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Company Information

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INFOSYS LTD.

22 April 2024 | 12:24

Industry >> IT Consulting & Software

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ISIN No INE009A01021 BSE Code / NSE Code 500209 / INFY Book Value (Rs.) 181.68 Face Value 5.00
Bookclosure 31/05/2024 52Week High 1733 EPS 63.20 P/E 22.48
Market Cap. 589651.48 Cr. 52Week Low 1215 P/BV / Div Yield (%) 7.82 / 3.24 Market Lot 1.00
Security Type Other

NOTES TO ACCOUNTS

You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year
Year End :2023-03 

2.2.2 Other intangible assets Accounting policy

Intangible assets are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment. Intangible assets are amortized over their respective individual estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, from the date that they are available for use. The estimated useful life of an identifiable intangible asset is based on a number of factors, including the effects of obsolescence, demand, competition, and other economic factors (such as the stability of the industry, and known technological advances), and the level of maintenance expenditures required to obtain the expected future cash flows from the asset. Amortization methods and useful lives are reviewed periodically, including at each financial year end.

Research costs are expensed as incurred. Software product development costs are expensed as incurred unless technical and commercial feasibility of the project is demonstrated, the future economic benefits are probable, the Company has an intention and ability to complete and use or sell the software, and the costs can be measured reliably. The costs which can be capitalized include the cost of material, direct labor, and overhead costs that are directly attributable to prepare the asset for its intended use.

Research and Development expenditure

Research and Development expense recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 is ?639 crore and ?529 crore, respectively.

2.3 Leases Accounting policy

The Company as a lessee

The Company's lease asset classes consist of leases for land, buildings and computers. The Company assesses whether a contract contains a lease, at inception of a contract. A contract is, or contains, a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. To assess whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset, the Company assesses whether : (i) the contract involves the use of an identified asset

(ii) the Company has substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset through the period of the lease and

(iii) the Company has the right to direct the use of the asset.

At the date of commencement of the lease, the Company recognizes a right-of-use asset ("ROU") and a corresponding lease liability for all lease arrangements in which it is a lessee, except for leases with a term of twelve months or less (short-term leases) and low value leases. For these short-term and low value leases, the Company recognizes the lease payments as an operating expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.

As a lessee, the Company determines the lease term as the non-cancellable period of a lease adjusted with any option to extend or terminate the lease, if the use of such option is reasonably certain. The Company makes an assessment on the expected lease term on a lease-by-lease basis and thereby

assesses whether it is reasonably certain that any options to extend or terminate the contract will be exercised. In evaluating the lease term, the Company considers factors such as any significant leasehold improvements undertaken over the lease term, costs relating to the termination of the lease and the importance of the underlying asset to Infosys's operations taking into account the location of the underlying asset and the availability of suitable alternatives. The lease term in future periods is reassessed to ensure that the lease term reflects the current economic circumstances.

Certain lease arrangements include the options to extend or terminate the lease before the end of the lease term. ROU assets and lease liabilities includes these options when it is reasonably certain that they will be exercised.

The ROU assets are initially recognized at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for any lease payments made at or prior to the commencement date of the lease plus any initial direct costs less any lease incentives. They are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.

ROU assets are depreciated from the commencement date on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term and useful life of the underlying asset. Right-of-use-assets are evaluated for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. For the purpose of impairment testing, the recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of the fair value less cost to sell and the value-in-use) is determined on an individual asset basis unless the asset does not generate cash flows that are largely independent of those from other assets. In such cases, the recoverable amount is determined for the Cash Generating Unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs.

The lease liability is initially measured at amortized cost at the present value of the future lease payments. The lease payments are discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if not readily determinable, using the incremental borrowing rates in the country of domicile of these leases. Lease liabilities are remeasured with a corresponding adjustment to the related right-of-use asset if the Company changes its assessment to whether it will exercise an extension or a termination option.

Lease liability and ROU asset have been separately presented in the Balance Sheet and lease payments have been classified as financing cash flows.

The Company as a lessor

Leases for which the Company is a lessor is classified as a finance or operating lease. Whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee, the contract is classified as a finance lease. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

When the Company is an intermediate lessor, it accounts for its interests in the head lease and the sublease separately.

