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COAL INDIA LTD.

23 July 2024 | 10:54

Industry >> Mining/Minerals

Select Another Company

ISIN No INE522F01014 BSE Code / NSE Code 533278 / COALINDIA Book Value (Rs.) 134.24 Face Value 10.00
Bookclosure 20/02/2024 52Week High 527 EPS 60.69 P/E 8.07
Market Cap. 301788.81 Cr. 52Week Low 227 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 3.65 / 5.21 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2023-03 

A. CORPORATE INFORMATION

Coal India Limited (CIL) (the “Company”) is a Maharatna Company domiciled in India and limited by shares. The shares of the Company are listed and traded on the National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange India Limited (BSE) in India. The address of the Company’s registered office is Coal Bhawan, Premises No. 04 MAR, Plot No. -AF-III, Action Area-1A, New Town, Rajarhat, Kolkata- 700 156.

The company is primarily involved in the mining and production of Coal. The major consumers of the company are the power and steel sectors. Consumers from other sectors include cement, fertilizers, brick kilns, etc.

Coal India Limited has ten wholly-owned subsidiaries and seven number of step-down subsidiaries in India out of which seven subsidiaries are coal producing, one subsidiary is engaged in mine planning, designing, and related consultancy services and two subsidiaries are engaged in manufacturing solar value chain (ingot-wafer-cell module) and renewable energy business. CIL also has a fully owned mining company in Mozambique known as ‘Coal India Africana Limitada’ which is yet to commence operations. The Company is also engaged in certain ventures through Joint Venture arrangements.

The Standalone financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2023, were approved for issue by the Board of Directors of the company on May 07, 2023.

B. Statement of Compliance and Recent Accounting Pronouncements

i) Statement of Compliance

These standalone financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Indian Accounting Standards (hereinafter referred to as the “Ind AS”) as notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended) read with Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (“the Act”). The Ind ASs issued, notified and made effective till the financial statements are authorized and have been considered for the purpose of preparation of these financial statements.

The accounting policies are applied consistently except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy hitherto in use.

ii) Application of new and revised standards:

Effective April 01, 2022, the company has adopted the amendments vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standard) Amendment Rules, 2022 notifying amendment to existing Ind AS. These amendments to the extent relevant to the Company’s operation were relating to Ind AS 16 “Property, Plant and Equipment” which clarifies that excess of net sale proceeds of items produced over the cost of testing, if any, shall not be recognised in the profit or loss but deducted from the directly attributable costs considered as part of cost of an item of property, plant, and equipment and Ind AS 37 “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets” which specifies that the ‘cost of fulfilling’ a contract comprises the ‘costs that relate directly to the contract’. Costs that relate directly to a contract can either be incremental costs of fulfilling that contract (examples would be direct labour, materials) or an allocation of other costs that relate directly to fulfilling contracts (an example would be the allocation of the depreciation charge for an item of property, plant and equipment used in fulfilling the contract).

There were other amendments in various standards including Ind AS 101 “First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards”, Ind AS 103 “Business Combinations”, Ind AS 109 “Financial Instruments”, and Ind AS 41 “Agriculture” which have not been listed herein above since these are not relevant to the Company.

Revision in these standards did not have any material impact on the profit/loss and earning per share for the year.

iii) Recent accounting pronouncements

On March 31,2023, Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has made certain amendments to existing Ind AS vide Companies (Indian Accounting Standard) Amendment Rules, 2023. These amendments to the extent relevant to the Company’s operation include amendment to Ind AS 1 “Presentation of Financial Statements” which requires the entities to disclose their material accounting policies rather than their significant accounting policies, Ind AS 8 “Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors” which has introduced a definition of ‘accounting estimates’ and include amendments to help entities distinguish changes in accounting policies from changes in accounting estimates . Further consequential amendments with respect to the concept of material accounting policies have also been made in “, Ind AS 107 “Financial Instruments: Disclosures” and Ind AS 34 “Interim Financial Reporting”.

There are other amendments in various standards including Ind AS 101 “First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards”, Ind AS 103 “Business Combinations, Ind AS 109 “Financial Instruments “ Ind AS 115 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, Ind AS 12 “Income Taxes” which has narrowed the scope of the initial recognition exemption so that it does not apply to transactions that give rise to equal and offsetting temporary differences and Ind AS 102 “Share-based Payment” which have not been listed herein above since these are not relevant to the Company.

Even though the Company will evaluate the impact of above, none of these amendments as such are vital in nature and are not likely to have material impact on the financial statements of the Company.

Note 2: SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

2.1 Basis of preparation of financial statements

The Standalone Financial Statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on accrual basis except certain financial instruments that are measured in terms of relevant Ind AS at amortized costs or fair value at the end of each reporting period.

Historical cost convention is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services.

The functional currency of the company is determined as the currency of the primary economic environment in which it operates. The Standalone Financial Statements are presented in Indian Rupees and all values are rounded off to the ‘rupees in crore’ up to two decimal points.

2.2 Current and Non-Current Classification

The Company presents assets and liabilities in the Balance Sheet based on current/ non-current classification. An asset is treated as current by the Company when:

(a) it expects to realise the asset, or intends to sell or consume it, in its normal operating cycle;

(b) it holds the asset primarily for the purpose of trading;

(c) it expects to realise the asset within twelve months after the reporting period; or

(d) the asset is cash or a cash equivalent (as defined in Ind AS 7) unless the asset is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. All other assets are classified as non-current.

A liability is treated as current by the Company when:

(a) it expects to settle the liability in its normal operating cycle;

(b) it holds the liability primarily for the purpose of trading;

(c) the liability is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting period; or

(d) it does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting period. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification.

All other liabilities are classified as non-current.

Having regard to the nature of the business being carried out by the company, the company has ascertained its operating cycle as twelve months for the purpose of current and non-current classification of assets and liabilities.

