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Company Information

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ASIAN PAINTS LTD.

20 June 2024 | 04:06

Industry >> Paints/Varnishes

Select Another Company

ISIN No INE021A01026 BSE Code / NSE Code 500820 / ASIANPAINT Book Value (Rs.) 195.25 Face Value 1.00
Bookclosure 11/06/2024 52Week High 3568 EPS 56.92 P/E 51.22
Market Cap. 279654.12 Cr. 52Week Low 2670 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 14.93 / 1.14 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2024-03 

COMPANY BACKGROUND

Asian Paints Limited (the 'Company') is a public limited Company domiciled and incorporated in India under the Indian Companies Act, 1913. The registered office of the

Company is located at 6A, Shantinagar, Santacruz East, Mumbai, India.

The Company is engaged in the business of manufacturing, selling and distribution of paints, coatings, products

related to home decor, bath fittings and providing related services.

1. MATERIAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND KEY ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES AND JUDGEMENTS Material Accounting Policies :

1.1. Basis of preparation of Financial Statements

These Financial Statements are the separate Financial Statements of the Company (also called Standalone Financial Statements) prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards ('Ind AS') notified under section 133 of the Companies Act 2013, read together with the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended).

These Financial Statements have been prepared and presented under the historical cost convention, on the accrual basis of accounting except for certain financial assets and financial liabilities that are measured at fair values at the end of each reporting period, as stated in the accounting policies set out below. The accounting policies have been applied consistently over all the periods presented in these Financial Statements.

The Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupees (which is also the functional currency of the Company) and is rounded off to the nearest crores except otherwise indicated. Amounts less than ' 50,000 have been presented as "#".

1.2. Application of New Accounting Pronouncements

The Company has applied the following Ind AS pronouncements pursuant to issuance of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2023 with effect from 1st April, 2023. The effect is described below :

a. Ind AS 1 - Presentation of Financial Statements -The amendment requires disclosure of material accounting policies instead of significant accounting policies. In the Financial Statements the disclosure of accounting policies has been accordingly modified . The impact of such modifications to the accounting policies is insignificant.

b. Ind AS 8 - Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors - The

amendment has defined accounting estimate as well as laid down the treatment of accounting estimate to achieve the objective set out by accounting policy. There is no impact of the

amendment on the Financial Statements.

Ind AS 12 - Income taxes - the definition of

deferred tax asset and deferred tax liability is amended to apply initial recognition exception on assets and liabilities that does not give rise to equal taxable and deductible temporary differences. There is no impact of the amendment on the Financial Statements.

1.3. Current / Non-Current Classification

Any asset or liability is classified as current if it satisfies any of the following conditions :

i. the asset/liability is expected to be realised/ settled in the Company's normal operating cycle;

ii. the asset is intended for sale or consumption;

iii. the asset/liability is held primarily for the purpose

of trading;

iv. the asset/liability is expected to be realised/ settled within twelve months after the reporting period;

v. the asset is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date;

vi. in the case of a liability, the Company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date.

All other assets and liabilities are classified as noncurrent.

For the purpose of current/non-current classification

of assets and liabilities, the Company has ascertained its normal operating cycle as twelve months. This is

based on the nature of services and the time between the acquisition of assets or inventories for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents.

1.4. Summary of Material accounting policies

a) Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method under the provisions of Ind AS 103, Business Combinations. At the

acquisition date, identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at fair

value except deferred tax asset or liability and any liability or asset relating to employee benefit arrangements arising from a business combination are measured and recognised in accordance with the requirements of Ind AS 12, Income Taxes and Ind AS 19, Employee Benefits, respectively. For this purpose, the liabilities assumed include contingent liabilities representing present obligation and they are measured at their acquisition date fair values irrespective of the fact that outflow of resources embodying economic benefits is not probable.

The consideration transferred is measured at fair value at the acquisition date and includes the fair value of any contingent consideration. Contingent consideration (earn out) is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date and changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Where the consideration transferred exceeds the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the excess is recorded as goodwill. Alternatively, in case of a bargain purchase wherein the consideration transferred is lower than the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, the Company after assessing fair value of all identified assets and liabilities, record the difference as a gain in other comprehensive income and accumulate the gain in equity as capital reserve. The transaction costs, other than costs relating to the issue of equity or debt securities in connection with a business combination are expensed as incurred.