The sublease is classified as a finance or operating lease by reference to the right-of-use asset arising from the head lease.

For operating leases, rental income is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

2.5.1 Business transfer

During the year ending March 31, 2023, the Company entered into a business transfer agreement to transfer the German branch to its wholly-owned subsidiary, Infosys BPM Limited effective February 1, 2023. The business transfer resulted in a transfer of net assets amounting to ?1 crore and a business transfer reserve of ?18 crore.

Brilliant Basics Limited

On November 1,2021, the Company entered into a business transfer agreement to transfer the business of Brilliant Basics Limited to the Company for a consideration of ?109 crore resulting in recognition of a business transfer reserve of ?62 crore.

2.11 Financial instruments Accounting policy

2.11.1 Initial recognition

The Company recognizes financial assets and financial liabilities when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. All financial assets and liabilities are recognized at fair value on initial recognition, except for trade receivables which are initially measured at transaction price. Transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of financial assets and financial liabilities, which are not at fair value through profit or loss, are added to the fair value on initial recognition. Regular way purchase and sale of financial assets are accounted for at trade date.

2.11.2 Subsequent measurement

a. Non-derivative financial instruments

(i) Financial assets carried at amortized cost

A financial asset is subsequently measured at amortized cost if it is held within a business model whose objective is to hold the asset in order to collect contractual cash flows and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

(ii) Financial assets carried at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI)

A financial asset is subsequently measured at fair value through other comprehensive income if it is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets and the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding. The Company has made an irrevocable election for its investments which are classified as equity instruments to present the subsequent changes in fair value in other comprehensive income based on its business model.

(iii) Financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss

A financial asset, which is not categorized in any of the above categories, is subsequently fair valued through profit or loss.

(iv) Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities are subsequently carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method, except for contingent consideration recognized in a business combination, which is subsequently measured at fair value through profit or loss.

For trade and other payables maturing within one year from the Balance Sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

(v) Investment in subsidiaries

Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost in the separate financial statements.

b. Derivative financial instruments

The Company holds derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts, to mitigate the

risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for such contracts is generally a bank.

(i) Financial assets or financial liabilities, carried at fair value through profit or loss.

This category includes derivative financial assets or liabilities which are not designated as hedges.

Although the Company believes that these derivatives constitute hedges from an economic perspective, they may not qualify for hedge accounting under Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments.

Any derivative that is either not designated as hedge, or is so designated but is ineffective as per Ind AS 109, is categorized as a financial asset or financial liability, at fair value through profit or loss.

Derivatives not designated as hedges are recognized initially at fair value and attributable transaction costs are recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss when incurred. Subsequent to initial recognition, these derivatives are measured at fair value through profit or loss and the resulting exchange gains or losses are included in other income. Assets / liabilities in this category are presented as current assets / current liabilities if they are either held for trading or are expected to be realized within 12 months after the Balance Sheet date.

(ii) Cash flow hedge

The Company designates certain foreign exchange forward and options contracts as cash flow hedges to mitigate the risk of foreign exchange exposure on highly probable forecasted cash transactions.

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve. Any ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized immediately in the net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss. If the hedging instrument no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, then hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively. If the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised, the cumulative gain or loss on the hedging instrument recognized in cash flow hedge reserve, till the period the hedge was effective, remains in cash flow hedge reserve until the forecasted transaction occurs. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedge reserve is transferred to the net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction. If the forecasted transaction is no longer expected to occur, then the amount accumulated in cash flow hedge reserve is reclassified to net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.11.3 Derecognition of financial instruments

The Company derecognizes a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire or it transfers the financial asset and the transfer qualifies for derecognition under Ind AS 109. A financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) is derecognized from the Company's Balance Sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expires.

2.11.4 Fair value of financial instruments

In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company uses a variety of methods and assumptions that are based on market conditions and risks existing at each reporting date. The methods used to determine fair value include discounted cash flow analysis, option pricing model, market multiples, available quoted market prices and dealer quotes. All methods of assessing fair value result in general approximation of value, and such value may never actually be realized.