2.3 Revenue recognition

Revenue from contracts with customers

Revenue from contracts with customers is recognized when control of the goods or services are transferred and/or products/services are delivered/ provided to the customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The Company has generally concluded that it is the principal in its revenue arrangements because it typically controls the goods or services before transferring them to the customer.

Revenue is measured based on the considerations specified in a contract with a customer and excludes amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The revenue from sales is recognised when control over a product or service has been transferred and /or products/services are delivered/provided to the customers. The delivery occurs when the product has been shipped or delivered to the specific location as the case may be and the customer has either accepted the products in accordance with contract or the company has sufficient evidence that all the criteria for acceptance has been satisfied. Returns, discounts and rebates collected, if any, are deducted there from sales.

The principles in Ind AS 115 are applied using the following five steps:

Step 1: Identifying the contract:

The Company account for a contract with a customer only when all of the following criteria are met:

a) the parties to the contract have approved the contract and are committed to perform their respective obligations;

b) the Company can identify each party’s rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred;

c) the Company can identify the payment terms for the goods or services to be transferred;

d) the contract has commercial substance (i.e. the risk, timing or amount of the Company’s future cash flows is expected to change as a result of the contract); and

e) it is probable that the Company will collect the consideration arising in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer. The amount of consideration to which the Company will be entitled may be less than the price stated in the contract if the consideration is variable because the Company may offer the customer a price concession, discount, rebates, refunds, credits or be incentives, performance bonuses, or similar items.

Combination of contracts

The Company combines two or more contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same customer (or related parties of the customer) and accounts for the contracts as a single contract if one or more of the following criteria are met:

a) the contracts are negotiated as a package with a single commercial objective;

b) the amount of consideration to be paid in one contract depends on the price or performance of the other contract; or

c) the goods or services promised in the contracts (or some goods or services promised in each of the contracts) are relatable to a single performance obligation.

Contract modification

The Company accounts for a contract modification as a separate contract if both of the following conditions are present:

a) the scope of the contract increases because of the addition of promised goods or services that are distinct and

b) the price of the contract increases by an amount of consideration that reflects the Company’s stand-alone

selling prices of the additional promised goods or services and any appropriate adjustments to that price depending upon the circumstances of the particular contract.

Step 2 : Identifying performance obligations:

At contract inception, the Company assesses obligation towards the goods or services promised in a contract with a customer and identify as a performance obligation each promise to transfer to the customer either:

a) a good or service (or a bundle of goods or services) that is distinct; or

b) a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer.

Step 3: Determining the transaction price

The Company consider the terms of the contract and its customary business practices to determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both.

When determining the transaction price, a Company consider the effects of all of the following:

- Variable consideration;

- Constraining estimates of variable consideration;

- The existence of significant financing component;

- Non - cash consideration;

- Consideration payable to a customer.

An amount of consideration can vary because of discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price concessions, incentives, performance bonuses, or other similar items. The promised consideration can also vary if the Company’s entitlement to the consideration is contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a future event.

In some contracts, penalties are specified. In such cases, penalties are accounted for as per the substance of the contract. Where the penalty is inherent in determination of transaction price, it forms part of variable consideration.

The Company includes in the transaction price some or all of an amount of estimated variable consideration only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.

The Company does not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component if it expects, at contract inception, that the period between when it transfers a promised goods or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.

The Company recognizes a refund liability if the Company receives consideration from a customer and expects to refund some or all of that consideration to the customer. A refund liability is measured at the amount of consideration received (or receivable) for which the Company does not expect to be entitled (i.e. amounts not included in the transaction price). The refund liability (and corresponding change in the transaction price and, therefore, the contract liability) is updated at the end of each reporting period for changes in circumstances.

After the contract inception, the transaction price can change for various reasons, including the resolution of uncertain events or other changes in circumstances that change the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for the promised goods or services.

Step 4: Allocating the transaction price:

The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation (or distinct good or service) equivalent to an amount that depicts the amount of consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to the customer.

In order to allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, the stand-alone selling price at contract inception is allocated to the distinct good or service underlying each performance obligation in the contract and the transaction price is determined in proportion to those stand-alone selling prices.

Step 5: Recognizing revenue:

The Company recognizes revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer. A good or service is transferred when (or as) the customer obtains control of that good or service.

The Company transfers control of a good or service over time and, therefore, satisfies a performance obligation and recognizes revenue over time, if one of the following criteria is met:

a) the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company’s performance as the Company performs;

b) the Company’s performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced;

c) the Company’s performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the Company and the Company has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.

For each performance obligation satisfied over time, the Company recognizes revenue over time by measuring the progress towards complete satisfaction of that performance obligation.

The Company applies a single method of measuring progress for each performance obligation satisfied over time and the Company applies that method consistently to similar performance obligations and in similar circumstances. At the end of each reporting period, the Company re-measure its progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation satisfied over time.

Company applies output methods to recognize revenue on the basis of direct measurements of the value to the customer of the goods or services transferred to date relative to the remaining goods or services promised under the contract. Output methods include methods such as surveys of performance completed to date, appraisals of results achieved, milestones reached, time elapsed and units produced or units delivered.

As circumstances change over time, the Company updates its measure of progress to reflect any changes in the outcome of the performance obligation. Such changes to the Company’s measure of progress is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate in accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

The Company recognizes revenue for a performance obligation satisfied over time only if the Company can reasonably measure its progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation. When (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied, the Company recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price (which excludes estimates of variable consideration that are constrained) that is allocated to that performance obligation.

If a performance obligation is not satisfied over time, the Company satisfies the performance obligation at a point in time. To determine the point in time at which a customer obtains control of a promised good or service and the Company satisfies a performance obligation, the Company considers indicators of the transfer of control, which include, but are not limited to, the following:

a) the Company has a present right to payment for the good or service;

b) the customer has legal title to the good or service;

c) the Company has transferred physical possession of the good or service;

d) the customer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the good or service;

e) the customer has accepted the good or service.