In case of business combinations involving entities under common control, the above policy does not apply. Business combinations involving entities

under common control are accounted for using the pooling of interests method. The net assets of the transferor entity or business are accounted at their carrying amounts on the date of the acquisition subject to necessary adjustments required to harmonise accounting policies. Any excess or shortfall of the consideration paid over the share capital of transferor entity or business is recognised as capital reserve under equity.

b) Property, plant and equipment Measurement at recognition :

An item of property, plant and equipment (PPE)

that qualifies as an asset is measured on initial recognition at cost. Following initial recognition,

items of PPE are carried at their cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any. Item of PPE which reflects significant cost and has different useful life from the remaining part of PPE is recognised as a separate component.

The cost of an item of PPE comprises of its purchase price net of discounts, if any including

import duties and other non-refundable taxes or levies and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use and the initial estimate of decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities, if any. Cost includes cost of replacing a part of a plant and equipment if the recognition criteria are met. Expenses like plans, designs, and drawings of buildings or plant and machinery, borrowing cost on qualifying assets, directly attributable to new manufacturing facility during its construction period are capitalised under the relevant head of PPE if the recognition criteria are met.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item

will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any component accounted for as a separate asset is derecognised when replaced.

Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment that meet the definition

of PPE are capitalised at cost and depreciated over their useful life. Costs in nature of repairs

and maintenance are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.

The Company had elected to consider the carrying value of all its PPE appearing in the Financial Statements and used the same as deemed cost in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet prepared on 1st April, 2015.

Capital work in progress and Capital advances :

Cost of assets not ready for intended use, as on the Balance Sheet date, is shown as capital work in progress. Advances given towards acquisition of fixed assets outstanding at each Balance Sheet date are disclosed as Other Non-Current Assets.

Depreciation :

Depreciation on each part of an item / component of PPE is provided on pro-rata basis using the Straight-Line Method based on the expected

useful life of the asset and is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as per the requirement of Schedule II of the Companies Act,

2013. The estimated useful life has been assessed based on technical evaluation, taking into account the nature of the asset and the estimated usage basis management's best judgement of economic benefits from those classes of assets. The estimated useful life of items of PPE is mentioned below :

Years

Factory Buildings

30

Buildings (other than factory buildings)

60

Plant and Equipment (including continuous process plants)*

10-20

Scientific research equipment*

8

Furniture and Fixtures

8

Office Equipment

5

Vehicles*

5

Information Technology Hardware*

4

Freehold land is not depreciated. Leasehold improvements are amortised over the period of the lease.

*The useful life assessed by the Management is different than those indicated in Schedule II of the Companies Act, 2013.

The useful lives, residual values of each part of an item of PPE and the depreciation methods are reviewed at the end of each financial year. If any of these expectations differ from previous

estimates, such change is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

Derecognition :

The carrying amount of an item of PPE is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an item of PPE is measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the item and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the item is derecognised.

c) Goodwill and Other Intangible assets

Goodwill acquired in a business combination is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the consideration transferred over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed, in

accordance with Ind AS 103.

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Intangible assets arising on acquisition of business are measured at fair value as at date of acquisition. Internally generated intangibles including research cost are expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment loss, if any.

The Company had elected to consider the carrying value of all its intangible assets appearing in the Financial Statements and used the same as deemed cost in the opening Ind AS Balance Sheet prepared on 1st April, 2015.

Amortisation :

Intangible Assets with finite lives are amortised

on a Straight Line basis over the estimated useful economic life. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The estimated useful life of intangible assets is mentioned below :

Years

Purchase cost, user license fees and consultancy fees for Computer Software (including those used for scientific research)

4

Acquired Trademark

5

The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with finite useful

life is reviewed at the end of each financial year. If any of these expectations differ from previous

estimates, such change is accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate.

Goodwill and certain trademark acquired separately have indefinite useful life and are not subjected to amortisation. These are tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Derecognition :

The carrying amount of an intangible asset is derecognised on disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. The gain or loss arising from the Derecognition of an intangible asset is measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the intangible asset and is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

d) Impairment

Assessment for impairment is done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is any indication that a non-financial asset may be impaired. Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to each of the Company's cash generating units (CGUs) that are expected to benefit from the combination.

