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Company Information

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HCL TECHNOLOGIES LTD.

20 April 2021 | 01:34

Industry >> IT Consulting & Software

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ISIN No INE860A01027 52Week High 1067 Book Value (Rs.) 188.92 Face Value 2.00
Bookclosure 01/05/2021 52Week Low 448 EPS 40.75 P/E 23.73
Market Cap. 262424.98 Cr. P/BV 5.12 Div Yield (%) 1.03 Market Lot 1.00

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

(a) Basis of preparation

The financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) notified under the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 (as amended from time to time.) and presentation requirements of Schedule III (Division II) to the Companies Act, 2013, as applicable to the financial statements.

These financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention on an accrual and going concern basis except for the following assets and liabilities which have been measured at fair value:

a) Derivative financial instruments,

b) Certain financial assets and liabilities (refer accounting policy regarding financial instruments),

The accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these financial statements are consistent with those of the previous year except where a newly issued accounting standard is initially adopted or a revision to an existing accounting standard requires a change in the accounting policy.

The Company uses the Indian rupee (Rs.) as its reporting currency.

(b) Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires the management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and other comprehensive income (OCI) that are reported and disclosed in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates are based on the management’s best knowledge of current events, historical experience, actions that the Company may undertake in the future and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Significant estimates and assumptions are used for, but not limited to, accounting for costs expected to be incurred to complete performance under fixed price projects, allowance for uncollectible accounts receivables, accrual of warranty costs, income taxes, valuation of share-based compensation, future obligations under employee benefit plans, the useful lives of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, impairment of goodwill,and other contingencies and commitments. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the year in which the changes are made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

(c) Business combinations and goodwill

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The cost of an acquisition is the aggregate of the consideration transferred measured at fair value at the acquisition date. Acquisition related costs are expensed as incurred.

Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the acquirer is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Contingent consideration classified as financial liability is measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the excess is recognized as capital reserve after reassessing the fair values of the net assets.

(d) Foreign currency and translation

The financial statements are presented in Indian Rupee (?) which is also the Company’s functional currency. For each foreign operation, the Company determines the functional currency which is its respective local currency.

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded by the Company at their respective functional currency spot rates at the date of the transaction. Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated to the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Exchange differences arising on settlement or translation of monetary items are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of initial transaction. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined.

Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the year. Revenue, expenses and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.

The translation of foreign operations from respective functional currency into INR (the reporting currency) for assets and liabilities is performed using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, and for revenue, expenses and cash flows is performed using an appropriate daily weighted average exchange rate for the respective years. The exchange differences arising on translation are reported as a component of ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’. On disposal of a foreign operation, the component of OCI relating to that particular foreign operation is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(e) Fair value measurement

The Company records certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company determines fair values based on the price it would receive to sell an asset or pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability.

The Company holds certain fixed income securities, equity securities and derivatives, which must be measured using the guidance for fair value hierarchy and related valuation methodologies. The guidance specifies a hierarchy of valuation techniques based on whether the inputs to each measurement are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect the Company’s assumptions about current market conditions. The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The prescribed fair value hierarchy and related valuation methodologies are as follows:

Level 1 - Quoted inputs that reflect quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

Level 2 - Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-derived valuations, in which all significant inputs are directly or indirectly observable in active markets.

Level 3 - Valuations derived from valuation techniques, in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity.

In accordance with Ind AS 113, assets and liabilities are to be measured based on the following valuation techniques:

a) Market approach - Prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets or liabilities.

b) Income approach - Converting the future amounts based on market expectations to its present value using the discounting method.

c) Cost approach - Replacement cost method.

Certain assets are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis. These assets consist primarily of non-financial assets such as goodwill and intangible assets. Goodwill and intangible assets recognized in business combinations are measured at fair value initially and subsequently when there is an indicator of impairment, the impairment is recognized.

A fair value measurement of a non-financial asset takes into account a market participant’s ability to generate economic benefits by using the asset in its highest and best use or by selling it to another market participant who would use the asset in its highest and best use.

(f) Revenue recognition

Adoption of new accounting principles

Effective 1 April 2018, the Company has adopted Ind AS 115 using the cumulative effect method. The standard is applied retrospectively only to contracts that are not completed as at the date of initial application and the comparative information is not restated in the financial statement. The adoption of the standard did not have any material impact to the financial statements of the Company.