When either party to a contract has performed, the Company present the contract in the balance sheet as a contract asset or a contract liability, depending on the relationship between the Company’s performance and the customer’s payment. The Company presents any unconditional rights to consideration separately as a receivable.

Contract assets:

A contract asset is the right to consideration in exchange for goods or services transferred to the customer. If the Company performs by transferring goods or services to a customer before the customer pays consideration or before payment is due, a contract asset is recognized for the earned consideration.

Trade receivables:

A receivable represents the Company’s right to an amount of consideration that is unconditional (i.e., only the passage of time is required before payment of the consideration is due).

Contract liabilities:

A contract liability is the obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the Company has received consideration (or an amount of consideration is due) from the customer. If a customer pays consideration before the Company transfers goods or services to the customer, a contract liability is recognized when the payment is made or due (whichever is earlier). Contract liabilities are recognized as revenue when the Company fulfils the obligations.

Interest

Interest income from a financial asset is recognized when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably. Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset’s net carrying amount on initial recognition.

Dividend

Dividend income from investments is recognised when the rights to receive payment is established.

Other Claims

Revenue in respect of Other claims (including interest on delayed realization from customers) are recognized only when there is reasonable certainty as to the ultimate collection and the amount can be measured reliably.

2.4 Grants from Government

Government Grants are not recognised until there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and that there is reasonable certainty that grants will be received.

Government grants are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises the related expenses or costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.

Government Grants related to assets are presented in the balance sheet by setting up the grant as deferred income and are recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss on systematic basis over the useful life of asset.

Grants related to income (i.e. grant related to other than assets) are presented as part of statement of profit and loss under the head ‘Other Income’.

A government grant/assistance that becomes receivable as compensation for expenses or losses already incurred or for the purpose of giving immediate financial support to the Company with no future related costs, is recognised in profit or loss of the period in which it becomes receivable.

The Government grants or grants in the nature of promoter’s contribution is recognised directly in “Capital Reserve” which forms part of the “Shareholders fund”.

2.5 Leases

A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.

2.5.1 Company as a lessee

The Company assesses whether a contract contains a lease, at inception of a contract. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company assesses whether:

(i) the contract involves the use of an identified asset

(ii) the Company has substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset through the period of the lease and

(iii) the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset.

At the commencement date, a lessee shall recognise a right-of-use asset at cost and a lease liability at the present value of the lease payments that are not paid at that date for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset is of low value.

Subsequently, right-of-use asset is measured using cost model whereas, the lease liability is measured by increasing the carrying amount to reflect interest on the lease liability, reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments made and re-measuring the carrying amount to reflect any reassessment or lease modifications

The lease liability is initially measured at amortized cost at the present value of the future lease payments. The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if not readily determinable, using the incremental borrowing rates of these leases. Lease liabilities are premeasured with a corresponding adjustment to the related right of use asset if the Company changes its assessment if whether it will exercise an extension or a termination option. Lease liability and ROU asset are separately presented in the Balance Sheet and lease payments are classified as financing cash flows. Lease liability obligations is presented separately under the head “Financial Liabilities”.

Finance charges are recognised in finance costs in the Statement of Profit and Loss, unless the costs are included in the carrying amount of another asset applying other applicable standards.

Right-of-use asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset, if the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term or if the cost of the right-to-use asset reflects that the lessee will exercise a purchase option. Otherwise, the lessee shall depreciate the right-to-use asset from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term.

2.5.2 Company as a lessor

Assets are given on lease either as finance lease or operating lease.

Finance Lease: A lease is classified as finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of an underlying asset. Initially, asset held under finance lease is recognised in Balance Sheet and presented as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease. Finance income is recognised over the lease term, based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic rate of return on Company’s net investment in the lease.

Operating Lease: A lease which is not classified as a finance lease is an operating lease. The Company recognises lease payments in case of assets given on operating leases as income on a straight line basis.

2.6 Non-current assets held for sale

The Company classifies non-current assets and (or disposal groups) as held for sale if their carrying amounts will be recovered principally through a sale rather than through continuing use. Actions required to complete the sale should indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the sale will be made or that the decision to sell will be withdrawn. Management must be committed to the sale expected to be completed within one year from the date of classification.

For these purposes, sale transactions include exchanges of non-current assets for other non-current assets when the exchange has commercial substance. The criteria for held for sale classification is regarded met only when the assets or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition, subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (or disposal groups), its sale is highly probable; and it will genuinely be sold, not abandoned. The Company treats sale of the asset or disposal group to be highly probable when:

• The appropriate level of management is committed to a plan to sell the asset (or disposal group),

• An active programme to locate a buyer and complete the plan has been initiated

• The asset (or disposal group) is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value,

• The sale is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification, and

• Actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.

Non-current asset or disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

2.7 Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE)

An item of PPE is recognized as an asset if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

PPE are initially measured at cost of acquisition/ construction including decommissioning or restoration cost wherever required. Cost of land includes expenditures which are directly attributable to the acquisition of the land like, rehabilitation expenses, resettlement cost and compensation in lieu of employment incurred for concerned displaced persons etc.

After recognition, an item of all other Property, plant and equipment are carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses under Cost Model. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

(a) its purchase price, including import duties and nonrefundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.

(b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

(c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and

removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which the Company incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

(d) Interest on Borrowings utilized to finance the construction of qualifying assets are capitalised as part of cost of the asset until such time that the asset is ready for its intended use.

Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item is depreciated separately. However, significant part(s) of an item of PPE having same useful life and depreciation method are grouped together in determining the depreciation charge.

Costs of the day to-day servicing described as ‘repairs and maintenance’ are recognised in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which the same are incurred.

Subsequent cost of replacing parts which are significant in relation to the total cost of an item of property, plant and equipment are recognised in the carrying amount of the item, if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company; and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognised in accordance with the derecognition policy mentioned below.

When major inspection is performed, its cost is recognised in the carrying amount of the item of property, plant and equipment as a replacement if it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company; and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection (as distinct from physical parts) is derecognised.

