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MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.

19 July 2024 | 03:59

Industry >> Auto - Cars & Jeeps

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ISIN No INE101A01026 BSE Code / NSE Code 500520 / M&M Book Value (Rs.) 530.40 Face Value 5.00
Bookclosure 31/07/2024 52Week High 3014 EPS 90.62 P/E 30.34
Market Cap. 341883.38 Cr. 52Week Low 1416 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 5.18 / 0.77 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2024-03 

1.    General Information

Mahindra & Mahindra Limited ('the Company') is a limited company incorporated in India. The address of its registered office and principal activities of the Company are disclosed in the introduction to the Annual Report.

The Ordinary (Equity) shares of the Company are listed on the National Stock Exchange of India Limited ("NSE”) and BSE Limited (“BSE") in India. The Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) of the Company are listed on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange and are also admitted for trading on International Order Book (IOB) of the London Stock Exchange.

2.    Material accounting policies

(a)    Statement of compliance and basis of preparation and presentation

These standalone or separate financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Indian Accounting Standards as per the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 as amended and notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (the 'Act') and other relevant provisions of the Act.

These standalone or separate financial statements were approved by the Company's Board of Directors and authorised for issue on 16th May, 2024.

(b)    Basis of measurement

The standalone financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for certain financial instruments which are measured at fair values in accordance with Ind AS.

(c)    Measurement of fair values

A number of Company's accounting policies and disclosures require the measurement of fair values, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. The Company has established policies and procedures with respect to the measurement of fair values.

Fair values are categorised into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques as follows:

—    Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities;

—    Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly;

—    Level 3: Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

(d)    Use of estimates and judgments

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with Ind AS requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions, that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses at the date of these financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the years presented. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised and future periods affected.

Key sources of estimation uncertainty, critical judgments and assumptions at the date of financial statements, which may cause a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year, are in respect of the below:

(i)    Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and other intangible assets - refer note 2(e) and 2(f).

(ii)    Provision for product warranties - refer note 2(q) and note 21.

(iii)    Fair value of financial assets, liabilities and investments - refer note 41(f).

(iv)    Impairment of tangible and intangible assets including investments - refer note 2(g).

(v)    Classification of investment as subsidiary, associate or joint venture - refer note 2(j).

(vi)    Recoverability of deferred tax asset on unabsorbed losses - refer note 2(p) and note 22.

(e)    Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost of acquisition or construction less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment, if any.

Cost includes financing cost relating to borrowed funds attributable to the construction or acquisition of qualifying tangible assets upto the date the assets are ready for use.

Depreciation is provided on straight-line basis for property, plant and equipment so as to expense the depreciable amount, i.e. the cost less estimated residual value, over its estimated useful lives. The estimated useful lives and residual values are reviewed annually and the effect of any changes in estimate is accounted for on a prospective basis.

When an asset is scrapped or otherwise disposed off, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the books of account and resultant profit or loss, if any, is reflected in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

The management's estimate of useful lives are in accordance with Schedule II to the Companies Act, 2013, other than the following asset classes, based on the Company's expected usage pattern supported by technical assessment:

Asset Class

Useful lives

(i) Certain items of Plant and Equipment

2 - 25 years as the case may be.

(ii) Buildings (Roads)

15 years

(iii) Vehicles

5 years

(f) Intangible assets

Intangible assets under development

The Company expenses costs incurred during research phase to profit or loss in the year in which they are incurred. Development phase expenses are initially recognised as intangible assets under development until the development phase is complete, upon which the amount is capitalised as intangible asset.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are initially recognised at cost.

Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets with definite useful lives are amortised on a straight line basis so as to reflect the pattern in which the asset's economic benefits are consumed and are reported at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The intangible assets are amortised over the estimated period of benefit as below:

Asset Class

Useful lives

(i) Development expenditure

3-5 years

(ii) Brand licences

30 years

(iii) Computer software

3 years

(iv) Others (excluding TDRs)

10 years

The amortisation period for intangible assets are

reviewed annually and changes in expected useful lives are treated as changes in estimates..