Assets that are subject to depreciation and amortisation and assets representing investments in subsidiary and associate companies are reviewed for impairment, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that carrying amount may not be recoverable. Such circumstances include, though are not limited to, significant or sustained decline in revenues or earnings and material adverse changes in the economic environment.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the

carrying amount of an asset or its CGU exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount of an asset is the greater of its fair value less cost to sell and value in use. To calculate value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market rates and the risk specific to the asset. For an asset that does not generate largely independent cash inflows, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs. Fair value less cost to sell is the best estimate of the amount obtainable from the sale of an asset in an arm's length transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties, less the cost of disposal.

Impairment losses, if any, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss and included in depreciation and amortisation expense. Impairment losses, on assets other than goodwill are reversed in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined if no impairment loss had previously been recognised.

e) Revenue

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognised on transfer of control of promised goods or services to a customer at an amount that

reflects the consideration to which the Company is expected to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. It is measured at transaction price (net of variable consideration on account of various discounts and schemes offered by the Company as part of the contract) allocated to that performance obligation. This variable consideration is estimated based on the expected value of outflow. Revenue (net of variable consideration) is recognised only to the extent that it is highly probable that the amount will not be subject to significant reversal when uncertainty relating to its recognition is resolved.

Sale of products :

Revenue from sale of products is recognised when

the control on the goods have been transferred to the customer. The performance obligation in case of sale of product is satisfied at a point in time i.e., when the material is shipped to the customer or on delivery to the customer, as may be specified in the contract.

Rendering of services :

Revenue from services is recognised over time

by measuring progress towards satisfaction of performance obligation for the services rendered. The Company uses output method for measurement of revenue from decor services / painting and related services and royalty income as it is based on milestone reached or units delivered. Input method is used for measurement of revenue from processing and other service as it is directly linked to the expense incurred by the Company.

Advance from customers is recognised under

other liabilities and released to revenue on satisfaction of performance obligation.

f) Government grants and subsidies

Recognition and Measurement :

The Company recognises grant as income when there is a reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with all necessary conditions attached to them and the grant will be received in accordance with Ind AS 20, Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance. The Company is entitled to certain non-refundable subsidies from government in respect of manufacturing units located in specified regions which are measured at amounts receivable from the government.

The Company has received refundable government loans at below-market rate of interest which are accounted in accordance with the recognition and measurement principles of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments. The benefit of below-market rate of interest is measured as the difference between the initial carrying value of loan determined in accordance with Ind AS 109 and the proceeds received.

Income from such benefits is recognised on a systematic basis over the period in which the related costs that are intended to be compensated by such grants are recognised. Presentation :

Income from the above grants and subsidies are presented under Revenue from Operations.

g) Inventory

Raw materials, work-in-progress, finished goods, packing materials, stores, spares, components, consumables and stock-in-trade are carried at the lower of cost and net realisable value. However, materials and other items held for use in production of inventories are not written down below cost if the finished goods in which they will be incorporated are expected to be sold at or above cost. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost of inventory is determined on weighted

average basis. Cost of inventory comprises all costs of purchase, non-refundable duties and taxes, cost of conversion including an appropriate share of fixed and variable production overheads and all other costs incurred in bringing the inventory to their present location and condition.

The Company considers factors like estimated shelf life, product discontinuances and ageing of inventory in determining the provision for

slow moving, obsolete and other non-saleable inventory and adjusts the inventory provisions to reflect the recoverable value of inventory.

h) Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is a contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

Financial assets

Initial recognition and measurement:

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value, plus in the case of financial assets

not recorded at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. However, trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component are measured at transaction price.

Where the fair value of a financial asset at initial recognition is different from its transaction price, the difference between the fair value and the transaction price is recognised as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss at initial recognition if the fair value is determined through a quoted market price in an active market for an identical asset (i.e. level 1 input) or through a valuation technique that uses data from observable markets (i.e. level 2 input).

In case the fair value is not determined using a level 1 or level 2 input as mentioned above, the difference between the fair value and transaction price is deferred appropriately and recognised as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that such gain or loss arises due to a change in factor that market participants take into account when pricing the financial asset.