Contracts involving provision of services and material

Revenue is recognized when, or as, control of a promised service or good transfers to a customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring those products or services. To recognize revenues, the following five step approach is applied: (1) identify the contract with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognize revenues when a performance obligation is satisfied. Contract is accounted when it is legally enforceable through executory contracts, approval and commitment from all parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are defined, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.

Time-and-material / Volume based / Transaction based contracts

Revenue with respect to time-and-material, volume based and transaction based contracts is recognized as the related services are performed through efforts expended, volume serviced transactions are processed etc. that correspond with value transferred to customer till date which is related to our right to invoice for services performed.

Fixed Price contracts

Revenue related to fixed price contracts where performance obligations and control are satisfied over a period of time like technology integration, complex network building contracts, ERP implementations and Application development are recognized based on progress towards completion of the performance obligation using a cost-to-cost measure of progress (i.e., percentage-of-completion (POC) method of accounting). Revenue is recognized based on the costs incurred to date as a percentage of the total estimated costs to fulfill the contract. Any revision in cost to complete would result in increase or decrease in revenue and such changes are recorded in the period in which they are identified. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on contracts-in-progress are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. Contract losses are determined to be the amount by which the estimated incremental cost to complete exceeds the estimated future revenues that will be generated by the contract and are included in cost of revenues and recorded in other accrued liabilities.

Revenue related to other fixed price contracts providing maintenance and support services, are recognized based on our right to invoice for services performed for contracts in which the invoicing is representative of the value being delivered. If our invoicing is not consistent with value delivered, revenues are recognized as the service is performed based on the cost to cost method described above.

In arrangements involving sharing of customer revenues, revenue is recognized when the right to receive is established.

Revenue from product sales are shown net of sales tax and applicable discounts and allowances. Revenue related to product with installation services that are critical to the product is recognized when installation of product at customer site is completed and accepted by the customer. If the revenue for a delivered item is not recognized for non-receipt of acceptance from the customer, the cost of the delivered item continues to be in inventory.

Multiple performance obligation

When a sales arrangement contains multiple performance, such as services, hardware and Licensed IPs (software) or combinations of each of them revenue for each element is based on a five step approach as defined above. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised deliverables, judgment is applied to determine whether promised deliverables are capable of being distinct and are distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met, the promised deliverables are accounted for as a combined performance obligation. For arrangements with multiple distinct performance obligations or series of distinct performance obligations, consideration is allocated among the performance obligations based on their relative standalone selling price. Standalone selling price is the price at which group would sell a promised good or service separately to the customer. When not directly observable, we typically estimate standalone selling price by using the expected cost plus a margin approach. We typically establish a standalone selling price range for our deliverables, which is reassessed on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change. If the arrangement contains obligations related to License of Intellectual property (Software) or Lease deliverable, the arrangement consideration allocated to the Software deliverables, lease deliverable as a group is then allocated to each software obligation and lease deliverable.

Revenue recognition for delivered elements is limited to the amount that is not contingent on the future delivery of products or services, future performance obligations or subject to customer-specified return or refund privileges.

Revenue from certain activities in transition services in outsourcing arrangements are not capable of being distinct or represent separate performance obligation. Revenues relating to such transition activities are classified as Contract liabilities and subsequently recognized over the period of the arrangement. Direct and incremental costs in relation to such transition activities which are expected to be recoverable under the contract are considered as contract fulfillment costs classified as Deferred contract cost and recognized over the period of arrangement. Certain upfront non-recurring incremental contract acquisition costs incurred in the initial phases of outsourcing contracts are deferred and recorded as Deferred contract cost and amortized, usually on a straight line basis, over the term of the contract unless revenues are earned and obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. The undiscounted future cash flows from the arrangement are periodically estimated and compared with the unamortized costs. If the unamortized costs exceed the undiscounted cash flow, a loss is recognized.

In instances when revenue is derived from sales of third-party vendor services, material or licenses, revenue is recorded on a gross basis when the Company is a principal to the transaction and net of costs when the Company is acting as an agent between the customer and the vendor. Several factors are considered to determine whether the Company is a principal or an agent, most notably being company control the goods or service before it is transferred to customer, latitude in deciding the price being charged to customer. Revenue is recognized net of discounts and allowances, value-added and service taxes, and includes reimbursement of out-of-pocket expenses, with the corresponding out-of-pocket expenses included in cost of revenues.