An item of Property, plant or equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are

expected from the continuing use of assets. Any gain or loss arising on such derecognition of an item of property plant and equipment is recognised in profit and Loss.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment, except freehold land, is provided as per cost model on straight line basis over the estimated useful lives of the asset as follows:

Other Land

(incl. Leasehold Land)

Life of the project or lease term whichever is lower

Building

3-60 years

Roads

3-10 years

Telecommunication

3-9 years

Railway Sidings

15 years

Plant and Equipment

5-30 years

Computers and Laptops

3 Years

Office equipment :

3-6 years

Furniture and Fixtures

10 years

Vehicles :

8-10 years

Based on technical evaluation, the management believes that the useful lives given above best represent the period over which the management expects to use the asset. Hence the useful lives of the assets may be different from the useful lives as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the companies act, 2013.

The estimated useful life of the assets is reviewed at the end of each financial year.

The residual value of Property, plant and equipment is considered as 5% of the original cost of the asset except for some items of assets such as Coal tub, winding ropes, haulage ropes, stowing pipes & safety lamps etc. for which the useful life has been technically estimated to be one year with nil residual value.

Depreciation on the assets added/disposed of during the year is provided on pro-rata basis with reference to the month of addition / disposal.

Value of “Other Land” includes land acquired under Coal Bearing Area (Acquisition & Development) (CBA) Act, 1957, Land Acquisition Act, 1894, Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (RFCTLAAR) Act, 2013, Long term transfer of government land etc., which are amortised on the basis of the balance life of the project; and in case of Leasehold land such amortisation is based on lease period or balance life of the project whichever is lower.

Assets that are fully depreciated and retired from active use are disclosed separately as surveyed off assets at its residual value under Property, Plant Equipment and are tested for impairment.

Capital Expenses incurred by the Company on construction/development of certain assets which are essential for production, supply of goods or for the access

to any existing Assets of the Company are recognised as Enabling Assets under Property, Plant and Equipment.

Transition to Ind AS

The Company elected to continue with the carrying value as per cost model (for all of its property, plant and equipment) as recognised in the financial statements as at the date of transition to Ind ASs, measured as per the previous GAAP.

2.8 Mine Closure, Site Restoration and Decommissioning Obligation

The Company’s obligation for land reclamation and decommissioning of structures consists of spending at both surface and underground mines in accordance with the guidelines from Ministry of Coal, Government of India. The Company estimates its obligation for Mine Closure, Site Restoration and Decommissioning based upon detailed calculation and technical assessment of the amount and timing of the future cash spending to perform the required work. Mine Closure expenditure is provided as per approved Mine Closure Plan. The estimates of expenses are escalated for inflation, and then discounted at a discount rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks, such that the amount of provision reflects the present value of the expenditures expected to be incurred to settle the obligation. The Company records a corresponding asset associated with the liability for final reclamation and mine closure. The obligation and corresponding assets are recognised in the period in which the liability is incurred. The asset representing the total site restoration cost (as estimated by Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited) as per mine closure plan is recognised as a separate item in PPE and amortised over the balance project/mine life.

The value of the provision is progressively increased over time as the effect of discounting unwinds; creating an expense recognised as financial expenses.

Further, a specific escrow fund account is maintained for this purpose as per the approved mine closure plan.

The progressive mine closure expenses incurred on year to year basis forming part of the total mine closure obligation is initially recognised as receivable from escrow account and thereafter adjusted with the obligation in the year in which the amount is withdrawn after the concurrence of the certifying agency.

2.9 Exploration and Evaluation Assets

Exploration and evaluation assets comprise costs which are attributable to the search for coal and related resources, pending the determination of technical feasibility and the assessment of commercial viability of an identified resource which comprises inter alia the following:

• acquisition of rights to explore

• researching and analysing historical exploration data;

• gathering exploration data through topographical, geo chemical and geo physical studies;

• exploratory drilling, trenching and sampling;

• determining and examining the volume and grade of the resource;

• surveying transportation and infrastructure requirements;

• Conducting market and finance studies.

The above includes employee remuneration, cost of materials and fuel used, payments to contractors etc.

As the intangible component represents an insignificant/ indistinguishable portion of the overall expected tangible costs to be incurred and recouped from future exploitation, these costs along with other capitalised exploration costs are recorded as exploration and evaluation asset.

Exploration and evaluation costs are capitalised on a project by project basis pending determination of technical feasibility and commercial viability of the project and disclosed as a separate line item under non-current assets. They are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated impairment/provision.

Once proved reserves are determined and development of mines/project is sanctioned, exploration and evaluation assets are transferred to “Development” under capital work in progress. However, if proved reserves are not determined, the exploration and evaluation asset is derecognised.

2.10 Development Expenditure

When proved reserves are determined and development of mines/project is sanctioned, capitalised exploration and evaluation cost is recognised as assets under construction and disclosed as a component of capital work in progress under the head “Development”. All subsequent development expenditure is also capitalised. The development expenditure capitalised is net of proceeds from the sale of coal extracted during the development phase.

Commercial Operation

The project/mines are brought to revenue; when commercial readiness of a project/mine to yield production on a sustainable basis is established either on the basis of conditions specifically stated in the project report or on the basis of the following criteria:

a) From beginning of the financial year immediately after the year in which the project achieves physical output of 25% of rated capacity as per approved project report, or

b) 2 years of touching of coal, or

c) From the beginning of the financial year in which the value of production is more than total, expenses.

Whichever event occurs first;

On being brought to revenue, the assets under capital work in progress are reclassified as a component of property, plant and equipment under the nomenclature “Other Mining Infrastructure”. Other Mining Infrastructure are amortised from the year when the mine is brought under revenue in 20 years or working life of the project whichever is less.

2.11 Intangible Assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. Cost includes any directly attributable expenses necessary to make the assets ready for its intended use. After initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

Subsequent expenditure is recognized as an increase in the carrying amount of the asset when it is probable that future economic benefits deriving from the cost incurred will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

An item of Intangible asset is derecognized upon disposal or when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal. Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised.