Refer to table 'Financial instruments by category' below for the disclosure on carrying value and fair value of financial assets and liabilities. For financial assets and liabilities maturing within one year from the Balance Sheet date and which are not carried at fair value, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

2.11.5 Impairment

The Company recognizes loss allowances using the expected credit loss (ECL) model for the financial assets and unbilled revenues which are not fair valued through profit or loss.

Loss allowance for trade receivables and unbilled revenues with no significant financing component is measured at an amount equal to lifetime ECL. For all other financial assets, expected credit losses are measured at an amount equal to the 12-month ECL, unless there has been a significant increase in credit risk from initial recognition, in which case those are measured at lifetime ECL.

The Company determines the allowance for credit losses based on historical loss experience adjusted to reflect current and estimated future economic conditions. The Company considers current and anticipated future economic conditions relating to industries the Company deals with and the countries where it operates.The amount of ECLs (or reversal) that is required to adjust the loss allowance at the reporting date to the amount that is required to be recorded is recognized as an impairment loss or gain in Statement of Profit and Loss.

For trade receivables, trade payables and other assets and payables maturing within one year from the Balance Sheet date, the carrying amounts approximate the fair value due to the short maturity of these instruments.

Fair value hierarchy

Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

Level 3 - Inputs for the assets or liabilities that are not based on observable market data (unobservable inputs).

During the year ended March 31, 2022, tax-free bonds of ?576 crore were transferred from Level 2 to Level 1 of fair value hierarchy since these were valued based on quoted price.

Further, tax-free bonds, non-convertible debentures and government securities of ?890 crore were transferred from Level 1 to Level 2 of fair value hierarchy, since these were valued based on market observable inputs.

A one percentage point change in the unobservable inputs, used in fair valuation of Level 3 assets and liabilities, does not have a significant impact in its value.

Financial risk management Financial risk factors

The Company's activities expose it to a variety of financial risks-market risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. The Company's primary focus is to foresee the unpredictability of financial markets and seek to minimize potential adverse effects on its financial performance. The primary market risk to the Company is foreign exchange risk. The Company uses derivative financial instruments to mitigate foreign exchange related risk exposures.

The Company's exposure to credit risk is influenced mainly by the individual characteristic of each customer and the concentration of risk from the top few customers.

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) when there is no realistic prospect of recovery.

Market risk

The Company operates internationally and a major portion of the business is transacted in several currencies and consequently the Company is exposed to foreign exchange risk through its sales and services in the United States and elsewhere, and purchases from overseas suppliers in various foreign currencies. The Company holds derivative financial instruments, such as foreign exchange forward and option contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The exchange rate between the Indian Rupee and foreign currencies has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of the Company's operations are adversely affected as the Rupee appreciates / depreciates against these currencies.

Sensitivity analysis is computed based on the changes in the income and expenses in foreign currency upon conversion into functional currency. This is due to exchange rate fluctuations between the previous reporting period and the current reporting period.

Derivative financial instruments

The Company holds derivative financial instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank. These derivative financial instruments are valued based on quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.

instrument, including whether the hedging instrument is expected to offset changes in cash flows of hedged items.

If the hedge ratio for risk management purposes is no longer optimal but the risk management objective remains unchanged and the hedge continues to qualify for hedge accounting, the hedge relationship will be rebalanced by adjusting either the volume of the hedging instrument or the volume of the hedged item so that the hedge ratio aligns with the ratio used for risk management purposes. Any hedge ineffectiveness is calculated and accounted for in the Statement of Profit or Loss at the time of the hedge relationship rebalancing.

During the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, the Company has designated certain foreign exchange forward and option contracts as cash flow hedges to mitigate the risk of foreign exchange exposure on highly probable forecasted cash transactions. The related hedge transactions for balance in cash flow hedge reserve as at March 31, 2023 are expected to occur and reclassified to Statement of Profit and Loss within three months.

