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TATA CHEMICALS LTD.

20 April 2021 | 11:59

Industry >> Chemicals - Inorganic - Caustic Soda/Soda Ash

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ISIN No INE092A01019 52Week High 834 Book Value (Rs.) 506.27 Face Value 10.00
Bookclosure 30/06/2020 52Week Low 243 EPS 275.02 P/E 2.69
Market Cap. 18868.52 Cr. P/BV 1.46 Div Yield (%) 1.49 Market Lot 1.00

ACCOUNTING POLICY

You can view the entire text of Accounting Policy of the company for the latest year.
Year End :2019-03 

1. Summary of basis of compliance, basis of preparation and presentation, critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgements and significant accounting policies

1.1 Basis of compliance

The financial statements comply, in all material aspects, with Indian Accounting Standards (‘Ind AS’) notified under Section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 (‘the 2013 Act’) read with Rule 3 of the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015 and other relevant provisions of the Act.

1.2 Basis of preparation and presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on the historical cost basis, except for certain financial instruments and defined benefit plans which are measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the consideration given in exchange for goods and services. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company’s normal operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the 2013 Act.

1.3 Critical accounting estimates, assumptions and judgements

The preparation of the financial statements requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported balances of assets and liabilities and disclosures as at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expense for the periods presented.

The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates considering different assumptions and conditions.

Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimates are revised and future periods are affected.

The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying values of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below.

1.3.1 Deferred income tax assets and liabilities

Significant management judgment is required to determine the amount of deferred tax assets that can be recognised, based upon the likely timing and the level of future taxable profits.

The amount of total deferred tax assets could change if management estimates of projected future taxable income or if tax regulations undergo a change.

1.3.2 Useful lives of property, plant and equipment (‘PPE’) and intangible assets

Management reviews the estimated useful lives and residual value of PPE and Intangibles at the end of each reporting period. Factors such as changes in the expected level of usage, technological developments and product life-cycle, could significantly impact the economic useful lives and the residual values of these assets. Consequently, the future depreciation charge could be revised and may have an impact on the profit of the future years.

1.3.3 Employee benefit obligations

Employee benefit obligations are determined using actuarial valuations. An actuarial valuation involves making various assumptions that may differ from actual developments. These include the estimation of the appropriate discount rate, future salary increases and mortality rates. Due to the complexities involved in the valuation and its longterm nature, the employee benefit obligation is highly sensitive to changes in these assumptions. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.

1.3.4 Provisions and contingencies

From time to time, the Company is subject to legal proceedings, the ultimate outcome of each being subject to uncertainties inherent in litigation. A provision for litigation is made when it is considered probable that a payment will be made and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgement is required when evaluating the provision including, the probability of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of potential loss. Litigation provisions are reviewed at each accounting period and revisions made for the changes in facts and circumstances. Contingent liabilities are disclosed in the notes forming part of the financial statements. Contingent assets are not disclosed in the financial statements unless an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

1.4 Foreign currency translation

The functional currency of Tata Chemicals Limited (i.e. the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates) is the Indian Rupee O.

On initial recognition, all foreign currency transactions are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities, denominated in a foreign currency, are translated at the exchange rate prevailing on the Balance Sheet date and the resultant exchange gains or losses are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.5 Property, plant and equipment

An item of property, plant and equipment is recognised as an asset if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and its cost can be measured reliably. This recognition principle is applied to the costs incurred initially to acquire an item of property, plant and equipment and also to costs incurred subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it and subsequently carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The cost of PPE includes interest on borrowings directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset. A qualifying asset is an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period of time to be made ready for its intended use or sale. Borrowing costs and other directly attributable cost are added to the cost of those assets until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use, which generally coincides with the commissioning date of those assets.

The present value of the expected cost for the decommissioning of an asset after its use is included in the cost of the respective asset if the recognition criteria for a provision is met.

Machinery spares that meet the definition of PPE are capitalised and depreciated over the useful life of the principal item of an asset.

All other repair and maintenance costs, including regular servicing, are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. When a replacement occurs, the carrying value of the replaced part is de-recognised. Where an item of property, plant and equipment comprises major components having different useful lives, these components are accounted for as separate items.

PPE acquired and put to use for projects are capitalised and depreciation thereon is included in the project cost till the project is ready for commissioning.

Depreciation methods, estimated useful lives and residual value

Depreciation on PPE (except leasehold improvements and PPE acquired under finance lease) is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost, net of their residual values, over their estimated useful lives. However, leasehold improvements and PPE acquired under finance lease are depreciated on a straight-line method over the shorter of their respective useful lives or the tenure of the lease arrangement. Freehold land is not depreciated.