Subsequent measurement:

For subsequent measurement, the Company

classifies a financial asset in accordance with the below criteria :

i. The Company's business model for managing the financial asset and

ii. The contractual cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

Based on the above criteria, the Company classifies its financial assets into the following categories:

i. Financial assets measured at amortised cost

A financial asset is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met :

a. The Company's business model objective

for managing the financial asset is to hold financial assets in order to collect contractual cash flows, and

b. The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

This category applies to cash and bank balances, trade receivables, loans and other

financial assets of the Company (Refer note 29 for further details). Such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. The effect of the amortisation under effective interest method is recognised as interest income over the relevant period of the financial asset under other income in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The amortised cost of a financial asset is also adjusted for loss allowance, if any.

ii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

A financial asset is measured at FVTOCI if both of the following conditions are met :

a. The Company's business model objective

for managing the financial asset is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b. The contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding

This category applies to certain investments in debt instruments (Refer note 29 for further details). Such financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value changes are recognised in the Other Comprehensive Income (OCI). However, the Company recognises interest income and impairment losses and its reversals in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

On derecognition of such financial assets, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised

in OCI is reclassified from equity to Statement of Profit and Loss.

Further, the Company, through an irrevocable election at initial recognition, has measured certain investments in equity instruments at

FVTOCI (Refer note 29 for further details).

The Company has made such election on an instrument by instrument basis. These equity

instruments are neither held for trading nor are contingent consideration recognised under a business combination. Pursuant to such irrevocable election, subsequent changes in the fair value of such equity

instruments are recognised in OCI. However, the Company recognises dividend income

from such instruments in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the right to receive payment is established, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount can be measured reliably.

On derecognition of such financial assets, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is not reclassified from the equity to Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer such cumulative gain or loss into retained earnings within equity.

iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

A financial asset is measured at FVTPL unless it is measured at amortised cost or at FVTOCI as explained above. This is a residual category applied to all other investments of the Company excluding investments in subsidiary and associate companies (Refer note 29 for further details).

Such financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value at each reporting date. Fair value changes are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition :

i. A financial asset is derecognised when the right to receive cash flows from the assets has expired, or has been transferred, and the Company has transferred substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership.

In cases where Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the financial asset, but retains control of the financial asset, the Company continues to recognise such financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The financial asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained.

On derecognition of a financial asset, (except as mentioned in (ii) above for financial assets measured at FVTOCI), the difference between the carrying amount and the consideration received is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Impairment of financial assets:

The Company applies expected credit losses (ECL)

model for measurement and recognition of loss

allowance on the following :

i. Trade receivables

ii. Financial assets measured at amortised cost (other than trade receivables)

iii. Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

In case of trade receivables, the Company follows a simplified approach wherein an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance.

In case of other assets (listed as (ii) and (iii) above) the Company determines if there has been a significant increase in credit risk of the financial asset since initial recognition. If the credit risk

of such assets has not increased significantly, an amount equal to 12-month ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance. However, if credit risk has increased significantly, an amount equal to lifetime ECL is measured and recognised as loss allowance.

Subsequently, if the credit quality of the financial

asset improves such that there is no longer a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition, the Company reverts to recognising impairment loss allowance based on 12-month ECL

ECL are measured in a manner that they reflect unbiased and probability weighted amounts determined by a range of outcomes, taking into account the time value of money and other reasonable information available as a result of past events, current conditions and forecasts of future economic conditions.

As a practical expedient, the Company uses a provision matrix to measure lifetime ECL on its portfolio of trade receivables. The provision matrix is prepared based on historically observed default rates over the expected life of trade receivables and is adjusted for forward-looking estimates. At each reporting date, the historically observed default rates and changes in the forward-looking estimates are updated.

ECL impairment loss allowance (or reversal) recognised during the period is recognised as income/ expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Financial Liabilities

Initial recognition and measurement:

The Company recognises a financial liability in its Balance Sheet when it becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All

financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value minus, in the case of financial liabilities not recorded at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial liability.

Where the fair value of a financial liability at initial recognition is different from its transaction

price, the difference between the fair value and the transaction price is recognised as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss at initial recognition if the fair value is determined through a quoted market price in an active market for an identical asset (i.e. level 1 input) or through a valuation technique that uses data from observable markets (i.e. level 2 input).

In case the fair value is not determined using a level 1 or level 2 input as mentioned above, the difference between the fair value and transaction price is deferred appropriately and recognised as a gain or loss in the Statement of Profit and Loss only to the extent that such gain or loss arises due to a change in factor that market participants take into account when pricing the financial liability.

Subsequent measurement:

All financial liabilities of the Company are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method (Refer note 29

for further details). The cumulative amortisation using the effective interest method of the difference between the initial recognition amount and the maturity amount is added to the initial recognition value (net of principal repayments, if any) of the financial liability over the relevant period of the financial liability to arrive at the amortised cost at each reporting date. The corresponding effect of the amortisation under effective interest method is recognised as interest expense under finance cost in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition:

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability.

