying amount of the CGU, including the goodwill, with the recoverable amount of the CGU. If the recoverable amount of the CGU exceeds the carrying amount of the CGU, the CGU and the goodwill allocated to that CGU is regarded as not impaired. If the carrying amount of the CGU exceeds the recoverable amount of the CGU, the Company recognizes an impairment loss by first reducing the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU and then to other assets of the CGU pro-rata based on the carrying amount of each asset in the CGU. Any impairment loss on goodwill is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. An impairment loss recognized for goodwill is not reversed in subsequent periods.

On disposal of a CGU to which goodwill is allocated, the goodwill associated with the disposed CGU is included in the carrying amount of the CGU when determining the gain or loss on disposal.

c) Property, plant and equipment

Measurement at recognition:

An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies as an asset is measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition, items of property, plant and equipment are carried at its cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

The Company identifies and determines cost of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment separately, if the part has a cost which is significant to the total cost of that item of property, plant and equipment and has useful life that is materially different from that of the remaining item.

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises of its purchase price including import duties and other non-refundable purchase taxes or levies, directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and the initial estimate of decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities, if any. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. Cost includes cost of replacing a part of a plant and equipment if the recognition criteria are met. Expenses directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalized if the recognition criteria are met. Expenditure related to plans, designs and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery is capitalized under relevant heads of property, plant and equipment if the recognition criteria are met.

Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment that meet the definition of property, plant and equipment are capitalized at cost and depreciated over their useful life. Costs in nature of repairs and maintenance are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

The Company had elected to consider the carrying value of all its property, plant and equipment appearing in the financial statements prepared in accordance with Accounting Standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and used the same as deemed cost in the opening Ind AS Balance sheet prepared on 1st April, 2015.

Capital work in progress and Capital advances:

Cost of assets not ready for intended use, as on the balance sheet date, is shown as capital work in progress. Advances given towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each balance sheet date are disclosed as Other Non-Current Assets.

Depreciation:

Depreciation on each part of an item of property, plant and equipment is provided using the Straight Line Method based on the useful life of the asset as estimated by the management and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as per the requirement of Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013. The estimate of the useful life of the assets has been assessed based on technical advice which considers the nature of the asset, the usage of the asset, expected physical wear and tear, the operating conditions of the asset, anticipated technological changes, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc. The estimated useful life of items of property, plant and equipment is mentioned below:

Freehold land is not depreciated. Leasehold land and Leasehold improvements are amortized over the period of the lease.

The Company, based on technical assessment made by technical expert and management estimate, depreciates certain items of property plant and equipment (as mentioned below) over estimated useful lives which are different from the useful lives prescribed under Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013 (Schedule III). The management believes that these estimated useful lives are realistic and reflect fair approximation of the period over which the assets are likely to be used.

- The useful lives of certain plant and equipment are estimated in the range of 10-20 years. These lives are different from those indicated in Schedule II.

- Scientific research equipment are depreciated over the estimated useful life of 8 years, which is higher than the life prescribed in Schedule II.

- Vehicles are depreciated over the estimated useful life of 5 years, which is lower than the life prescribed in Schedule II.

- Information Technology hardware are depreciated over the estimated useful life of 4 years, which is higher than the life prescribed in Schedule II.

The useful lives, residual values of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment and the depreciation methods are reviewed at the end of each financial year. If any of these expectations differ from previous estimates, such change is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

Derecognition:

The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment is derecognized on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. The gain or loss arising from the Derecognition of an item of property, plant and equipment is measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the item and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the item is derecognized.

d) Intangible assets

Measurement at recognition:

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Intangible assets arising on acquisition of business are measured at fair value as at date of acquisition. Internally generated intangibles including research cost are not capitalized and the related expenditure is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which the expenditure is incurred. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment loss, if any.

The Company had elected to consider the carrying value of all its intangible assets appearing in the financial statements prepared in accordance with Accounting Standards notified under the section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with Rule 7 of the Companies (Accounts) Rules, 2014 and used the same as deemed cost in the opening Ind AS Balance sheet prepared on 1st April, 2015.