Schedule II to the Companies Act 2013 prescribes the useful lives for various class of assets. For certain class of assets, based on technical evaluation and assessment, Management believes that the useful lives adopted by it reflects the periods over which these assets are expected to be used. Accordingly for those assets, the useful lives estimated by the management are different from those prescribed in the Schedule. Management’s estimates of the useful lives for various class of fixed assets are as given below:

Useful lives and residual values of assets are reviewed at the end of each reporting period.

Losses arising from the retirement of, and gains or losses arising from disposal/adjustments of PPE are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.6 Intangible assets

Goodwill

Goodwill represents the cost of the acquired businesses in excess of the fair value of identifiable tangible and intangible net assets purchased. Goodwill is not amortised; however it is tested annually for impairment and carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Other Intangible assets

Intangible assets comprise software licenses and rights to use railway wagon.

Intangible assets are measured on initial recognition at cost and subsequently are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

The intangible assets with a finite useful life are amortised using straight line method over their estimated useful lives. The management’s estimates of the useful lives for various class of Intangibles are as given below:

The estimated useful life is reviewed annually by the management.

Gains or losses arising from the retirement or disposal of an intangible asset are determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and recognised as income or expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.7 Capital work-in-progress (‘CWIP’) and intangible assets under development

Projects under commissioning and other CWIP/ intangible assets under development are carried at cost, comprising direct cost, related incidental expenses and attributable borrowing cost.

Subsequent expenditures relating to property, plant and equipment are capitalised only when it is probable that future economic benefit associated with these will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

Advances given to acquire property, plant and equipment are recorded as non-current assets and subsequently transferred to CWIP on acquisition of related assets.

1.8 Investment property

Investment properties are land and buildings that are held for long term lease rental yields and/ or for capital appreciation. Investment properties are initially recognised at cost including transaction costs. Subsequently investment properties comprising buildings are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Depreciation on buildings is provided over the estimated useful lives as specified in note 2.5 above. The residual values, estimated useful lives and depreciation method of investment properties are reviewed, and adjusted on prospective basis as appropriate, at each reporting date. The effects of any revision are included in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the changes arise.

An investment property is de-recognised when either the investment property has been disposed of or do not meet the criteria of investment property i.e. when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefit is expected from its disposal. The difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period of de-recognition.

1.9 Research and development expenses

Research expenses are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as expenses in the year in which they are incurred. Development costs are capitalised as an intangible asset under development when the following criteria are met:

the project is clearly defined, and the costs are separately identified and reliably measured;

the technical feasibility of the project is demonstrated;

the ability to use or sell the products created during the project is demonstrated;

the intention to complete the project exists and use or sale of output manufactured during the project;

a potential market for the products created during the project exists or their usefulness, in case of internal use, is demonstrated, such that the project will generate probable future economic benefits; and

adequate resources are available to complete the project.

These development costs are amortised over the estimated useful life of the projects or the products they are incorporated within. The amortisation of capitalised development costs begins as soon as the related product is released to production.

1.10 Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets (including disposal groups) are classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use and a sale is considered highly probable.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale are measured at lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale are not depreciated or amortised from the date when they are classified as held for sale.

Non-current assets classified as held for sale and the assets and liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale are presented separately from the other assets and liabilities in the Balance Sheet.

A discontinued operation is a component of the entity that has been disposed off or is classified as held for sale and:

represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and;

- is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of such a line of business or area of operations.

The results of discontinued operations are presented separately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.11 Financial instruments

1.11.1 Investments and other financial assets: Classification

The Company classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

those to be measured subsequently at fair value (either through OCI, or through profit or loss), and

those measured at amortised cost.

The classification depends on the Company’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows. For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss or through OCI. For investments in debt instruments, this will depend on the business model in which the investment is held. For investments in equity instruments, this will depend on whether the Company has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through OCI. The Company has elected to consider the carrying cost of equity investments in subsidiaries and joint venture at cost.

The Company reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.

Debt instruments

Measurement

A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are expensed in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Company’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the Company classifies its debt instruments:

- Amortised cost

Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows, where those cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at amortised cost. A gain or loss on a debt investment (unhedged) that is subsequently measured at amortised cost is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss when the asset is derecognised or impaired. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the effective interest rate (‘EIR’) method.

- Fair value through other comprehensive income (‘FVTOCIO

Assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows and for selling the financial assets, where the assets’ cash flows represent solely payments of principal and interest, are measured at FVTOCI. Movements in the carrying amount are recorded through OCI, except for the recognition of impairment gains or losses, interest revenue and foreign exchange gains or losses which are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified from equity to the Statement of Profit and Loss. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income using the EIR method.