Internally generated intangibles, excluding capitalised development costs, are not capitalised. Instead, the related expenditure is recognised in the statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive income in the period in which the expenditure is incurred.

The useful lives of intangible assets are assessed as either finite or indefinite. Intangible assets with finite lives are amortised over their useful economic lives and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortisation period and the amortisation method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting period. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortisation period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortisation expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortised but is tested for impairment at each reporting date.

Exploration and Evaluation assets attributable to blocks identified for sale or proposed to be sold to outside agencies (i.e. for blocks not earmarked for CIL) are however, classified as Intangible Assets and tested for impairment.

Expenditure on research is charged to expenditure as and when incurred. Expenditure on development is capitalized only if the expenditure can be measured reliably, the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, future economic benefits are probable and the Company intends to & has sufficient resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset.

2.12 Impairment of Assets (other than financial assets)

The Company assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the asset. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s or cashgenerating unit’s value in use and its fair value less costs of disposal, and is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets, in which case the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. Company considers individual mines as separate cash generating units for the purpose of test of impairment.

If the recoverable amount of an asset is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset is reduced to its recoverable amount and the impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.13 Investment Property

Property (land or a building or part of a building or both) held to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, rather than for, use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or sale in the ordinary course of businesses are classified as investment property.

Investment property is measured initially at its cost, including related transaction costs and where applicable borrowing costs.

Investment properties are depreciated using the straightline method over their estimated useful lives.

2.14 Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

2.14.1 Financial assets

2.14.1 Initial recognition and measurement

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, plus transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a time frame established by regulation or convention in the market place (regular way trades) are recognised on the trade date, i.e., the date that the Company commits to purchase or sell the asset. However, trade receivables that do not contain a significant financing component are measured at transaction price.

2.14.2 Subsequent measurement

For purposes of subsequent measurement, financial assets are classified in four categories:

• Debt instruments at amortised cost

• Debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

• Debt instruments, derivatives and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL)

• Equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVTOCI)

2.14.2.1 Debt instruments at amortised cost

A ‘debt instrument’ is measured at the amortised cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortisation is included in finance income in the profit or loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognised in the profit or loss.

2.14.2.2 Debt instrument at FVTOCI

A ‘debt instrument’ is classified as at the FVTOCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent SPPI.

Debt instruments included within the FVTOCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in the other comprehensive income (OCI). However, the Company recognizes interest income, impairment losses & reversals and foreign exchange gain or loss in the P&L. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from the equity to P&L. Interest earned whilst holding FVTOCI debt instrument is reported as interest income using the EIR method.

2.14.2.3 Debt instrument at FVTPL

FVTPL is a residual category for debt instruments. Any debt instrument, which does not meet the criteria for categorization as at amortized cost or as FVTOCI, is classified as at FVTPL.

In addition, the Company may elect to designate a debt instrument, which otherwise meets amortized cost or FVTOCI criteria, as at FVTPL. However, such election is allowed only if doing so reduces or eliminates a measurement or recognition inconsistency (referred to as ‘accounting mismatch’). The Company has not designated any debt instrument as at FVTPL.

Debt instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

2.14.2.4 Equity investments in subsidiaries, associates and Joint Ventures

In accordance of Ind AS 101 (First time adoption of Ind AS), the carrying amount of these investments as per previous GAAP as on the date of transition is considered to be the deemed cost. Subsequently Investment in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures are measured at cost.

In case of standalone financial statement, Equity investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted as per equity method as prescribed in para 10 of Ind AS 28.

2.14.2.5 Other Equity Investment

All other equity investments in scope of Ind AS 109 are measured at fair value through profit or loss.

The Company may make an irrevocable election to present in other comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value. The Company makes such election on an instrument by-instrument basis. The classification is made on initial recognition and is irrevocable.

All fair value changes of an equity instrument classified at FVTOCI, are recognized in OCI. There is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to the Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the Company may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity. Dividends from such investments are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as “other income” when the Company’s right to receive payments is established.

Equity instruments included within the FVTPL category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the P&L.

2.14.2.6 Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a company of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the balance sheet) when:

• The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or

• The Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Company has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Company has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

When the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from an asset or has entered into a pass-through arrangement, it evaluates if and to what extent it has retained the risks and rewards of ownership. When it has neither transferred nor retained substantially all of the risks and rewards of the asset, nor transferred control of the asset, the Company continues to recognise the transferred asset to the extent of the Company’s continuing involvement. In that case, the Company also recognises an associated liability. The transferred asset and the associated liability are measured on a basis that reflects the rights and obligations that the Company has retained. Continuing involvement that takes the form of a guarantee over the transferred asset is measured at the lower of the original carrying amount of the asset and the maximum amount of consideration that the Company could be required to repay.

2.14.2.7 Impairment of financial assets (other than fair value)

In accordance with Ind AS 109, the Company applies expected credit loss (ECL) model for measurement and recognition of impairment loss on the following financial assets and credit risk exposure:

a) Financial assets that are debt instruments, and are measured at amortised cost e.g., loans, debt securities, deposits, trade receivables and bank balance

b) Financial assets that are debt instruments and are measured as at FVTOCI

c) Lease receivables under Ind AS 116

d) Trade receivables or any contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset that result from transactions that are within the scope of Ind AS 115.

The Company follows ‘simplified approach’ for recognition of impairment loss allowance on:

• Trade receivables or contract revenue receivables; and

• All lease receivables resulting from transactions within the scope of Ind AS 116

The application of simplified approach does not require the Company to track changes in credit risk. Rather, it recognises impairment loss allowance based on lifetime ECLs at each reporting date, right from its initial recognition.

2.14.3 Financial liabilities

2.14.3.1 Initial recognition and measurement

The Company’s financial liabilities include trade and other payables, loans and borrowings including bank overdrafts.