The difference between the carrying amount

of the financial liability derecognised and the consideration paid is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities :

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Balance Sheet wherever there is a currently enforceable

legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

i) Derivative financial instruments

The Company enters into derivative financial contracts in the nature of forward currency contracts with external parties to hedge its foreign currency risks relating to foreign currency

denominated financial liabilities measured at amortised cost.

The Company formally establishes a hedge relationship between such forward currency contracts ('hedging instrument') and recognised financial liabilities ('hedged item') through a formal documentation at the inception of the hedge relationship in line with the Company's risk management objective and strategy.

The hedge relationship so designated is accounted for in accordance with the accounting principles prescribed for a fair value hedge under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

Recognition and measurement of fair value hedge:

Hedging instrument is initially recognised at fair

value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and is subsequently measured

at fair value at each reporting date. Gain or loss arising from changes in the fair value of hedging instrument is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Hedging instrument is recognised as a financial asset in the Balance Sheet if its fair value as at reporting date is positive as compared to carrying value and as a financial liability if its fair value as at reporting date is negative as compared to carrying value.

Hedged item (recognised financial liability) is initially recognised at fair value on the date of entering into contractual obligation and is subsequently measured at amortised cost.

The hedging gain or loss on the hedged item

is adjusted to the carrying value of the hedged item as per the effective interest method and the corresponding effect is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition:

On Derecognition of the hedged item, the unamortised fair value of the hedging instrument

adjusted to the hedged item, is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss

The Company also enters into forward and option contracts to purchase an additional stake in equity capital in some of its investments in subsidiary

and associate companies. Such derivatives are recognised in its Balance Sheet when the Company becomes party to contractual provisions of the instrument. These derivatives are initially

recognised at fair value when the contract is entered. Derivative contracts are remeasured at fair value at the end of each reporting period and changes are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

j) Fair Value

The Company measures financial instruments at fair value in accordance with the accounting policies mentioned above. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. The fair value measurement is based on the presumption that the transaction to sell the asset or transfer the liability takes place either :

• In the principal market for the asset or liability, or

• In the absence of a principal market, in the most advantageous market for the asset or liability.

All assets and liabilities for which fair value is measured or disclosed in the Financial Statements are categorized within the fair value hierarchy that categorizes into three levels, described as follows, the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure value. The fair value hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 inputs) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 inputs).

Level 1 Ý— quoted (unadjusted) market prices in

active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 — inputs other than quoted prices

included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly

Level 3 — inputs that are unobservable for the asset or liability.

For assets and liabilities that are recognised in the Financial Statements at fair value on a recurring basis, the Company determines whether transfers have occurred between levels in the hierarchy by re-assessing categorization at the end of each reporting period and discloses the same.

k) Investment in subsidiary and associate Companies

The Company has elected to recognise its investments in subsidiary and associate companies at cost in accordance with the option available in Ind AS 27, 'Separate Financial Statements'.

Cost includes cash consideration paid on initial recognition, adjusted for embedded derivative and estimated contingent consideration (earn out), if any. The details of such investments are given in Note 5. Impairment policy applicable on such investments is explained in note 1.3(e) above.

Contingent consideration (earn out) is remeasured at fair value at each reporting date and changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

l) Foreign Currency Translation

Initial Recognition:

On initial recognition, transactions in foreign currencies entered into by the Company are recorded in the functional currency (i.e. Indian Rupees), by applying to the foreign currency

amount, the spot exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the transaction.

Measurement of foreign currency items at reporting date:

Foreign currency monetary items of the Company

are translated at the closing exchange rates. Nonmonetary items that are measured at historical cost in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary items that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency, are translated using the exchange rates at the date when the fair value is measured.

Exchange differences arising out of foreign exchange translations and settlements during the year are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

m) Income Taxes

Tax expense is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.

Current tax:

Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable in respect of taxable profit for a period. Taxable profit differs from 'profit before tax' as reported in the Statement of Profit and Loss because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible under the Income Tax Act, 1961.

Current tax is measured using tax rates that have been enacted by the end of reporting period for the amounts expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities.