- Fair value through profit or loss (‘FVTPL)

Assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVTOCI are measured at FVTPL. A gain or loss on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at FVTPL (unhedged) is recognised net in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which it arises. Interest income from these financial assets is included in other income.

Equity instruments

The Company subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the Company’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in OCI, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to the Statement of Profit and Loss. When the financial asset is derecognised, the cumulative gain or loss previously recognised in OCI is reclassified to equity. Dividends from such investments are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss within other income when the Company’s right to receive payments is established. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVTOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.

Cash and cash equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid financial instruments, which are readily convertible into known amounts of cash, that are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value with a maturity within three months or less from the date of purchase, to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of balances with banks which are unrestricted for withdrawal and usage.

Derecognition of financial assets

A financial asset is derecognised only when the Company has transferred the rights to receive cash flows from the financial asset; or

retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows of the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay the cash flows to one or more recipients.

Where the Company transfers an asset, it evaluates whether it has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. Where the Company has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership, the financial asset is derecognised. Where the Company has not transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is not derecognised. Where the Company has neither transferred a financial asset nor retained substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, the financial asset is derecognised if the Company has not retained control of the financial asset. Where the Company retains control of the financial asset, the asset is continued to be recognised to the extent of continuing involvement in the financial asset.

1.11.2 Debt and equity instruments

Debt and equity instruments are classified as either financial liabilities or as equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement.

An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received, net of direct issue costs.

1.11.3 Financial liabilities

The Company’s financial liabilities comprise borrowings, trade payables and other liabilities. These are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the EIR method. The EIR is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period at effective interest rate. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability, or, where appropriate, a shorter period.

Changes to the carrying amount of a financial liability as a result of renegotiation or modification of terms that do not result in derecognition of the financial liability, is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derecognition of financial liabilities

The Company derecognises financial liabilities when, and only when, its obligations are discharged, cancelled or they expire.

Presentation

Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period.

Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period.

1.11.4 Derivatives and hedging activities

I n the ordinary course of business, the Company uses certain derivative financial instruments to reduce business risks which arise from its exposure to foreign exchange and interest rate fluctuations associated with borrowings (cash flow hedges). When the Company opts to undertake hedge accounting, the Company documents, at the inception of the hedging transaction, the economic relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items including whether the hedging instrument is expected to offset changes in cash flows or fair values of hedged items. The Company documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions at the inception of each hedge relationship.

Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date the derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The accounting for subsequent changes in fair value depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged and the type of hedge relationship designated.

Cash flow hedges that qualify for hedge accounting

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, is recognised through OCI and as cash flow hedging reserve within equity, limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item on a present value basis from the inception of the hedge. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss on settlement.

When the hedged forecast transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset, the amounts accumulated in equity with respect to gain or loss relating to the effective portion of the spot component of forward contracts, both the deferred hedging gains and losses and the deferred aligned forward points are included within the initial cost of the asset. The deferred amounts are ultimately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss as the hedged item affects profit or loss.

When a hedging instrument expires, is sold or terminated, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively and any cumulative deferred gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction occurs. When the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss and deferred costs of hedging that were reported in equity are immediately transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Derivatives that are not designated as hedges

When derivative contracts to hedge risks are not designated as hedges, such contracts are accounted through FVTPL.

As at the year end, there were no designated accounting hedges.

The entire fair value of a hedging derivative is classified as a noncurrent asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item exceeds 12 months; it is classified as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item does not exceeRs. 12 months.

1.11.5 Financial guarantee contracts

Financial guarantee contracts are recognised as a financial liability at the time of issuance of guarantee. The liability is initially measured at fair value and are subsequently measured at the higher of the amount of loss allowance determined, or the amount initially recognised less, the cumulative amount of income recognised.

1.11.6 Offsetting of financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset when the Company has a legally enforceable right (not contingent on future events) to off-set the recognised amounts either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously.

1.11.7 Fair value of financial instruments

In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses a variety of methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date. The methods used to determine fair value include discounted cash flow analysis, available quoted market prices and dealer quotes. All methods of assessing fair value result in general approximation of value.

1.12 Impairment

Financial assets (other than at fair value)

The Company assesses on a forward looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its assets carried at amortised cost and debt instruments carried at FVTOCI. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk. In respect of trade receivables the Company applies the simplified approach permitted by Ind AS 109 - Financial Instruments, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised upon initial recognition of the receivables.