All financial liabilities are recognised initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

2.14.3.2 Subsequent measurement

The measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

2.14.3.3 Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition as at fair value through profit or loss. Financial liabilities are classified as held for trading if they are incurred for the purpose of repurchasing in the near term. This category also includes derivative financial instruments entered into by the Company that are not designated as hedging instruments in hedge relationships as defined by Ind AS 109. Separated embedded derivatives are also classified as held for trading unless they are designated as effective hedging instruments.

Gains or losses on liabilities held for trading are recognised in the profit or loss.

2.14.3.4 Financial liabilities at amortised cost

After initial recognition, these are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss when the liabilities are derecognised as well as through the effective interest rate amortisation process. Amortised cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the effective interest rate. The effective interest rate amortisation is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability (or part of a financial liability) extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, shall be recognised in profit or loss.

2.14.4 Reclassification of financial assets

The Company determines classification of financial assets and liabilities on initial recognition. After initial recognition, no reclassification is made for financial assets which are equity instruments and financial liabilities. For financial assets which are debt instruments, a reclassification is made only if there is a change in the business model for managing those assets. Changes to the business model are expected to be infrequent. The Company’s senior management determines change in the business model as a result of external or internal changes which are significant to the Company’s operations. Such changes are evident to external parties. A change in the business model occurs when the Company either begins or ceases to perform an activity that is significant to its operations. If Company reclassifies financial assets, it applies the reclassification prospectively from the reclassification date which is the first day of the immediately next reporting period following the change in business model. The Company does not restate any previously recognised gains, losses (including impairment gains or losses) or interest.

The following table shows various reclassification and how they are accounted for

Original

classification

Revised

classification

Accounting treatment

Amortised cost

FVTPL

Fair value is measured at reclassification date. Difference between previous amortized cost and fair value is recognised in P&L.

FVTPL

Amortised Cost

Fair value at reclassification date becomes its new gross carrying amount. EIR is calculated based on the new gross carrying amount.

Amortised cost

FVTOCI

Fair value is measured at reclassification date. Difference between previous amortised cost and fair value is recognised in OCI. No change in EIR due to reclassification.

FVTOCI

Amortised cost

Fair value at reclassification date becomes its new amortised cost carrying amount. However, cumulative gain or loss in OCI is adjusted against fair value. Consequently, the asset is measured as if it had always been measured at amortised cost.

FVTPL

FVTOCI

Fair value at reclassification date becomes its new carrying amount. No other adjustment is required.

FVTOCI

FVTPL

Assets continue to be measured at fair value. Cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified to P&L at the reclassification date.

2.14.5 Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the standalone balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

2.14.6 Cash & Cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalent in the balance sheet comprise cash at banks and on hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the standalone statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and short-term deposits, as defined above, net of outstanding bank overdrafts as they are considered an integral part of the Company’s cash management.

2.15 Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs are expensed as and when incurred except where they are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets i.e. the assets that necessarily takes substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use, in which case they are capitalised as part of the cost of related asset up to the date when the qualifying asset is ready for its intended use.

2.16 Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for a period. Taxable profit differs from “profit before income tax” as reported in the statement of profit and loss and other comprehensive income because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences. Deferred tax assets are generally recognised for all deductible temporary difference to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which those deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates, except where the Company is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences associated with such investments and interests are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that there will be sufficient taxable profits against which to utilise the benefits of the temporary differences.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered. Unrecognised deferred tax assets are reassessed at the end of each reporting year and are recognised to the extent that it has become probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset is realised, based on tax rate (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Current and deferred tax are recognised in profit or loss, except when they relate to items that are recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case, the current and deferred tax are also recognised in other comprehensive income or directly in equity respectively. Where current tax or deferred tax arises from the initial accounting for a business combination, the tax effect is included in the accounting for the business combination.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities, and when the deferred income tax assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the taxable entity or different taxable entities where there is an intention to settle the balances on a net basis.

2.17 Employee Benefits

2.17.1 Short-term Benefits

Short-term employee benefits are employee benefits (other than termination benefits) that are expected to be settled wholly before twelve months after the end

of the annual reporting period in which the employees render the related service.

All short-term employee benefits are recognized in the period in which the services are rendered by employees.

2.17.2 Post-employment benefits and other longterm employee benefits

2.17.2.1 Defined contributions plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Company pays fixed contribution into fund maintained by a separate body and the Company will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss in the periods during which services are rendered by employees.

2.17.2.2 Defined benefits plans

A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return of their service in the current and prior periods. The benefit is discounted to determine its present value and reduced by the fair value of plan assets, if any. The discount rate is based on the prevailing market yields of Indian Government securities as at the reporting date that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Company’s obligations and that are denominated in the same currency in which the benefits are expected to be paid.

The application of actuarial valuation involves making assumptions about discount rate, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates etc. Due to the long term nature of these plans, such estimates are subject to uncertainties. The calculation is performed at each balance sheet by an actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in to the benefit to the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of the economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reduction in future contributions to the plan. An economic benefit is available to the Company if it is realisable during the life of the plan, or on settlement of plan liabilities.

Re-measurement of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gain and losses considering the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effects of the assets ceiling (if any, excluding interest) are recognised immediately in the other comprehensive income. The Company determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in profit and loss.

When the benefits of the plan are improved, the portion of the increased benefit relating to past service by employees is recognised as expense immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

2.17.3 Other long-term employee benefits

Other long-term employee benefits are all employee benefits other than short-term employee benefits, post-employment benefits and termination benefits.

Other long-term employee benefits include items which are not expected to be settled wholly before twelve months after the end of the annual reporting period in which the employees render the related service.

For other long-term employee benefits, net total of the following amounts is recognized in the statement of profit or loss:

(a) Service cost

(b) Net interest on the net defined benefit liability (asset)

(c) Re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability (asset)

2.18 Foreign Currency

Transactions in foreign currencies are converted into the reported currency of the Company using the exchange rate prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies outstanding at the end of the reporting period are translated at the exchange rates prevailing as at the end of reporting period. Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary assets and liabilities or on translating monetary assets and liabilities at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition during the period or in previous financial statements are recognised in statement of profit and loss in the period in which they arise.