The Company determines the existence of an economic relationship between the hedging instrument and hedged item based on the currency, amount and timing of its forecasted cash flows. Hedge effectiveness is determined at the inception of the hedge relationship, and through periodic prospective effectiveness assessments to ensure that an economic relationship exists between the hedged item and hedging

The Company offsets a financial asset and a financial liability when it currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and the Company intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Credit risk

Credit risk refers to the risk of default on its obligation by the counterparty resulting in a financial loss. The maximum exposure to the credit risk at the reporting date is primarily from trade receivables amounting to ?20,773 crore and ?18,966 crore as at March 31, 2023 and March 31,2022, respectively and unbilled revenue amounting to ?12,384 crore and ?9,279 crore as at March 31, 2023 and March 31,2022, respectively. Trade receivables and unbilled revenue are typically unsecured and are derived from revenue from customers majorly located in the US and Europe. Credit risk has always been managed by the Company through credit approvals, establishing credit limits and continuously monitoring the creditworthiness of the customers to which the Company grants credit terms in the normal course of business. The Company uses the expected credit loss model to assess any required allowances; and uses a provision matrix to compute the expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables and unbilled revenues. This matrix takes into account credit reports and other related credit information to the extent available.

The Company's exposure to credit risk is influenced mainly by the individual characteristic of each customer and the concentration of risk from the top few customers. Exposure to customers is diversified and there is no single customer contributing more than 10% of outstanding trade receivables and unbilled revenues.

Credit risk on cash and cash equivalents is limited as the Company generally invests in deposits with banks and financial institutions with high ratings, assigned by international and domestic credit rating agencies. Ratings are monitored periodically and the Company has considered the latest available credit ratings as at the date of approval of these financial statements.

Majority of investments of the Company are fair valued based on Level 1 or Level 2 inputs. These investments primarily include investment in liquid mutual fund units, target maturity fund units, tax free bonds, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, treasury bills, government securities, quoted bonds issued by government and quasi-government organizations and non-convertible debentures. The Company invests after considering counterparty risks based on multiple criteria including Tier I capital, Capital Adequacy Ratio, Credit Rating, Profitability, NPA levels and deposit base of banks and financial institutions. These risks are monitored regularly as per Company's risk management program.

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is defined as the risk that the Company will not be able to settle or meet its obligations on time.

The Company's principal sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents and the cash flow that is generated from operations. The Company has no outstanding borrowings. The Company believes that the working capital is sufficient to meet its current requirements.

As at March 31, 2023, the Company had a working capital of ?24,640 crore including cash and cash equivalents of ?6,534 crore and current investments of ?4,476 crore. As at March 31, 2022, the Company had a working capital of ?27,461 crore including cash and cash equivalents of ?12,270 crore and current investments of ?5,467 crore.

As at March 31, 2023 and March 31,2022, the outstanding compensated absences were ?1,969 crore and ?1,850 crore, respectively, which have been substantially funded. Accordingly, no liquidity risk is perceived.

2.12 Equity

Accounting policy

Ordinary shares

Ordinary shares are classified as equity share capital. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of new ordinary shares, share options and buyback are recognized as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.

Description of reserves

Capital redemption reserve

In accordance with section 69 of the Indian Companies Act, 2013, the Company creates capital redemption reserve equal to the nominal value of the shares bought back as an appropriation from general reserve / retained earnings.

Retained earnings

Retained earnings represent the amount of accumulated earnings of the Company.

Securities premium

The amount received in excess of the par value of equity shares has been classified as securities premium. Amounts have been utilized for bonus issue and share buyback from share premium account.

Share options outstanding account

The share options outstanding account is used to record the fair value of equity-settled, share-based payment transactions with employees. The amounts recorded in share options outstanding account are transferred to securities premium, upon exercise of stock options, and transferred to general reserve on account of stock options not exercised by employees.

Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Re-investment Reserve

The Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Re-investment Reserve has been created out of the profit of the eligible SEZ unit in terms of the provisions of Sec 10AA (1)(ii) of Income-tax Act, 1961.

The reserve should be utilized by the Company for acquiring new plant and machinery for the purpose of its business in terms of the provisions of the Sec 10AA (2) of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Other components of equity

Other components of equity include remeasurement of net defined benefit liability / asset, equity instruments fair valued through other comprehensive income, changes on fair valuation of investments and changes in fair value of derivatives designated as cash flow hedges, net of taxes.