Amortization:

Intangible Assets with finite lives are amortized on a Straight Line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The estimated useful life of intangible assets is mentioned below:

The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with finite useful life is reviewed at the end of each financial year. If any of these expectations differ from previous estimates, such change is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

Derecognition:

The carrying amount of an intangible asset is derecognized on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. The gain or loss arising from the Derecognition of an intangible asset is measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the intangible asset and is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognized.

e) Impairment

Assets that have an indefinite useful life, for example goodwill, are not subject to amortization and are tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Assets that are subject to depreciation and amortization and assets representing investments in subsidiary and associate companies are reviewed for impairment, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that carrying amount may not be recoverable. Such circumstances include, though are not limited to, significant or sustained decline in revenues or earnings and material adverse changes in the economic environment.

An impairment loss is recognized whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash generating unit (CGU) exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of an asset is the greater of its fair value less cost to sell and value in use. To calculate value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market rates and the risk specific to the asset. For an asset that does not generate largely independent cash inflows, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs. Fair value less cost to sell is the best estimate of the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset in an arm's length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the cost of disposal.

Impairment losses, if any, are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss and included in depreciation and amortization expense. Impairment losses, on assets other than goodwill are reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognized.

f) Revenue

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognized on transfer of control of promised goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company is expected to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.

Revenue towards satisfaction of a performance obligation is measured at the amount of transaction price (net of variable consideration) allocated to that performance obligation. The transaction price of goods sold and services rendered is net of variable consideration on account of various discounts and schemes offered by the Company as part of the contract. This variable consideration is estimated based on the expected value of outflow. Revenue (net of variable consideration) is recognized only to the extent that it is highly probable that the amount will not be subject to significant reversal when uncertainty relating to its recognition is resolved.

Sale of products:

Revenue from sale of products is recognized when the control on the goods have been transferred to the customer. The performance obligation in case of sale of product is satisfied at a point in time i.e., when the material is shipped to the customer or on delivery to the customer, as may be specified in the contract.

Rendering of services:

Revenue from services is recognized over time by measuring progress towards satisfaction of performance obligation for the services rendered. The Company uses output method for measurement of revenue from home solution operations/ painting and related services and royalty income as it is based on milestone reached or units delivered. Input method is used for measurement of revenue from processing and other service as it is directly linked to the expense incurred by the Company

g) Government grants and subsidies

Recognition and Measurement:

The Company is entitled to subsidies from government in respect of manufacturing units located in specified regions. Such subsidies are measured at amounts receivable from the government which are non-refundable and are recognized as income when there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with all necessary conditions attached to them. Income from subsidies is recognized on a systematic basis over the periods in which the related costs that are intended to be compensated by such subsidies are recognized.

The Company has received refundable government loans at below-market rate of interest which are accounted in accordance with the recognition and measurement principles of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments. The benefit of below-market rate of interest is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of loan determined in accordance with Ind AS 109 and the proceeds received. It is recognized as income when there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with all necessary conditions attached to the loans. Income from such benefit is recognized on a systematic basis over the period in which the related costs that are intended to be compensated by such grants are recognized.

Presentation:

Income from the above grants and subsidies are presented under Revenue from Operations.

h) Inventory

Raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, components, consumables and stock-in-trade are carried at the lower of cost and net realizable value. However, materials and other items held for use in production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished goods in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. The comparison of cost and net realizable value is made on an item-by item basis. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

In determining the cost of raw materials, packing materials, stock-in-trade, stores, spares, components and consumables, weighted average cost method is used. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, duties, taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable from tax authorities) and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

Cost of finished goods and work-in-progress includes the cost of raw materials, packing materials, an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads, excise duty as applicable and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Fixed production overheads are allocated on the basis of normal capacity of production facilities.

i) Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets

Initial recognition and measurement:

The Company recognizes a financial asset in its balance sheet when it becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value, plus in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

Where the fair value of a financial asset at initial recognition is different from its transaction price, the difference between the fair value and the transaction price is recognized as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss at initial recognition if the fair value is determined through a quoted market price in an active market for an identical asset (i.e. level 1 input) or through a valuation technique that uses data from observable markets (i.e. level 2 input).

In case the fair value is not determined using a level 1 or level 2 input as mentioned above, the difference between the fair value and transaction price is deferred appropriately and recognized as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that such gain or loss arises due to a change in factor that market participants take into account when pricing the financial asset.

However, trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component are measured at transaction price.