PPE, CWIP and intangible assets

The carrying values of assets / cash generating units (‘CGU’) at each Balance Sheet date are reviewed to determine whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication of such impairment exists, the recoverable amount of such assets / CGU is estimated and in case the carrying amount of these assets exceeds their recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The recoverable amount is the higher of the net selling price and their value in use. Value in use is arrived at by discounting the future cash flows to their present value based on an appropriate discount factor. Assessment is also done at each Balance Sheet date as to whether there is indication that an impairment loss recognised for an asset in prior accounting periods no longer exists or may have decreased, consequent to which such reversal of impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment, at least annually and whenever circumstances indicate that it may be impaired. For the purpose of impairment testing, the Goodwill is allocated to a CGU or group of CGUs, which are expected to benefit from the synergies arising from the business combination in which the said Goodwill arose.

I f the estimated recoverable amount of the CGU including the Goodwill is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU and then to the other assets of the CGU on a pro-rata basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the unit.

1.13 Inventories

Inventories are valued at lower of cost (on weighted average basis) and net realisable value after providing for obsolescence and other losses, where considered necessary. Cost includes all charges in bringing the goods to their present location and condition, including other levies, transit insurance and receiving charges. Work-in-progress and finished goods include appropriate proportion of overheads and, where applicable, taxes and duties. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.

1.14 Revenue recognition

1.14.1 Sale of goods

Revenue is recognised upon transfer of control of promised goods to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods.

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised at the point in time when control is transferred to the customer which is usually on dispatch / delivery of goods, based on contracts with the customers.

Revenue is measured based on the transaction price, which is the consideration, adjusted for volume discounts, price concessions, incentives, and returns, if any, as specified in the contracts with the customers. Revenue excludes taxes collected from customers on behalf of the government. Accruals for discounts/incentives and returns are estimated (using the most likely method) based on accumulated experience and underlying schemes and agreements with customers. Due to the short nature of credit period given to customers, there is no financing component in the contract.

The Company has adopted Ind AS 115 Revenue from contracts with customers, with effect from April 1, 2018. Ind AS 115 establishes principles for reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenues and cash flows arising from the contracts with its customers and replaces Ind AS 18 Revenue and Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts.

The Company has adopted Ind AS 115 using the cumulative effect method whereby the effect of applying this standard is recognised at the date of initial application (i.e. April 1, 2018). Accordingly, the comparative information in the statement of profit and loss is not restated. The impact of the adoption of the standard on the financial statements of the Company is given in note 24.

1.14.2 Interest income

For all debt instruments measured either at amortised cost or at FVTOCI, interest income is recorded using the EIR method.

1.14.3 Dividend income

Dividend income is accounted for when Company’s right to receive the income is established.

1.14.4 Insurance claims

I nsurance claims are accounted for on the basis of claims admitted / expected to be admitted and to the extent that there is no uncertainty in receiving the claims.

1.15 Leases

The determination of whether an agreement is, or contains, a lease is based on the substance of the agreement at the date of inception.

Finance Leases:

Lease arrangements in which substantially all risks and rewards of ownership of the under-lying assets are transferred to the Company, are classified as finance lease.

Assets held under finance leases are initially recognised at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the Balance Sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance expenses and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

Operating leases:

The leases which are not classified as finance lease are operating leases.

Lease arrangements where the risks and rewards of ownership of an asset substantially vest with the lessor are recognised as operating leases. Lease rentals under operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless the payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases.

1.16 Employee benefits plans

Employee benefits consist of provident fund, superannuation fund, gratuity fund, compensated absences, long service awards, post-retirement medical benefits, directors’ retirement obligations and family benefit scheme.

1.16.1 Post-employment benefit plans

Defined contribution plans

Payments to a defined contribution retirement benefit scheme for eligible employees in the form of superannuation fund are charged as an expense as they fall due. Such benefits are classified as Defined Contribution Schemes as the Company does not carry any further obligations, apart from the contributions made.

Defined benefit plans

Contributions to a Provident Fund are made to Tata Chemicals Limited Employees’ Provident Fund Trust, administered by the Company, and are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as incurred. The Trust invests in specific designated instruments as permitted by Indian law. The remaining portion is contributed to the government administered pension fund. The Company is liable for the contribution and any shortfall in interest between the amount of interest realised by the investments and the interest payable to members at the rate declared by the Government of India in respect of the Trust administered by the Company.

For defined benefit schemes in the form of gratuity fund, provident fund, post-retirement medical benefits, pension liabilities (including directors’) and family benefit scheme, the cost of providing benefits is actuarially determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date.

The retirement benefit obligation recognised in the Balance Sheet represents the present value of the defined benefit obligation as reduced by the fair value of scheme assets.