Deferred tax:

Deferred tax is recognised on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the Financial Statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit under Income tax Act, 1961.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are generally recognised for all deductible and taxable temporary differences respectively. However, in case of temporary differences that arise from initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction (other than business combination) that affect neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit or does not give rise to equal taxable and deductible temporary differences, deferred tax assets or liabilities are not recognised. Also, for temporary differences if any that may arise from initial recognition of goodwill, deferred tax liabilities are not recognised.

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary difference can be utilized.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow the benefits of part or all of such deferred tax assets to be utilized.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Uncertain tax positions:

The management periodically evaluates positions taken in the tax returns with respect to situations

in which applicable tax regulations are subject to interpretation and considers whether it is probable that a taxation authority will accept an uncertain tax treatment. The Company reflects the effect of uncertainty for each uncertain tax treatment by using one of two methods, the expected value method (the sum of the probability - weighted amounts in a range of possible outcomes) or the most likely amount (single most likely amount method in a range of possible outcomes), depending on which is expected to better predict the resolution of the uncertainty. The Company applies consistent judgements and estimates if an uncertain tax treatment affects both the current and the deferred tax.

Presentation of current and deferred tax:

Current and deferred tax are recognised as income or an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income, in which case, the current and deferred tax income/expense are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income.

The Company offsets tax assets and liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

n) Provisions and Contingencies

The Company recognises provisions when a

present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event exists and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required and the amount of outflow can be reliably estimated.

If the effect of time value of money is material, provisions are discounted using a current pre-tax rate that reflects, when appropriate, the risks

specific to the liability. When discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as a finance cost.

A disclosure for a contingent liability is made when there is a possible obligation or a present obligation that may, but probably will not require an outflow of resources or the amount of such outflow cannot be measured reliably. When there is a possible obligation or a present obligation in respect of which likelihood of outflow of resources is remote, no provision or disclosure is made.

o) Measurement of EBITDA

The Company has opted to present earnings before interest (finance cost), tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) as a separate line item on the face of the Statement of Profit and Loss for the period. The Company measures EBITDA based on profit/(loss) from continuing operations.

p) Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of Cash Flow Statement comprise cash and cheques in hand, bank balances, demand deposits with banks where the original maturity is three months or less and other short term highly liquid investments net of bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand as these form an integral part of the Company's cash management.

q) Employee Benefits

Short Term Employee Benefits:

All employee benefits payable wholly within twelve months of rendering the service are classified as short term employee benefits and they are recognised in the period the employee renders the related service.

Post-Employment Benefits :

I. Defined contribution plans :

Defined contribution plans are employee

state insurance scheme and Government administered pension fund scheme for all applicable employees and superannuation scheme for eligible employees.

Recognition and measurement of defined contribution plans :

The Company recognises contribution payable to a defined contribution plan as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss

when the employees render services. If the contributions payable for services received

from employees before the reporting date exceeds the contributions already paid, the deficit payable is recognised as a liability after deducting the contribution already paid. If the contribution already paid exceeds the contribution due for services received before the reporting date, the excess is recognised as an asset to the extent that the prepayment will lead to a reduction in future payments or a cash refund.

II. Defined benefit plans :

i) Provident Fund scheme :

The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Employee

Provident Fund scheme to a separate trust administered by the Company. The minimum interest payable by the trust to the beneficiaries is being notified by the Government every year. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return on investments of the trust and the notified interest rate.

ii) Gratuity scheme :

The Company operates a defined benefit gratuity plan for employees.

The Company contributes to a separate entity (a fund), towards meeting the

Gratuity obligation.

iii) Pension Scheme :

The Company operates a defined benefit pension plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions,

as approved by the Board of Directors.

iv) Post-Retirement Medical benefit plan :

The Company operates a defined post-retirement medical benefit plan for certain specified employees and is payable upon the employee satisfying certain conditions.

Recognition and measurement of defined benefit plans :

The cost of providing defined benefits is determined using the Projected Unit Credit

method with actuarial valuations being

carried out at each reporting date. The defined benefit obligations recognised in the

Balance Sheet represent the present value of the defined benefit obligations as reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if applicable. Any defined benefit asset (negative defined

benefit obligations resulting from this calculation) is recognised representing the present value of available refunds and reductions in future contributions to the plan.

All expenses represented by current service cost, past service cost, if any, and net interest on the defined benefit liability

(asset) are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability (asset)

comprising actuarial gains and losses and the return on the plan assets (excluding

amounts included in net interest on the net defined benefit liability/asset), are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income. Such remeasurements are not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the subsequent periods.