Cash flow hedge reserve

When a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedging instrument, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of the derivative is recognized in other comprehensive income and accumulated in the cash flow hedging reserve. The cumulative gain or loss previously recognized in the cash flow hedging reserve is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss upon the occurrence of the related forecasted transaction.

The Company has only one class of shares referred to as equity shares having a par value of ?5. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The equity shares represented by American Depository Shares (ADS) carry similar rights to voting and dividends as the other equity shares. Each ADS represents one underlying equity share.

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive any of the remaining assets of the Company in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders, after distribution of all preferential amounts. However, no such preferential amounts exist currently. For details of shares reserved for issue under the employee stock option plan of the Company, refer to the note below.

In the period of five years immediately preceding March 31, 2023 :

Bonus issue

The Company has allotted 218,41,91,490 fully paid-up shares of face value ?5 each during the quarter ended September 30, 2018, pursuant to bonus issue approved by the shareholders through postal ballot. The bonus shares were issued by capitalization of profits transferred from general reserve. Bonus share of one equity share for every equity share held, and a bonus issue, viz., a stock dividend of one American Depositary Share (ADS) for every ADS held, respectively, has been allotted. Consequently, the ratio of equity shares underlying the ADSs held by an American Depositary Receipt holder remains unchanged.

The bonus shares once allotted shall rank pari passu in all respects and carry the same rights as the existing equity shareholders. These shall be entitled to participate in full, in any dividend and other corporate action, recommended and declared after the new equity shares are allotted.

Buyback

In the period of five years immediately preceding March 31, 2023, including the buyback completed in February 2023, the Company had purchased and extinguished a total of 22,67,52,951 fully paid-up equity shares of face value ?5 each from the stock exchange. The Company has only one class of equity shares.

Capital Allocation Policy and buyback

Effective fiscal 2020, the Company expects to return approximately 85% of the free cash flow cumulatively over a 5-year period through a combination of semi annual dividends and / or share buyback and / or special dividends, subject to applicable laws and requisite approvals, if any. Free cash flow is defined as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditure as per the consolidated Statement of Cash Flows prepared under IFRS. Dividend and buyback include applicable taxes.

Buyback completed in February 2023

In line with the Capital Allocation Policy, the Board, at its meeting held on October 13, 2022, approved the buyback of equity shares, from the open market route through the Indian stock exchanges, amounting to ?9,300 crore (maximum buyback size, excluding buyback tax) at a price not exceeding ?1,850 per share (maximum buyback price), subject to shareholders' approval by way of postal ballot.

The shareholders approved the proposal of buyback of Equity Shares recommended by the Board of Directors by way of e-voting on the postal ballot, the results of which were declared on December 3, 2022. The buyback was offered to all equity shareholders of the Company (other than the Promoters, the Promoter Group and Persons in Control of the Company) under the open market route through the stock exchange. The buyback of equity shares through the stock exchange commenced on December 7, 2022 and was completed on February 13, 2023. During this buyback period, the Company had purchased and extinguished a total of 6,04,26,348 equity shares from the stock exchange at a volume weighted average buyback price of ?1,539.06 per equity share comprising 1.44% of the pre buyback paid-up equity share capital of the Company. The buyback resulted in a cash outflow of ?9,300 crore (excluding transaction costs and tax on buyback). The Company funded the buyback from its free reserves including securities premium as explained in Section 68 of the Companies Act, 2013.

In accordance with Section 69 of the Companies Act, 2013, as at March 31,2023, the Company has created 'Capital Redemption Reserve' of ?30 crore equal to the nominal value of the shares bought back as an appropriation from general reserve and retained earnings.

Buyback completed in September 2021

In line with the Capital Allocation Policy, the Board, at its meeting held on April 14, 2021, approved the buyback of equity shares, from the open market route through the Indian stock exchanges, amounting to ?9,200 crore (Maximum Buyback Size, excluding buyback tax) at a price not exceeding ?1,750 per share (Maximum Buyback Price), subject to shareholders' approval in the ensuing Annual General Meeting.

The shareholders approved the proposal of buyback of equity shares recommended by the Board of Directors in the Annual General meeting held on June 19, 2021.