Non-monetary items denominated in foreign currency are valued at the exchange rates prevailing on the date of transactions.

2.19 Stripping Activity Expense/Adjustment

In case of opencast mining, the mine waste materials (“overburden”) which consists of soil and rock on the top of coal seam is required to be removed to get access to the coal and its extraction. This waste removal activity is known as ‘stripping’. In opencast mines, the Company has to incur such expenses over the life of the mine (as technically estimated).

Therefore, as a policy, in the mines with rated capacity of one million tonnes per annum and above, cost of Stripping is charged on technically evaluated average stripping ratio (OB: COAL) at each mine with due adjustment for stripping activity asset and ratio-variance account after the mines are brought to revenue.

Net of balances of stripping activity asset and ratio variance at the Balance Sheet date is shown as Stripping Activity Adjustment under the head Non - Current Provisions / Other Non-Current Assets as the case may be.

The reported quantity of overburden as per record is considered in calculating the ratio for OBR accounting where the variance between reported quantity and measured quantity is within the permissible limits, as detailed hereunder: -

Annual Quantum of OBR

Permissible limits of

Of the Mine

variance (%)

Less than 1 Mill. CUM

/- 5%

Between 1 and 5 Mill. CUM

/- 3%

More than 5 Mill. CUM

/- 2%

However, where the variance is beyond the permissible limits as above, the measured quantity is considered.

In case of mines with rated capacity of less than one million tonne, the above policy is not applied and actual cost of stripping activity incurred during the year is recognised in Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.20 Inventories

2.20.1 Stock of Coal

Inventories of coal/coke are stated at lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventories are calculated using the Weighted Average method. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price of inventories less all estimated costs of completion and costs necessary to make the sale.

Book stock of coal is considered in the accounts where the variance between book stock and measured stock is up to /- 5% and in cases where the variance is beyond /- 5% the measured stock is considered. Such stock are valued at net realisable value or cost whichever is lower. Coke is considered as a part of stock of coal.

Coal & coke-fines are valued at lower of cost or net realisable value and considered as a part of stock of coal.

Slurry (coking/semi-coking), middling of washeries and by products are valued at net realisable value and considered as a part of stock of coal.

2.20.2 Stores & Spares

The Stock of stores and spare parts (which also includes loose tools) at central and area stores are considered as per balances appearing in priced stores ledger and are valued at cost calculated on the basis of weighted average method. The inventory of stores & spare parts lying at collieries / sub-stores / drilling camps/ consuming centres are considered at the year-end only as per physically verified stores and are valued at cost.

Provisions are made at the rate of 100% for unserviceable, damaged and obsolete stores and spares and at the rate of 50% for stores & spares not moved for 5 years.

2.20.3 Other Inventories

Workshop jobs including work-in-progress are valued at cost. Stock of press jobs (including work in progress) and stationary at printing press and medicines at central hospital are valued at cost.

However, Stock of stationery (other than lying at printing press), bricks, sand, medicine (except at Central Hospitals), aircraft spares and scraps are not considered in inventory considering their value not being significant.

2.21 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities & Contingent Assets

Provisions are recognized when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation can be made. Where the time value of money is material, provisions are stated at the present value of the expenditure expected to settle the obligation.

All provisions are reviewed at each balance sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

Where it is not probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required, or the amount cannot be estimated reliably, the obligation is disclosed as a contingent liability, unless the probability of outflow of economic benefits is remote. Possible obligations, whose existence will only be confirmed by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more future uncertain events not wholly within the control of the Company, are also disclosed as contingent liabilities unless the probability of outflow of economic benefits is remote.

Contingent assets are possible assets that arise from past events and whose existence will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company. Contingent assets are disclosed in the financial statements when inflow of economic benefits is probable on the basis of judgment of management. These are assessed continually to ensure that developments are appropriately reflected in the financial statements.

2.22 Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share are computed by dividing the net profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per shares is computed by dividing the profit after tax by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per shares and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares.

2.23 Judgements, Estimates and Assumptions

The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make estimates, judgements and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of financial statements and the amount of revenue and expenses during the reported period. Application of accounting policies involving complex and subjective judgements and the use of assumptions in these financial statements have been disclosed. Accounting estimates could change from period to period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimate are recognised in the period in which the estimates are revised and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.

2.23.1 Judgements

In the process of applying the Company’s accounting policies, management has made the following judgements, which have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements:

Accounting policies are formulated in a manner that result in financial statements containing relevant and reliable information about the transactions, other events and conditions to which they apply. Those policies need not be applied when the effect of applying them is immaterial.

In the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies to a transaction, other event or condition, management has used its judgement in developing and applying an accounting policy that results in information that is:

a) relevant to the economic decision-making needs of users and

b) reliable in that financial statements: and

(i) represent faithfully the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Company; (ii) reflect the economic substance of transactions, other events and conditions, and not merely the legal form; (iii) are neutral, i.e. free from bias; (iv) are prudent; and (v) arecomplete in all material respects on a consistent basis

In making the judgement management refers to, and considers the applicability of, the following sources in descending order:

(a) the requirements in Ind ASs dealing with similar and related issues; and

(b) the definitions, recognition criteria and measurement concepts for assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the Framework.

In making the judgement, management considers the most recent pronouncements of International Accounting Standards Board and in absence thereof those of the other standard-setting bodies that use a similar conceptual framework to develop accounting standards, other accounting literature and accepted industry practices, to the extent that these do not conflict with the Indian accountimg Standard and accounting policies and practies as stated in above paragraph.