The Company presents the above liability/ (asset) as current and non-current in the Balance Sheet as per actuarial valuation by the independent actuary; however, the entire liability towards gratuity is considered as current as the Company will contribute this amount to the gratuity fund within the next twelve months.

Other Long Term Employee Benefits:

Entitlements to annual leave and sick leave are recognised when they accrue to employees. Sick leave can only be availed while annual leave can either be availed or encashed subject to a restriction on the maximum number of accumulation of leave. The Company determines the liability for such accumulated leaves using the Projected Accrued Benefit method with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Expenses related to other long term employee benefits are recognised in the Statement of Profit and loss (including actuarial gain and loss).

r) Employee Share based Payments :

The Company operates equity settled share-based plan for the employees (Referred to as employee

stock option plan (ESOP)). ESOP granted to the

employees are measured at fair value of the stock options at the grant date. Such fair value of the equity settled share based payments is expensed on a straight line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company's estimate of equity shares that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity (employee stock option reserve). At the end of each reporting period, the Company revises its estimate of number of equity shares expected to vest. The impact of the revision of the original estimates, if any, is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss such that cumulative expense reflects the revision estimate, with a corresponding adjustments to the employee stock option reserve.

The Company recovers the expenses incurred on behalf of its subsidiary for the stock options

granted to the employees of the subsidiaries. The said recovery is netted off from the Employee

benefits expense.

s) Treasury shares :

The Company has created an ESOP Trust (Asian Paints Employees Stock Ownership Trust) which

acts as a vehicle to execute its ESOP plan. The ESOP trust is considered as an extension of the

Company and the shares held by the ESOP trust are treated as Treasury shares. The ESOP Trust purchases Company's share from secondary market for issuance to the employees on exercise of the granted stock options. These shares are recognised at cost and is disclosed separately as reduction from Other Equity as treasury shares.

No gain or loss in is recognised the Statement of Profit and Loss on purchase, sale, issuance, or cancellation of treasury shares.

t) Lease accounting

Assets taken on lease :

The Company mainly has lease arrangements for land and building for offices, warehouse spaces and retail stores and vehicles.

The Company assesses whether a contract is or contains a lease, at inception of a contract in accordance with Ind AS 116. The assessment involves the exercise of judgement about whether (i) the contract involves the use of an identified asset, (ii) the Company has substantially all the economic benefits from the use of the asset through the period of the lease, and (iii) the

Company has the right to direct the use of the asset.

The Company recognises a right-of-use asset ("ROU") and a corresponding lease liability at the lease commencement date. The ROU asset is initially recognised at cost, which comprises

the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or before the commencement date, plus any initial direct costs incurred. They are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.

The ROU asset is depreciated using the straightline method from the commencement date to the earlier of, the end of the useful life of the ROU asset or the end of the lease term or useful life of the underlying asset if the Company expects to exercise a purchase option in the lease. The estimated useful lives of ROU assets are determined on the same basis as those of property and equipment. In addition, the right-of-use asset is periodically reduced by impairment losses, if any, and adjusted for certain remeasurements of the lease liability.

The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at the commencement date, generally discounted using an incremental borrowing rate specific to the Company, term and currency of the contract.

Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability include fixed payments, variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate known at the commencement date; and extension option payments or purchase options payment which the Company is reasonably certain to exercise.

Variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or rate are recognised as an expense in the period in which the event or condition that triggers those payments occurs and are included in the line "other expenses" in the Statement of Profit or Loss.

After the commencement date, the amount of lease liabilities is increased to reflect the accretion of interest and reduced for the lease payments made and remeasured (with a corresponding adjustment to the related ROU asset) when there is a change in future lease payments in case of renegotiation, changes of an index or rate or in case of reassessment of options.

Short-term leases and leases of low-value assets

The Company has elected not to recognise ROU

assets and lease liabilities for short term leases as well as low value assets and recognises the lease payments associated with these leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

u) Borrowing Cost

Borrowing cost includes interest, amortisation of ancillary costs incurred in connection with

the arrangement of borrowings and exchange differences arising from foreign currency borrowings to the extent they are regarded as an adjustment to the interest cost.