Volume discounts, or any other form of variable consideration is estimated using either the sum of probability weighted amounts in a range of possible consideration amounts (expected value), or the single most likely amount in a range of possible consideration amounts (most likely amount), depending on which method better predicts the amount of consideration realizable. Transaction price includes variable consideration only to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of revenues recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. Our estimates of variable consideration and determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price may involve judgment and are based largely on an assessment of our anticipated performance and all information that is reasonably available to us.

Revenue recognized but not billed to customers is classified either as contract assets or unbilled receivable in our statements of financial position, contract assets primarily relate to unbilled amounts on those contracts utilizing the cost to cost method of revenue recognition. Unbilled receivables represent contracts where right to consideration is unconditional (i.e. only the passage of time is required before the payment is due).

Revenue from sales-type leases is recognized when risk of loss has been transferred to the client and there are no unfulfilled obligations that affect the final acceptance of the arrangement by the client. Interest attributable to sales-type leases and direct financing leases included therein is recognized on an accrual basis using the effective interest method and is recognized as other income.

Interest income

Interest income for all financial instruments measured at amortized cost is recorded using the effective interest rate (EIR). EIR is the rate that exactly discounts the estimated future cash payments or receipts over the expected life of the financial instrument or a shorter period, where appropriate, to the gross carrying amount of the financial asset or to the amortized cost of a financial liability. When calculating the EIR, the Company estimates the expected cash flows by considering all the contractual terms of the financial instrument but does not consider the expected credit losses. Interest income is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss.

(g) Income taxes

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax.

Income tax expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date. Provision for income tax includes the impact of provisions established for uncertain income tax positions.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for those temporary differences which originate during the tax holiday period are reversed after the tax holiday period. For this purpose, reversal of timing differences is determined using first in first out method.

Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the year that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of branches where it is expected that the earnings of the branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future.

Tax benefits acquired as part of a business combination, but not satisfying the criteria for separate recognition at that date, are recognized subsequently if new information about facts and circumstances change. The adjustment is either treated as a reduction in goodwill (as long as it does not exceed goodwill) if it was incurred during the measurement period or recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

(h) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses if any. Cost comprises the purchase price and directly attributable cost of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use. Any trade discounts and rebates are deducted in arriving at the purchase price. The Company identifies and determines separate useful lives for each major component of the property, plant and equipment, if they have a useful life that is materially different from that of the asset as a whole.

Expenses on existing property, plant and equipment, including day-to-day repairs, maintenance expenditure and cost of replacing parts, are charged to the statement of profit and loss for the year during which such expenses are incurred.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of assets are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized

Property, plant and equipment under construction and cost of assets not ready for use at the year-end are disclosed as capital work- in- progress.

Depreciation on property, plant and equipment is provided on the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, as determined by the management. Depreciation is charged on a pro-rata basis for assets purchased/sold during the year.

The management’s estimates of the useful lives of various assets for computing depreciation are as follows:

The useful lives as given above best represent the period over which the management expects to use these assets, based on technical assessment. The estimated useful lives for these assets are therefore different from the useful lives prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013.

The residual values, useful lives and methods of depreciation of property, plant and equipment are reviewed at each financial year-end and adjusted prospectively, if appropriate.

(i) Intangible assets

Intangible assets acquired separately are measured on initial recognition at cost. The cost of intangible assets acquired in a business combination is their fair value at the date of acquisition. Following initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses.

Intangible assets are amortized over the useful life and assessed for impairment whenever there is an indication that the intangible asset may be impaired. The amortization period and the amortization method for an intangible asset with a finite useful life are reviewed at least at the end of each reporting year. Changes in the expected useful life or the expected pattern of consumption of future economic benefits embodied in the asset are considered to modify the amortization period or method, as appropriate, and are treated as changes in accounting estimates. The amortization expense on intangible assets with finite lives is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the asset is derecognized.

The intangible assets are amortized over the estimated useful life of the assets as mentioned below except certain Licensed IPRs which include the right to modify, enhance or exploit are amortized in proportion to the expected benefits over the useful life which could range up to 15 years:

(j) Research and development costs

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Development expenditure, on an individual project, is recognized as an intangible asset when the Company can demonstrate:

- The technical feasibility of completing the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale

- Its intention to complete and its ability and intention to use or sell the asset

- How the asset will generate future economic benefits

- The availability of resources to complete the asset

- The ability to measure reliably the expenditure during development

Following initial recognition of the development expenditure as an asset, the cost model is applied requiring the asset to be carried at cost less any accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment losses. Amortization of the asset begins when development is complete and the asset is available for use. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit. Amortization expense is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. During the period of development, the asset is tested for impairment annually.