The buyback was offered to all equity shareholders of the Company (other than the Promoters, the Promoter Group and Persons in Control of the Company) under the open market route through the stock exchange. The buyback of equity shares through the stock exchange commenced on June 25, 2021 and was completed on September 8, 2021. During this buyback period, the Company had purchased and extinguished a total of 5,58,07,337 equity shares from the stock exchange at a volume weighted average buyback price of ?1,648.53 per equity share comprising 1.31% of the pre buyback paid up equity share capital of the Company. The buyback resulted in a cash outflow of ?9,200 crore (excluding transaction costs and tax on buyback). The Company funded the buyback from its free reserves including securities premium as explained in Section 68 of the Companies Act, 2013.

In accordance with Section 69 of the Companies Act, 2013, as at March 31, 2022, the Company has created 'Capital Redemption Reserve' of ?28 crore equal to the nominal value of the shares bought back as an appropriation from general reserve.

The Company's objective when managing capital is to safeguard its ability to continue as a going concern and to maintain an optimal capital structure so as to maximize shareholder value.

In order to maintain or achieve an optimal capital structure, the Company may adjust the amount of dividend payment, return capital to shareholders, issue new shares or buy back issued shares. As of March 31, 2023, the Company has only one class of equity shares and has no debt. Consequent to the above capital structure, there are no externally imposed capital requirements.

2.12.3 Dividend

The final dividend on shares is recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders. Interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company's Board. Income tax consequences of dividends on financial instruments classified as equity will be recognized according to where the entity originally recognized those past transactions or events that generated distributable profits.

The Company declares and pays dividends in Indian Rupees. Companies are required to pay / distribute dividend after deducting applicable taxes. The remittance of dividends outside India is governed by Indian law on foreign exchange and is also subject to withholding tax at applicable rates.

During the year ended March 31, 2023, on account of the final dividend for fiscal 2022 and interim dividend for fiscal 2023, the Company has incurred a net cash outflow of ?13,675 crore.

The Board of Directors, in their meeting held on April 13, 2023, recommended a final dividend of ?17.50 per equity share for the financial year ended March 31, 2023. This payment is subject to the approval of shareholders in the AGM of the Company to be held on June 28, 2023 and if approved, would result in a net cash outflow of approximately ?7,260 crore.

2.12.4 Employee Stock Option Plan :

Accounting policy

The Company recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit based on estimated fair-values of the awards on the grant date. The estimated fair value of awards is recognized as an expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was in-substance, multiple awards with a corresponding increase to share options outstanding account.

Infosys Expanded Stock Ownership Program 2019 ("the 2019 Plan")

On June 22, 2019, pursuant to approval by the shareholders in the Annual General Meeting, the Board has been authorized to introduce, offer, issue and provide share-based incentives to eligible employees of the Company and its subsidiaries under the 2019 Plan. The maximum number of shares under the 2019 Plan shall not exceed 5,00,00,000 equity shares. To implement the 2019 Plan, up to 4,50,00,000 equity shares may be issued by way of secondary acquisition of shares by Infosys Expanded Stock Ownership Trust. The Restricted Stock Units (RSUs) granted under the 2019 Plan shall vest based on the achievement of defined annual performance parameters as determined by the administrator (Nomination and Remuneration Committee).

The performance parameters will be based on a combination of relative Total Shareholder Return (TSR) against selected industry peers and certain broader market domestic and global indices, and operating performance metrics of the company as decided by administrator. Each of the above performance parameters will be distinct for the purposes of calculation of quantity of shares to vest based on performance. These instruments will generally vest between a minimum of one to a maximum of three years from the grant date.

2015 Stock Incentive Compensation Plan ("the 2015 Plan")

On March 31,2016, pursuant to the approval by the shareholders through postal ballot, the Board was authorized to introduce, offer, issue and allot share-based incentives to eligible employees of the Company and its subsidiaries under the 2015 Plan.

The maximum number of shares under the 2015 Plan shall not exceed 2,40,38,883 equity shares (this includes 1,12,23,576 equity shares which are held by the trust towards the 2011 Plan as at March 31,2016). These instruments will generally vest over a period of four years. The plan numbers mentioned are further adjusted with the September 2018 bonus issue.