(g)    Impairment of assets

At the end of each reporting period, the Company reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible assets , intangible assets and investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount, which is the higher of the value in use or fair value less cost to sell, of the asset or cash-generating unit, as the case may be, is estimated and impairment loss (if any) is recognised and the carrying amount is reduced to its recoverable amount.

In assessing the value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value. When it is not possible to estimate the recoverable amount of an individual asset, the Company estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs.

When an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset or a cash-generating unit is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (or cash-generating unit) earlier.

Intangible assets not yet available for use are tested for impairment at least annually, and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

(h)    Inventories

Inventories are carried at cost or net realisable value whichever is lower. Cost is determined on the basis of the weighted average method and comprises of all cost of purchase, conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

(i)    Foreign exchange transactions and translation

Transactions in foreign currencies i.e. other than the Company's functional currency of Indian Rupees are recognised at the rates of exchange prevailing at the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, monetary items denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the functional currency using exchange rates prevailing at that date. Non-monetary items measured at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value is determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated. Exchange differences on monetary items are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise except for exchange differences on transactions entered into in order to hedge certain foreign currency risks (refer policy on Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge Accounting).

(j)    Investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures

The Company assesses if it has acquired control, joint control or significant influence over an investee based on shareholding, voting power, composition of board, rights under shareholder agreements and other facts and circumstances of each case which involves use of judgment.

The Company accounts for its equity investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures at cost less accumulated impairment, if any.

(k)    Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial assets and financial liabilities are initially measured at fair value. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities (other than financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss) are added to or deducted from the fair value of the financial assets or financial liabilities, as appropriate, on initial recognition. Transaction costs directly attributable to the acquisition of financial assets or financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are recognised immediately in profit or loss. A trade receivable without a significant financing component is initially measured at the transaction price.

Classification and subsequent measurement Financial assets

All regular way purchases or sales of financial assets are recognised and derecognised on a trade date basis. Regular way purchases or sales are purchases or sales of financial assets that require delivery of assets within the time frame established by regulation or convention in the marketplace. All recognised financial assets are subsequently measured at either amortised cost or fair value depending on their respective classification.

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

—    Amortised cost - debt instrument; or

—    Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOQ) - debt instrument; or

—    Fair Value through Other Comprehensive Income (FVTOQ) - equity instrument; or

—    Fair Value through Profit or Loss (FVTPL)

The classification of debt instrument as amortised cost or FVTOCI is based on the business model and cash flow characteristics of such instrument. Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset not classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTOCI is measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets unless designated as effective hedge instruments which are accounted as per hedge accounting requirements discussed below.

Financial assets at amortised cost are subsequently measured at amortised cost using effective interest method. The amortised cost is reduced by impairment losses. Interest income, foreign exchange gains and losses and impairment expenses are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain and loss on derecognition is also recognised in profit or loss.

For equity investments other than investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures, the Company makes an election on an instrument-by-instrument basis to designate equity investments as measured at FVTOCI. These elected investments are measured at fair value with gains and losses arising from changes in fair value recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the reserves. The cumulative gain or loss is not reclassified to profit or loss on disposal of the investments. These equity investments are not held for trading. Dividend income received on such equity investments are recognised in profit or loss.

Equity investments that are not designated to be measured at Cost or FVTOCI are designated to be measured at FVTPL. Subsequent changes in fair value are recognised in profit or loss.

Financial liabilities and equity instruments

Debt and equity instruments issued by the Company are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangements and the definitions of a financial liability and an equity instrument.

Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held-for-trading or it is a derivative (that does not meet hedge accounting requirements) or it is designated as such on initial recognition.

Derecognition of financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows from financial asset in a manner that substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the asset are transferred to another party. If the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and continues to control the transferred asset, the Company recognises its retained interest in the asset and an associated liability for the amount it may have to pay. If the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its Balance Sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised and the proceeds received are recognised as a collateralised borrowing.

Offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the Balance Sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

The Company enters into derivative financial instruments, primarily foreign exchange forward contracts and interest rate swaps, to manage its exposure to foreign exchange and interest rate risks. Derivatives embedded in non-derivative host contracts that are not financial assets within the scope of Ind AS 109 are treated as separate derivatives when their risks and characteristics are not closely related to those of the host contracts and the host contracts are not measured at FVTPL.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value at the date the contracts are entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss immediately unless the derivative is designated and effective as a hedging instrument, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the nature of the hedged item.

The Company designates certain hedging instruments, which include derivatives in respect of foreign currency risk, as either fair value hedges or cash flow hedges. Hedges of foreign exchange risk on firm commitments are accounted for as cash flow hedges.

At the inception of the hedge relationship, the Company documents the relationship between the hedging instrument and the hedged item, along with its risk management objectives and its strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. Furthermore, at the inception of the hedge and on an ongoing basis, the Company documents whether the hedging instrument is highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk.

Impairment of financial assets

The Company applies the Expected Credit Loss (ECL) model for recognising impairment loss on financial assets. With respect to trade receivables and loans, the Company measures the loss allowance at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses.

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the write-off. However, financial assets that are written off could still be subject to enforcement activities under the Company’s recovery procedures, taking into account legal advice where appropriate. Any recoveries made are recognised in profit or loss.

(l) Revenue Recognition

Sale of goods or services

Revenue from sale of goods are recognised upon satisfaction of performance obligation which is at a point in time, generally on delivery of the goods, when control of the goods is transferred to customers. Revenue from services are recognised upon satisfaction of performance obligation towards rendering of such services.

The Company recognises revenue from sale of goods or services at the amount of transaction price (excluding variable consideration that is constrained), that is allocated to the performance obligation satisfied. Transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects it to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties.

An amount of consideration can vary because of discounts, rebates, incentives etc. which are explicitly stated in the contract or are as per customary business practices. The consideration can also vary where the entitlement is contingent on occurrence or non-occurrence of a future event. The Company includes variable consideration as part of transaction price only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method or the most likely amount depending on which method the Company expects to better predict the amount of consideration to which it will be entitled and is applied consistently throughout the contract.

Payment terms agreed with a customer are as per business practice and the financing component, if significant, is separated from the transaction price and accounted as interest income / expense, as applicable.

Dividend and interest income

Dividend from investments are recognised in profit or loss when the right to receive payment is established.

Interest income from a financial asset is recognised when it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the Company and the amount of income can be measured reliably.

Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable.

(m)    Government Grants

The Company, directly or indirectly through a consortium of Mahindra Group companies, is entitled to various incentives from government authorities. Government grants are recognised when there is a reasonable assurance that the same will be received and all attached conditions will be complied with.

Government grants that are revenue in nature, are recognised in profit or loss on a systematic basis over the periods in which the Company recognises as expenses the related costs for which the grants are intended to compensate.

(n)    Employee Benefits

Superannuation Fund, ESIC and Labour Welfare Fund

The Company’s contribution paid / payable during the year to Superannuation Fund, ESIC and Labour Welfare Fund are recognised in profit or loss. Provident Fund

Contributions to Provident Fund are made to a Trust administered by the Company / Regional Provident Fund Commissioners and are charged to profit or loss as incurred. The Company is liable for the contribution and any shortfall in interest between the amount of income earned by the Trust and the interest payable to members at the rate declared by the Government of India in respect of the Trust administered by the Company. For such trust the shortfall and remeasurement thereof, if any, based on actuarial valuation is recognised through Other Comprehensive Income (OCI).

Gratuity, long term compensated absences, post retirement medical benefit and post retirement housing allowance schemes

The liability towards gratuity, long term compensated absences, post retirement medical benefit and post retirement housing allowance schemes are determined by independent actuaries, using the projected unit credit method.