(k) Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to get ready for its intended use are capitalized as part of the cost of the asset. All other borrowing costs are expensed in the period in which they occur.

Borrowing costs consist of interest and other costs that an entity incurs in connection with the borrowing of funds. Borrowing costs also includes exchange differences to the extent regarded as an adjustment to the borrowing costs.

(l) Leases

Company as a lessee

A lease is classified at the inception date as a finance lease or an operating lease. A lease that transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership to the Company is classified as a finance lease.

Finance leases are capitalized at the commencement of the lease at the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease liability so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are recognized in finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

A leased asset is depreciated over the useful life of the asset. However, if there is no reasonable certainty that the Company will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset is depreciated over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.

Operating lease payments are recognized as an expense in the statement of profit and loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Company as a lessor

Leases in which the Company does not transfer substantially all the risks and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as operating leases. Initial direct costs incurred in negotiating an operating lease are added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognized over the lease term on the same basis as rental income. Contingent rents are recognized as revenue in the year in which they are earned.

Leases in which the Company transfers substantially all the risk and benefits of ownership of the asset are classified as finance leases. Assets given under finance lease are recognized as a receivable at an amount equal to the present value of lease receivable. After initial recognition, the Company apportions lease rentals between the principal repayment and interest income so as to achieve a constant periodic rate of return on the net investment outstanding in respect of the finance leases. The interest income is recognized in the statement of profit and loss. Initial direct costs such as legal cost, brokerage cost etc. are recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

(m) Inventory

Stock-in-trade, stores and spares are valued at the lower of the cost or net realizable value. Cost includes cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of completion and estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

Cost of stock-in-trade procured for specific projects is assigned by identifying individual costs of each item. Cost of stock-in-trade, that are interchangeable and not specific to any project and cost of stores and spare parts are determined using the weighted average cost formula.

(n) Impairment of non-financial assets

Goodwill

Goodwill is tested annually on March 31, for impairment, or sooner whenever there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired, relying on a number of factors including operating results, business plans and future cash flows. For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to the Company’s cash generating units (CGU) expected to benefit from the synergies arising from the business combination. A CGU is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or group of assets. Impairment occurs when the carrying amount of a CGU including the goodwill, exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the CGU. The recoverable amount of a CGU is the higher of its fair value less cost to sell and its value-in-use. Value-in-use is the present value of future cash flows expected to be derived from the CGU. Total impairment loss of a CGU is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of goodwill allocated to the CGU and then to the other assets of the CGU, pro-rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the CGU.

An impairment loss on goodwill recognized in the statement of profit and loss is not reversed in the subsequent period. Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment

Intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the CGU to which the asset belongs. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized in the statement of profit and loss is measured by the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds the estimated recoverable amount of the asset.

(o) Provisions

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. If the effect of the time value of money is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows.

(p) Retirement and other employee benefits

i. Provident fund: Employees of the Company receive benefits under the provident fund, a defined benefit plan. The employee and employer each make monthly contributions to the plan. A portion of the contribution is made to the provident fund trust managed by the Company or Government administered provident fund; while the balance contribution is made to the Government administered pension fund. For the contribution made by the Company to the provident fund trust managed by the Company, the Company has an obligation to fund any shortfall on the yield of the Trust’s investments over the administered interest rates. The liability is actuarially determined (using the projected unit credit method) at the end of the year. The funds contributed to the Trust are invested in specific securities as mandated by law and generally consist of federal and state government bonds, debt instruments of government-owned corporations and other eligible market securities.

ii. In respect of superannuation, a defined contribution plan for applicable employees, the Company contributes to a scheme administered on its behalf by an insurance company and such contributions for each year of service rendered by the employees are charged to the statement of profit and loss. The Company has no further obligations to the superannuation plan beyond its contributions.

iii. Gratuity liability: The Company provide for gratuity, a defined benefit plan (the “Gratuity Plan”) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s base salary and the tenure of employment (subject to a maximum of Rs. 20 lacs per employee). The liability is actuarially determined (using the projected unit credit method) at the end of each year. Actuarial gains/losses are recognized immediately in the balance sheet with a corresponding debit or credit to retained earnings through other comprehensive income in the year in which they occur.