Subsequent measurement:

For subsequent measurement, the Company classifies a financial asset in accordance with the below criteria:

i. The Company's business model for managing the financial asset and

ii. The contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

Based on the above criteria, the Company classifies its financial assets into the following categories:

i. Financial assets measured at amortized cost

ii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

i. Financial assets measured at amortized cost:

A financial asset is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The Company's business model objective for managing the financial asset is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, and

b) The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

This category applies to cash and bank balances, trade receivables, loans and other financial assets of the Company (Refer note 29 for further details). Such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Under the effective interest method, the future cash receipts are exactly discounted to the initial recognition value using the effective interest rate. The cumulative amortization using the effective interest method of the difference between the initial recognition amount and the maturity amount is added to the initial recognition value (net of principal repayments, if any) of the financial asset over the relevant period of the financial asset to arrive at the amortized cost at each reporting date. The corresponding effect of the amortization under effective interest method is recognized as interest income over the relevant period of the financial asset. The same is included under other income in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The amortized cost of a financial asset is also adjusted for loss allowance, if any

ii. Financial assets measured at FVTOCI:

A financial asset is measured at FVTOCI if both of the following conditions are met:

a) The Company's business model objective for managing the financial asset is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

This category applies to certain investments in debt instruments (Refer note 29 for further details). Such financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value changes are recognized in the Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income and impairment losses and its reversals in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

On Derecognition of such financial assets, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from equity to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Further, the Company, through an irrevocable election at initial recognition, has measured certain investments in equity instruments at FVTOCI (Refer note 29 for further details). The Company has made such election on an instrument by instrument basis. These equity instruments are neither held for trading nor are contingent consideration recognized under a business combination. Pursuant to such irrevocable election, subsequent changes in the fair value of such equity instruments are recognized in OCI. However, the Company recognizes dividend income from such instruments in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the right to receive payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount can be measured reliably.

On Derecognition of such financial assets, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is not reclassified from the equity to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer such cumulative gain or loss into retained earnings within equity.

iii. Financial assets measured at FVTPL:

A financial asset is measured at FVTPL unless it is measured at amortized cost or at FVTOCI as explained above. This is a residual category applied to all other investments of the Company excluding investments in subsidiary and associate companies (Refer note 29 for further details). Such financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value changes are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition:

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is derecognized (i.e. removed from the Company's balance sheet) when any of the following occurs:

i. The contractual rights to cash flows from the financial asset expires;

ii. The Company transfers its contractual rights to receive cash flows of the financial asset and has substantially transferred all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset;

iii. The Company retains the contractual rights to receive cash flows but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows without material delay to one or more recipients under a ‘pass-through' arrangement (thereby substantially transferring all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset);

iv. The Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all risk and rewards of ownership and does not retain control over the financial asset.

In cases where Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the financial asset, but retains control of the financial asset, the Company continues to recognize such financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset. In that case, the Company also recognizes an associated liability. The financial asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

On Derecognition of a financial asset, (except as mentioned in ii above for financial assets measured at FVTOCI), the difference between the carrying amount and the consideration received is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Impairment of financial assets:

The Company applies expected credit losses (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of loss allowance on the following:

i. Trade receivables and lease receivables

ii. Financial assets measured at amortized cost (other than trade receivables and lease receivables)

iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

In case of trade receivables and lease receivables, the Company follows a simplified approach wherein an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.

In case of other assets (listed as ii and iii above), the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to 12-month ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognized as loss allowance.

Subsequently, if the credit quality of the financial asset improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company reverts to recognizing impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL.

ECL is the difference between all contractual cash flows that are due to the Company in accordance with the contract and all the cash flows that the entity expects to receive (i.e., all cash shortfalls), discounted at the original effective interest rate.

Lifetime ECL are the expected credit losses resulting from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial asset. 12-month ECL are a portion of the lifetime ECL which result from default events that are possible within 12 months from the reporting date.

ECL are measured in a manner that they reflect unbiased and probability weighted amounts determined by a range of outcomes, taking into account the time value of money and other reasonable information available as a result of past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to measure lifetime ECL on its portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is prepared based on historically observed default rates over the expected life of trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At each reporting date, the historically observed default rates and changes in the forward-looking estimates are updated.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognized during the period is recognized as income/ expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss under the head ‘Other expenses'.