The Company operates in the mining sector (a sector where the exploration, evaluation, development production phases are based on the varied topographical and geomining terrain spread over the lease period running over decades and prone to constant changes), the accounting policies whereof have evolved based on specific industry practices supported by research committees and approved by the various

regulators owing to its consistent application over the last several decades. In the absence of specific accounting literature, guidance and standards in certain specific areas which are in the process of evolution, the Company continues to strive to develop accounting policies in line with the development of accounting literature and any development therein shall be accounted for prospectively as per the procedure laid down above more particularly in Ind AS 8.

2.23.1.2 Materiality

Ind AS applies to items which are material. Management uses judgement in deciding whether individual items or groups of item are material in the financial statements. Materiality is judged by reference to the nature or magnitude or both of the item. The deciding factor is whether omitting or misstating or obscuring an information could individually or in combination with other information influence decisions that primary users make on the basis of the financial statements. Management also uses judgement of materiality for determining the compliance requirement of the Ind AS. Further, the Company may also be required to present separately immaterial items when required by law.

With effect from 01.04.2019 Errors/omissions discovered in the current year relating to prior periods are treated as immaterial and adjusted during the current year, if all such errors and omissions in aggregate does not exceed 1% of total revenue from Operation (net of statutory levies) as per the last audited financial statement of the Company.

2.23.1.3 Operating lease

Company has entered into lease agreements. The Company has determined, based on an evaluation of the terms and conditions of the arrangements, such as the lease term not constituting a major part of the economic life of the commercial property and the fair value of the asset, that it retains all the significant risks and rewards of ownership of these properties and accounts for the contracts as operating leases.

2.23.2 Estimates and assumptions

The key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the reporting date, that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are described below. The Company based its assumptions

and estimates on parameters available when the standalone financial statements were prepared. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising that are beyond the control of the Company. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.

The estimates, judgements and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

The application of accounting policies that require critical judgements and accounting estimates involving complex and subjective judgements and the use of assumptions in these standalone financial statements have been disclosed here in below:

2.23.2.1 Impairment of non-financial assets

There is an indication of impairment if, the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. Company considers individual mines as separate cash generating units for the purpose of test of impairment. The value in use calculation is based on a DCF model. The cash flows are derived from the budget for the next five years and do not include restructuring activities that the Company is not yet committed to or significant future investments that will enhance the asset’s performance of the CGU being tested. The recoverable amount is sensitive to the discount rate used for the DCF model as well as the expected future cash-inflows and the growth rate used for extrapolation purposes. These estimates are most relevant to other mining infrastructures. The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for the different CGUs, are disclosed and further explained in respective notes.

2.23.2.2 Taxes

Deferred tax assets are recognised for unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the losses can be utilised. Significant management judgement is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits together with future tax planning strategies.

2.23.2.3 Defined benefit plans

The cost of the defined benefit plan and other post-employment medical benefits and the present value of the obligations are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments in the future. These include the determination of the discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates.

Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its long-term nature, a defined benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date. The parameter most subject to change is the discount rate. In determining the appropriate discount rate for plans operated in India, the management considers the interest rates of government bonds in currencies consistent with the currencies of the post-employment benefit obligation.

The mortality rate is based on publicly available mortality tables of the country. Those mortality tables tend to change only at interval in response to demographic changes.

2.23.2.4 Fair value measurement of financial instruments

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions.

The Company categorizes assets and liabilities measured at fair value into one of three levels depending on the ability to observe inputs employed for such measurement:

(a) Level 1: inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

(b) Level 2: inputs other than quoted prices included within level 1 that are observable either directly or indirectly for the asset or liability.

(c) Level 3: inputs for the asset or liability which are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

The Company has an established control framework with respect to the measurement of fair values. This includes a finance team that has overall responsibility for overseeing all significant fair value measurements who regularly review significant unobservable inputs, valuation adjustments and fair value hierarchy under which the valuation should be classified.

2.23.2.5 Intangible asset under development

The Company capitalises intangible asset under development for a project in accordance with the accounting policy. Initial capitalisation of costs is based on management’s judgement that technological and economic feasibility is confirmed, usually when a project report is formulated and approved.

2.23.2.6 Provision for Mine Closure, Site Restoration and Decommissioning Obligation

In determining the fair value of the provision for Mine Closure, Site Restoration and Decommissioning Obligation, assumptions and estimates are made in relation to discount rates, the expected cost of site restoration and dismantling and the expected timing of those costs. The Company estimates provision using the DCF method considering life of the project/mine based on

• Estimated cost per hectare as specified in guidelines issued by Ministry of Coal, Government of India

• The discount rate (pre-tax rate) that reflect current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

2.23.2.7 Stripping Activity

Ratio Variance reserve is recognized or reversed based on the current ratio of OB to Coal as compared to the average Stripping ratio (Standard ratio) of the mine. The standard ratios are based on the coal reserves of the mine and the Overburden to be removed during the life of the mine as per the project report. Changes in the geo-mining conditions of the project will generally result in changes in the ratios, such changes to the ratios are accounted for prospectively.

2.24 Abbreviation used:

a.

CGU

Cash generating unit

l.

ECL

Eastern Coalfields Limited

b.

DCF

Discounted Cash Flow

m.

BCCL

Bharat Coking Coal Limited

c.

FVTOCI

Fair value through Other Comprehensive Income

n.

CCL

Central Coalfields Limited

d.

FVTPL

Fair value through Profit & Loss

o.

SECL

South Eastern Coalfields Limited

e.

GAAP

Generally accepted accounting principles

p.

MCL

Mahanadi Coalfields Limited

f.

Ind AS

Indian Accounting Standards

q.

NCL

Northern Coalfields Limited

g.

OCI

Other Comprehensive Income

r.

WCL

Western Coalfields Limited

h.

P&L

Profit and Loss

s.

CMPDIL

Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited

i.

PPE

Property, Plant and Equipment

t.

NEC

North Eastern Coalfields

j.

SPPI

Solely Payment of Principal and Interest

u.

IICM

Indian Institute of Coal Management

k.

EIR

Effective Interest Rate

v.

CIL

Coal India Limited