In respect to certain employees in India, the Company contributes towards gratuity liabilities to the Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees of the Company administer contributions made to the Trust and contributions are invested in a scheme with Life Insurance Corporation of India as permitted by law.

iv. Compensated absences: The employees of the Company are entitled to compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The employees can carry forward up to the specified portion of the unutilized accumulated compensated absences and utilize it in future periods or receive cash at retirement or termination of employment. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation (using the projected unit credit method) based on the additional amount expected to be paid as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the balance sheet date. The expense on non-accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the statement of profit and loss in the year in which the absences occur. Actuarial gains/losses are immediately taken to the statement of profit and loss and are not deferred.

v. State Plan: The contribution to State Plans in India, a defined contribution plan namely Employee State Insurance Fund is charged to the statement of profit and loss as and when employees render related services.

vi. Contributions to other foreign defined contribution plans are recognized as expense when employees have rendered services entitling them to such benefits.

(q) Equity settled stock based compensation

Stock-based compensation represents the cost related to stock-based awards granted to employees. The Company measures stock-based compensation cost at grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award and recognizes the cost (net of estimated forfeitures) on a straight line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award, as if award was in substance, multiple awards. The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The cost is recorded under the head employee benefit expense in the statement of profit and loss with corresponding increase in “Share Based Payment Reserve”.

(r) Financial Instruments

A financial instrument is a contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity.

i. Financial assets

All financial assets are recognized initially at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets (other than financial assets at fair value through profit or loss) are added to the fair value measured on initial recognition of financial asset. Purchase and sale of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.

Cash and short-term deposits

Cash and short-term deposits in the balance sheet comprise cash in banks and short-term deposits and investments with an original maturity of three months or less, which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Financial assets at amortized cost

A financial asset is measured at the amortized cost if both the following conditions are met:

a) The asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets for collecting contractual cash flows, and

b) Contractual terms of the asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest (SPPI) on the principal amount outstanding.

After initial measurement, such financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included in other income in the statement of profit and loss. The losses arising from impairment are recognized in the statement of profit and loss. This category includes cash and bank balances, loans, unbilled receivables, trade and other receivables.

Financial asset at Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI)

A financial asset is classified and measured at fair value through OCI if both of the following criteria are met:

a) The objective of the business model is achieved both by collecting contractual cash flows and selling the financial assets, and

b) The asset’s contractual cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest.

Financial asset included within the OCI category are measured initially as well as at each reporting date at fair value. Fair value movements are recognized in OCI. Interest income is recognized in statement of profit and loss for debt instruments. On derecognition of the asset, cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in OCI is reclassified from OCI to statement of profit and loss.

Financial assets at Fair Value through Profitand Loss

Any financial asset, which does not meet the criteria for categorization at amortized cost or at fair value through other comprehensive income, is classified at fair value through profit and loss. Financial assets included at the fair value through profit and loss category are measured at fair value with all changes recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

Equity investments

Equity investments in subsidiaries are measured at cost.

Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is primarily derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or the Company has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets which are not fair valued through profit and loss. Lifetime ECL allowance is recognized for trade receivables with no significant financing component. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition in which case they are measured at lifetime ECL. The amount of expected credit losses (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date is recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

ii. Financial liabilities

All financial liabilities are recognized initially at fair value and, in the case of loans and borrowings and payables, net of directly attributable transaction costs.

The subsequent measurement of financial liabilities depends on their classification, as described below:

Financial liabilities at fair value through profitor loss

Financial liabilities designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss are designated as such at the initial date of recognition, and only if the criteria in Ind AS 109 are satisfied. Changes in fair value of such liability are recognized in the statement of profit or loss.

Financial liabilities at amortized cost

The Company’s financial liabilities at amortized cost includes trade payables, borrowings including bank overdrafts and other payables.

After initial recognition, financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate (EIR) method. Gains and losses are recognized in the statement of profit and loss when the liabilities are derecognized as well as through the EIR amortization process.

Amortized cost is calculated by taking into account any discount or premium on acquisition and fees or costs that are an integral part of the EIR. The EIR amortization is included as finance costs in the statement of profit and loss.