Financial Liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement:

The Company recognizes a financial liability in its balance sheet when it becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value minus, in the case of financial liabilities not recorded at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial liability

Where the fair value of a financial liability at initial recognition is different from its transaction price, the difference between the fair value and the transaction price is recognized as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss at initial recognition if the fair value is determined through a quoted market price in an active market for an identical asset (i.e. level 1 input) or through a valuation technique that uses data from observable markets (i.e. level 2 input).

In case the fair value is not determined using a level 1 or level 2 input as mentioned above, the difference between the fair value and transaction price is deferred appropriately and recognized as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that such gain or loss arises due to a change in factor that market participants take into account when pricing the financial liability.

Subsequent measurement:

All financial liabilities of the Company are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method (Refer note 29 for further details).

Under the effective interest method, the future cash payments are exactly discounted to the initial recognition value using the effective interest rate. The cumulative amortization using the effective interest method of the difference between the initial recognition amount and the maturity amount is added to the initial recognition value (net of principal repayments, if any) of the financial liability over the relevant period of the financial liability to arrive at the amortized cost at each reporting date. The corresponding effect of the amortization under effective interest method is recognized as interest expense over the relevant period of the financial liability. The same is included under finance cost in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition:

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the Derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability derecognized and the consideration paid is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

j) Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

The Company enters into derivative financial contracts in the nature of forward currency contracts with external parties to hedge its foreign currency risks relating to foreign currency denominated financial liabilities measured at amortized cost. The Company formally establishes a hedge relationship between such forward currency contracts (‘hedging instrument') and recognized financial liabilities (‘hedged item') through a formal documentation at the inception of the hedge relationship in line with the Company's risk management objective and strategy

The hedge relationship so designated is accounted for in accordance with the accounting principles prescribed for a fair value hedge under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

Recognition and measurement of fair value hedge:

Hedging instrument is initially recognized at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and is subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Gain or loss arising from changes in the fair value of hedging instrument is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedging instrument is recognized as a financial asset in the balance sheet if its fair value as at reporting date is positive as compared to carrying value and as a financial liability if its fair value as at reporting date is negative as compared to carrying value.

Hedged item (recognized financial liability) is initially recognized at fair value on the date of entering into contractual obligation and is subsequently measured at amortized cost. The hedging gain or loss on the hedged item is adjusted to the carrying value of the hedged item as per the effective interest method and the corresponding effect is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition:

On Derecognition of the hedged item, the unamortized fair value of the hedging instrument adjusted to the hedged item, is recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

k) Fair Value

The Company measures financial instruments at fair value in accordance with the accounting policies mentioned above. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either:

- In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

- In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the financial statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy that categorizes into three levels, described as follows, the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure value. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 inputs) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 inputs).

Level 1 — quoted (unadjusted) market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities

Level 2 — inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly

Level 3 — inputs that are unobservable for the asset or liability

For assets and liabilities that are recognized in the financial statements at fair value on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization at the end of each reporting period and discloses the same.

l) Investment in subsidiary and associate Companies

The Company has elected to recognize its investments in subsidiary and associate companies at cost in accordance with the option available in Ind AS 27, ‘Separate Financial Statements'. The details of such investments are given in Note 4. Impairment policy applicable on such investments is explained in note 1.4(e) above.

m) Foreign Currency Translation

Initial Recognition:

On initial recognition, transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are recorded in the functional currency (i.e. Indian Rupees), by applying to the foreign currency amount, the spot exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences arising on foreign exchange transactions settled during the year are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Measurement of foreign currency items at reporting date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company are translated at the closing exchange rates. Non-monetary items that are measured at historical cost in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Nonmonetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is measured.

Exchange differences arising out of these translations are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

n) Income Taxes

Tax expense is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax:

Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable in respect of taxable profit for a period. Taxable profit differs from ‘profit before tax' as reported in the Statement of Profit and Loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible under the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Current tax is measured using tax rates that have been enacted by the end of reporting period for the amounts expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities.

Deferred tax:

Deferred tax is recognized on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit under Income tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognized for all taxable temporary differences. However, in case of temporary differences that arise from initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction (other than business combination) that affect neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit, deferred tax liabilities are not recognized. Also, for temporary differences if any that may arise from initial recognition of goodwill, deferred tax liabilities are not recognized.