Borrowing costs, if any, directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an

asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use or sale are capitalised, if any. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

v) Segment Reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) of the Company. The CODM is responsible for

allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments of the Company.

w) Events after reporting date

Where events occurring after the Balance Sheet date provide evidence of conditions that existed at the end of the reporting period, the impact of such events is adjusted within the Financial Statements. Otherwise, events after the Balance Sheet date of material size or nature are only disclosed.

x) Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity

shareholders of the Company with the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for treasury shares.

Diluted Earnings per share is calculated by dividing net profit attributable to the equity shareholders of the Company with the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the financial year, adjusted for effects of diluting potential equity shares towards ESOP plan.

y) Exceptional items :

An ordinary item of income or expense which by its size, nature, occurrence or incidence requires a disclosure in order to improve understanding of

the performance of the Company is treated as an exceptional item in the Statement of Profit and Loss account.

1.5. Key accounting estimates and judgements

The preparation of the Company's Financial Statements requires the management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities, and the accompanying disclosures, and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Uncertainty about these assumptions and estimates could result in outcomes that require a material adjustment to the carrying amount of assets or liabilities effected in future periods.

Critical accounting estimates and assumptions

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting

date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below :

a) Income taxes

The Company's tax jurisdiction is India. Significant judgements are involved in estimating budgeted profits for the purpose of paying advance tax, determining the provision for income taxes, including amount expected to be paid/recovered for uncertain tax positions (Refer note 18).

b) Business combinations and intangible assets

Business combinations are accounted for using IND AS 103, Business Combinations. IND AS 103

requires the identifiable intangible assets and contingent consideration to be fair valued in order to ascertain the net fair value of identifiabl assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquiree. Significant estimates are required to be made in determining the value of contingent consideration and intangible assets. These valuations are conducted by independent valuation experts.

c) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment represent a significant proportion of the asset base of the Company. The charge in respect of periodic depreciation is derived after determining an estimate of an asset's expected useful life and the expected residual value at the end of its life. The useful lives and residual values of Company's assets are determined by the management at the time the asset is acquired and reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end. The lives are based on historical experience with similar assets as well as anticipation of future events, the usage of the asset, expected physical wear and tear, the operating conditions of the asset, anticipated technological changes or a change in market demand of the product or service output of the asset, manufacturers warranties and maintenance support, etc.

d) Impairment of Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment on an annual basis and whenever there is an indication that the recoverable amount of a cash generating unit is less than its carrying amount based on a number of factors including operating results, business plans, future cash flows and economic conditions. The recoverable amount of cash generating units is determined based on higher of value-inuse and fair value less cost to sell. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the level of the cash-generating unit or groups of cash-generating units which are benefiting from the synergies of the acquisition and which represents the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.

Market related information and estimates are used to determine the recoverable amount. Key

assumptions on which management has based its determination of recoverable amount include estimated long term growth rates, weighted average cost of capital and estimated operating margins. Cash flow projections take into account past experience and represent management's best estimate about future developments.

e) Defined Benefit Obligation

The costs of providing pensions and other post-employment benefits are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in accordance with IND AS 19 'Employee benefits' over the period during which benefit is derived from the employees' services. The costs are assessed on the basis of assumptions selected by the management. These assumptions include salary escalation rate, discount rates, expected rate of return on assets and mortality rates. The same is disclosed in Note 34, 'Employee benefits'.

f) Share-based payment transactions

The fair value of employee stock options is

measured using the Black-Scholes model. Measurement inputs include share price on grant date, exercise price of the instrument, expected volatility (based on weighted average historical volatility), expected life of the instrument (based on expected exercise behaviour), expected dividends, and the risk free interest rate (based on government bonds). Details regarding the determination of the fair value of equity-settled share-based transactions are set out in note 34(3).

g) Fair value measurement of financial instruments

When the fair values of financials assets and financial liabilities recorded in the Balance Sheet cannot be measured based on quoted prices in active markets, their fair value is measured using valuation techniques, including the discounted cash flow model, which involve various judgements and assumptions.

h) Right-of-use assets and lease liability

The Company has exercised judgement in

determining the lease term as the non-cancellable term of the lease, together with the impact of options to extend or terminate the lease if it is reasonably certain to be exercised.

Where the rate implicit in the lease is not readily available, an incremental borrowing rate is applied. This incremental borrowing rate reflects the rate of interest that the lessee would have to pay to borrow over a similar term, with a similar security, the funds necessary to obtain an asset of a similar nature and value to the right-of-use asset in a similar economic environment. Determination of the incremental borrowing rate requires estimation.