The present value of the said obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows, using market yields of government bonds of equivalent term and currency to the liability.

The interest income / (expense) are calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. The net interest income / (expense) on the net defined benefit liability is recognised in the Statement of Profit and loss.

Remeasurements, comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (if any), are recognised immediately in the Balance Sheet with a corresponding charge or credit to retained earnings through OCI in the period in which they occur. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Statement of Profit and Loss in subsequent periods.

Changes in the present value of the defined benefit obligation resulting from plan amendments or curtailments are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as past service cost.

1.16.2 Short-term employee benefits

The short-term employee benefits expected to be paid in exchange for the services rendered by employees is recognised during the period when the employee renders the service. These benefits include compensated absences such as paid annual leave and performance incentives which are expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services.

The cost of compensated absences is accounted as under:

(a) In case of accumulating compensated absences, when employees render service that increase their entitlement of future compensated absences; and

(b) In case of non - accumulating compensated absence, when the absences occur.

1.16.3 Other long-term employee benefits

Compensated absences which are not expected to occur within twelve months after the end of the period in which the employee renders the related services are recognised as a liability. The cost of providing benefits is actuarially determined using the projected unit credit method, with actuarial valuations being carried out at each Balance Sheet date. Long Service Awards are recognised as a liability at the present value of the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. All gains/losses due to actuarial valuations are immediately recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

1.17 Employee separation compensation

Compensation paid / payable to employees who have opted for retirement under a Voluntary Retirement Scheme including ex-gratia is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss in the year of separation.

1.18 Borrowing costs

Borrowing costs are interest and ancillary costs incurred in connection with the arrangement of borrowings. General and specific borrowing costs attributable to acquisition and construction of qualifying assets is added to the cost of the assets upto the date the asset is ready for its intended use. Capitalisation of borrowing costs is suspended and charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss during extended periods when active development activity on the qualifying assets is interrupted. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the period in which they are incurred.

1.19 Government grants

Government grants and subsidies are recognised when there is reasonable assurance that the Company will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants and subsidies will be received. Government grants whose primary condition is that the Company should purchase, construct or otherwise acquire non-current assets are recognised as deferred revenue in the Balance sheet and transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss on systematic and rational basis over the useful lives of the related asset.

1.20 Segment reporting

The operating segments are the segments for which separate financial information is available and for which operating profit/loss amounts are evaluated regularly by the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer (who is the Company’s chief operating decision maker) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance.

The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in conformity with the accounting policies of the Company. Segment revenue, segment expenses, segment assets and segment liabilities have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Inter segment revenue is accounted on the basis of transactions which are primarily determined based on market / fair value factors. Revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis have been included under ‘unallocated revenue / expenses / assets / liabilities.

1.21 Income tax

Tax expense for the year comprises current and deferred tax. The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the Statement of Profit or Loss because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Company’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts and there is an intention to realise the asset or to settle the liability on a net basis.

Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying values of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences arising between the tax base of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount, except when the deferred income tax arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction. In contrast, deferred tax assets are only recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.

The carrying value of deferred tax assets is reviewed at the end of each reporting period and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is realised based on the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period. The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and assets reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the end of the reporting period, to cover or settle the carrying value of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset to the extent that they relate to taxes levied by the same tax authority and there are legally enforceable rights to set off current tax assets and current tax liabilities within that jurisdiction.

Current and deferred tax are recognised as an expense or income in the statement of profit and loss, except when they relate to items credited or debited either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in which case the tax is also recognised in OCI or directly in equity.

Deferred tax assets include a credit for the Minimum Alternate Tax (‘MAT’) paid in accordance with the tax laws, which is likely to give future economic benefits in the form of availability of set off against future income tax liability. MAT asset is recognised as deferred tax assets in the Balance Sheet when the asset can be measured reliably, and it is probable that the future economic benefit associated with the asset will be realised.

1.22 Provisions and contingencies

A provision is recognised when the Company has a present obligation as a result of past events and it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation, in respect of which a reliable estimate of the amount can be made. Provisions are determined based on best estimate required to settle the obligation at the Balance Sheet date. When a provision is measured using the cash flows estimated to settle the present obligation, its carrying amount is the present value of those cash flows (when the effect of the time value of the money is material). The increase in the provisions due to passage of time is recognised as interest expense. Provisions are reviewed as at each reporting date and adjusted to reflect the current estimate.

Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non-occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a present obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.

Contingent assets are not disclosed in the financial statements unless an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

1.23 Dividend

Final dividend on shares is recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders and interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.