Deferred tax assets are generally recognized for all deductible temporary differences to the extent it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary difference can be utilized. In case of temporary differences that arise from initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction (other than business combination) that affect neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit, deferred tax assets are not recognized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow the benefits of part or all of such deferred tax assets to be utilized.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Presentation of current and deferred tax:

Current and deferred tax are recognized as income or an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income, in which case, the current and deferred tax income/expense are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income.

The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. In case of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, the same are offset if the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off corresponding current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the Company.

o) Provisions and Contingencies

The Company recognizes provisions when a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event exists and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle such obligation and the amount of such obligation can be reliably estimated.

If the effect of time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as a finance cost.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits or the amount of such obligation cannot be measured reliably. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

p) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has opted to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period. The Company measures EBITDA based on profit/(loss) from continuing operations.

q) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of Cash Flow Statement comprise cash and cheques in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks where the original maturity is three months or less and other short term highly liquid investments net of bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand as these form an integral part of the Company's cash management.

r) Employee Benefits

Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognized in the period in which the employee renders the related service. The Company recognizes the undiscounted amount of short term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for services rendered as a liability (accrued expense) after deducting any amount already paid.

Post-Employment Benefits:

I. Defined contribution plans:

Defined contribution plans are employee state insurance scheme and Government administered pension fund scheme for all applicable employees and superannuation scheme for eligible employees.

Recognition and measurement of defined contribution plans:

The Company recognizes contribution payable to a defined contribution plan as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the employees render services to the Company during the reporting period. If the contributions payable for services received from employees before the reporting date exceeds the contributions already paid, the deficit payable is recognized as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the reporting date, the excess is recognized as an asset to the extent that the prepayment will lead to, for example, a reduction in future payments or a cash refund.

II. Defined benefit plans:

i) Provident fund scheme:

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee Provident Fund scheme to a separate trust administered by the Company. The minimum interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries is being notified by the Government every year. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

ii) Gratuity scheme:

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees. The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the Gratuity obligation.

iii) Pension Scheme:

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions, as approved by the Board of Directors.

iv) Post-Retirement Medical benefit plan:

The Company operates a defined post-retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

Recognition and measurement of defined benefit plans:

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each reporting date. The defined benefit obligations recognized in the Balance Sheet represent the present value of the defined benefit obligations as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognized representing the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

All expenses represented by current service cost, past service cost, if any, and net interest on the defined benefit liability (asset) are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability (asset) comprising actuarial gains and losses and the return on the plan assets (excluding amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability/asset), are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income. Such remeasurements are not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the subsequent periods.

The Company presents the above liability/(asset) as current and non-current in the balance sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary; however, the entire liability towards gratuity is considered as current as the Company will contribute this amount to the gratuity fund within the next twelve months.

Other Long Term Employee Benefits:

Entitlements to annual leave and sick leave are recognized when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Expenses related to other long term employee benefits are recognized in the Statement of Profit and loss (including actuarial gain and loss).

s) Lease accounting

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

In respect of assets taken on operating lease, lease rentals are recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on straight line basis over the lease term unless

(1) another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which the benefit is derived from the leased asset; or

(2) the payments to the lessor are structured to increase in the line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor's expected inflationary cost increases.

t) Research and Development

Expenditure on research is recognized as an expense when it is incurred. Expenditure on development which does not meet the criteria for recognition as an intangible asset is recognized as an expense when it is incurred.

Items of property, plant and equipment and acquired intangible assets utilized for research and development are capitalized and depreciated in accordance with the policies stated for Property, plant and equipment and Intangible Assets.

u) Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortization of ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalized, if any. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

v) Segment Reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) of the Company. The CODM is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments of the Company.

w) Events after reporting date

Where events occurring after the balance sheet date provide evidence of conditions that existed at the end of the reporting period, the impact of such events is adjusted within the financial statements. Otherwise, events after the balance sheet date of material size or nature are only disclosed.

x) Non-current Assets held for sale

The Company classifies non-current assets as held for sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered principally through a sale rather than through continuing use of the assets and actions required to complete such sale indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan to sell will be made or that the decision to sell will be withdrawn. Also, such assets are classified as held for sale only if the management expects to complete the sale within one year from the date of classification.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and the fair value less cost to sell. Non-current assets are not depreciated or amortized.