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled or expires.

iii. Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

Foreign exchange forward contracts and options are purchased to mitigate the risk of changes in foreign exchange rates associated with forecast transactions denominated in certain foreign currencies.

The Company recognizes all derivatives as assets or liabilities measured at their fair value. Changes in fair value for derivatives not designated in a hedge accounting relationship are marked to market at each reporting date and the related gains (losses) are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as ‘foreign exchange gains (losses)’.

The foreign exchange forward contracts and options in respect of forecast transactions which meet the hedging criteria are designated as cash flow hedges. Changes in the derivative fair values (net of tax) that are designated as effective cash flow hedges are deferred and recorded in the hedging reserve account as a component of accumulated ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’ until the hedged transaction occurs and are then recognized in the statement of profit and loss. The ineffective portion of hedging derivatives is immediately recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

In respect of derivatives designated as hedges, the Company formally documents all relationships between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The Company also formally assesses both at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, whether each derivative is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item.

Hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively from the last testing date when (1) it is determined that the derivative financial instrument is no longer effective in offsetting changes in the fair value or cash flows of the underlying exposure being hedged; (2) the derivative financial instrument matures or is sold, terminated or exercised; or (3) it is determined that designating the derivative financial instrument as a hedge is no longer appropriate. When hedge accounting is discontinued the deferred gains or losses on the cash flow hedge remain in ‘other comprehensive income (loss)’ until the forecast transaction occurs. Any further change in the fair value of the derivative financial instrument is recognized in current year earnings.

Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the balance sheet if there is a currently enforceable legal right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis to realize the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

(s) Dividend

Final dividend proposed by the Board of Directors is recognized upon approval by the shareholders who have the right to decrease but not increase the amount of dividend recommended by the Board of Directors. Interim dividends are recognized on declaration by the Board of Directors.

(t) Earnings per share (EPS)

Basic EPS amounts are computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the year.

Diluted EPS amounts are computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The diluted potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as at the beginning of the year, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each year presented.

(u) Nature and purpose of reserves

Securities premium reserve

Securities premium reserve is used to record the premium on issue of shares. The reserve can be utilized only for limited purposes such as issuance of bonus shares and buyback of shares in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

Special economic zone re-investment reserve

The Company has created Special economic zone reinvestment reserve out of profits of the eligible SEZ Units in terms of the specific provisions of Section 10AA(1) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 (“the Act”). The said reserve should be utilized by the Company for acquiring plant and machinery in terms of Section 10AA(2) of the Act.

Debt instruments through other comprehensive income

The Company recognizes changes in the fair value of debt instruments held with business objective of collect and sell in other comprehensive income. The Company transfers amounts from this reserve to the statement of profit and loss when the debt instrument is sold.

Cash flow hedging reserve

For hedging foreign currency risk, the Company uses foreign currency forward and option contracts. To the extent these hedges are effective, the change in fair value of the hedging instrument is recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve. Amounts recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is reclassified to the statement of profit or loss when the hedged item affects profit or loss.

General reserve

Under the erstwhile Companies Act 1956, general reserve was created through an annual transfer of net income at a specified percentage in accordance with applicable regulations. Consequent to introduction of Companies Act 2013, the requirement to mandatorily transfer a specified percentage of the net profit to general reserve has been withdrawn.

Foreign currency translation reserve

Exchange differences arising on translation of the foreign operations are recognized in other comprehensive income as described in accounting policy and accumulated in a separate reserve within equity. The cumulative amount is reclassified to profit or loss when the net investment is disposed-off.

Share based payment reserve

The share options based payment reserve is used to recognize the grant date fair value of options issued to employees under Employee stock option plan.

Capital redemption reserve

The Company recognizes cancellation of the Company’s own equity instruments to capital redemption reserve

(v) Recently issued accounting pronouncements Ind AS 116 - Leases

Ind AS 116 Leases was notified in October 2018 and it replaces Ind AS 17 Leases, including appendices thereto. Ind AS 116 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 April 2019. Ind AS 116 sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases and requires lessees to account for all leases under a single on-balance sheet model similar to the accounting for finance leases under Ind AS 17.

The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this new standard will have on its financial statements. Appendix C to Ind AS 12 Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatment

The amendment to Appendix C of Ind AS 12 specifies that the amendment is to be applied to the determination of taxable profit (tax loss), tax bases, unused tax losses, unused tax credits and tax rates, when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments under Ind AS 12.

The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this new standard will have on its financial statements.