Remeasurement of defined benefit plans, comprising of actuarial gains or losses, return on plan assets excluding interest income are recognised immediately in Balance Sheet with corresponding debit or credit to other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent period.

Remeasurement gains or losses on long term compensated absences that are classified as other long term benefits are recognised in profit or loss. Share based payments

Equity-settled share-based payments to employees are measured at the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Company’s estimate of the number of equity instruments that will eventually vest, with a corresponding increase in equity.

(o)    Borrowing Costs

Borrowing costs attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale except for the period the construction activities are temporarily suspended. All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

(p)    Income taxes Current tax

The Company’s current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset, if entity has a legally enforceable right to set off recognised amounts and intends to settle on net basis or to realise the current tax asset and settle the current tax liabilities simultaneously.

Deferred tax

Deferred tax liabilities and assets are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the liability is settled or the asset realised, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset, if a legally enforceable right exists to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities, and the deferred taxes relate to the same taxable entity and the same taxation authority.

Deferred tax assets including that on unused tax losses and unused tax credits are recognised to the extent that it is probable and there is convincing evidence that future taxable income will be available against which the deductible temporary differences could be utilised.

2.    Material accounting policies (contd.)

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are not recognised for temporary differences related to investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint arrangements to the extent that the Company is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

(q)    Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Company has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event, it is probable that the Company will be required to settle the obligation, and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. The amount recognised as a provision is the best estimate of the consideration required to settle the present obligation at the end of the reporting period, taking into account the risks and uncertainties surrounding the obligation. When provision is measured using the cash flow estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of these cash flows (when the effect of the time value of money is material).

Provisions for the expected cost of warranty obligations are recognised at the time of sale of the relevant products, at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the Company’s obligation. The provisions are reviewed at each Balance Sheet date and adjusted to reflect the current best estimate.

(r)    Leases

The Company as a lessee

The Company recognises a right-of-use asset and a lease liability at the lease commencement date. The right-of-use asset is initially measured at cost.

The right-of-use assets are subsequently depreciated over the shorter of the asset’s useful life and the lease term    on    a straight-line    basis.    In

addition, the right-of-use asset is reduced by impairment losses, if any, and adjusted for certain remeasurements of the    lease liability.

The lease liability is initially measured at amortised cost at the present value of the future lease payments, discounted    using the interest    rate

implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, using the incremental borrowing rate.

It is remeasured when there is a change in future lease payments arising from a change in an index or rate, if there is a change in the Company’s estimate of the amount expected to be payable under a residual value guarantee, or if the Company changes its assessment of whether it will exercise a purchase, extension or termination option.

When the lease liability is remeasured in this way, a corresponding adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset, or is recorded in profit or loss if the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset has been reduced to zero.

The Company has elected not to recognise right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for short-term leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and leases of low-value assets. The Company recognises the lease payments associated with these leases as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

The Company as lessor

When the Company acts as a lessor, it determines at lease inception whether each lease is a finance lease or an operating lease.

Whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee, the contract is classified as a finance lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

When the Company is an intermediate lessor, it accounts for its interests in the head lease and the sublease separately. The sublease is classified as a finance or operating lease by reference to the right-of-use asset arising from the head lease.

The Company recognises lease payments received under operating leases as income on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

(s)    Business Combination

Business Combination under common control are accounted under “the pooling of interest method" i.e. in accordance with Appendix C in Ind AS 103 - Business combinations, at carrying amount of assets and liabilities acquired and any excess of consideration issued over the net assets acquired is recognised as capital reserve on common control business combination.

(t)    Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets or disposal groups are classified as held for sale if its carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. Non-current assets and disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying value and fair value less costs to sell.

3.    Recent Accounting Pronouncements:

Ministry of Corporate Affairs (“MCA") notifies new standards or amendments to the existing standards under Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules as issued from time to time. There is no such notification which would have been applicable from 1st April, 2024.