y) Recent accounting pronouncements

Standards issued but not yet effective

In March 2019, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) issued the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2019 and the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Second Amendment Rules, 2019, notifying new standards and amendments to certain issued standards. These amendments are applicable to the Company from 1st April, 2019. The Company will be adopting the below stated new standards and applicable amendments from their respective effective date.

a) Ind AS 116, Leases:

Ind AS 116 supersedes Ind AS 17, Leases. Under Ind AS 116, a lessee will recognise a liability to make lease payments (i.e., the lease liability) and an asset representing the right to use the underlying asset during the lease term (i.e., the right of use asset) at the commencement date of lease. Lessees will be required to separately recognise interest expense on the lease liability and depreciation expense on the right of use asset. Lessor accounting under Ind AS 116 remains substantially unchanged from accounting under Ind AS 17. Ind AS 116 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019.

The Company has elected to adopt Ind AS 116 retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented. This will result in change in the Balance Sheet, Statement of Profit and Loss and Cash flow statement. The Company intends to use low value exemptions and short term exemption in accordance with Ind AS 116.

The Standard would result in recognition of right of use approximately of Rs. 425.73 crores and a corresponding lease liability approximately of Rs. 490.35 crores with net impact on reserves as on 1st April 2018. The depreciation will increase approximately by Rs.158.19 crores, interest expense will increase approximately by Rs. 49.40 crores with a corresponding decrease in rental cost approximately by Rs.195.98 crores for the year ended 31st March, 2019.

b) Appendix C, Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatment to Ind AS 12, Income Taxes:

The Appendix clarifies how to apply the recognition and measurement principles while recognizing current tax, deferred tax, taxable profits (losses), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates when there is uncertainty over tax treatments under Ind AS 12. As per the Appendix, the Company needs to assess whether it is probable that a tax authority will accept an uncertain tax treatment used or a treatment which is being proposed to be used in its income tax filings. The Appendix will be applied retrospectively with the cumulative effect of its initial application on the opening balance sheet as on 1st April 2019.

The impact of the Appendix on the Financial Statements, as assessed by the Company, is expected to be not material.

c) Amendment to Ind AS 12, Income Taxes:

The amendment clarifies that an entity shall recognize income tax consequences of dividends in profit or loss, other comprehensive income or equity according to where the entity originally recognised those past transactions or events.

The Company will apply these amendments for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1st April 2019. The impact on the Financial Statements is being evaluated.

1.5. Key accounting estimates and judgements

The preparation of the Company's Financial Statements requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities affected in future periods.

Critical accounting estimates and assumptions

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below:

a. Income taxes

The Company's tax jurisdiction is India. Significant judgements are involved in estimating budgeted profits for the purpose of paying advance tax, determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/recovered for uncertain tax positions (Refer note 18).

b. Business combinations and intangible assets

Business combinations are accounted for using IND AS 103, Business Combinations. IND AS 103 requires the identifiable intangible assets and contingent consideration to be fair valued in order to ascertain the net fair value of identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Significant estimates are required to be made in determining the value of contingent consideration and intangible assets. These valuations are conducted by independent valuation experts.

c. Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset's expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company's assets are determined by the management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, which may impact their life, such as changes in technical or commercial obsolescence arising from changes or improvements in production or from a change in market demand of the product or service output of the asset.

d. Impairment of Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and whenever there is an indication that the recoverable amount of a cash generating unit is less than its carrying amount based on a number of factors including operating results, business plans, future cash flows and economic conditions. The recoverable amount of cash generating units is determined based on higher of value-in-use and fair value less cost to sell. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the level of the cash-generating unit or groups of cash-generating units which are benefitting from the synergies of the acquisition and which represents the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.

Market related information and estimates are used to determine the recoverable amount. Key assumptions on which management has based its determination of recoverable amount include estimated long term growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and estimated operating margins. Cash flow projections take into account past experience and represent management's best estimate about future developments.

e. Defined Benefit Obligation

The costs of providing pensions and other post-employment benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in accordance with IND AS 19 ‘Employee benefits' over the period during which benefit is derived from the employees' services. The costs are assessed on the basis of assumptions selected by the management. These assumptions include salary escalation rate, discount rates, expected rate of return on assets and mortality rates. The same is disclosed in Note 39, ‘Employee benefits'.

f. Fair value measurement of financial instruments

When the fair values of financial assets and financial liabilities recorded in the balance sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques, including the discounted cash flow model, which involve various judgements and assumptions.