The equity-settled and cash-settled RSUs and stock options would vest generally over a period of four years, and shall be exercisable within the period as approved by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee (NARC). The exercise price of the RSUs will be equal to the par value of the shares and the exercise price of the stock options would be the market price as on the date of grant.

Controlled trust holds 1,21,72,119 shares and 1,37,25,712 shares as at March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, respectively under the 2015 Plan. Out of these shares, 2,00,000 equity shares each have been earmarked for welfare activities of the employees as at March 31,2023 and March 31,2022.

Notes on grants to KMP :

CEO & MD

Based on the recommendations of the Board and the approval of the shareholders at the AGM held on June 25, 2022, Salil Parekh has been reappointed as the CEO and MD of the Company for a term commencing on July 1, 2022 and ending on March 31, 2027. The remuneration is approved by the shareholders in the AGM. The revised employment agreement is effective July 1, 2022.

Under the 2015 Plan

The Board, on April 13, 2022, based on the recommendations of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, in accordance with the terms of his employment agreement effective till June 30, 2022, approved the grant of performance-based RSUs of fair value of ?13 crore for fiscal 2023 under the 2015 Plan. These RSUs will vest in line with the employment agreement based on achievement of certain performance targets. Accordingly, 84,361 performance-based RSUs were granted effective May 2, 2022.

Further, in line with the shareholders approval and revised employment contract which is effective July 1, 2022, the Board, on July 24, 2022, based on the recommendations of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee :

• Approved the grant of performance-based RSUs (Annual performance equity grant) of fair value of ?21.75 crore for fiscal 2023 under the 2015 Plan. These RSUs will

vest in line with the employment agreement based on achievement of certain performance targets. Accordingly, 140,228 performance-based RSUs were granted effective August 1, 2022.

• Approved the performance-based grant of RSUs (Annual performance equity ESG grant) of fair value of ?2 crore for fiscal 2023 under the 2015 Plan. These RSUs will vest in line with the employment agreement based on achievement of certain environment, social and governance milestones as determined by the Board. Accordingly, 12,894 performance-based RSUs were granted effective August 1, 2022.

• Approved the performance-based grant of RSUs (Annual performance equity TSR grant) of fair value of ?5 crore for fiscal 2023 under the 2015 Plan. These RSUs will vest in line with the employment agreement based on Company's performance on cumulative relative TSR over the years and as determined by the Board. Accordingly, 32,236 performance-based RSUs were granted effective August 1, 2022.

For the above RSUs, the grant date in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-based payment is July 1,2022.

Further, in accordance with the employee agreement which has been approved by the shareholders, the CEO is eligible to receive an annual grant of RSUs of fair value ?3 crore which will vest overtime in three equal annual installments upon the completion of each year of service from the respective grant date. Accordingly, annual time-based grant of 19,341 RSUs was made effective February 1, 2023 for fiscal 2023.

Though the annual time-based grants and annual performance equity TSR grant for the remaining employment term ending on March 31, 2027 have not been granted as of March 31, 2023, since the service commencement date precedes the grant date, the Company has recorded employment stock compensation expense in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-based payment.

Under the 2019 Plan

The Board, on April 13, 2022, based on the recommendations of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, approved performance-based grant of RSUs amounting to ?10 crore for fiscal 2023 under the 2019 Plan. These RSUs will vest in line with the employment agreement effective till June 30, 2022 based on achievement of certain performance targets. Accordingly, 64,893 performance-based RSUs were granted effective May 2, 2022.

Other KMP

Under the 2015 Plan

During the year ended March 31, 2023, based on recommendations of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, the Board approved 66,872 time based RSUs and 11,547 performance-based RSUs to other KMP under the 2015 Plan. Time based RSUs will vest over four years and performance-based RSUs will vest over one to three years based on certain performance targets.

Under the 2019 Plan

During the year ended March 31, 2023, based on recommendations of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, the Board approved performance-based grants of 1,45,750 RSUs to other KMPs under the 2019 Plan. These RSUs will vest over three years based on achievement of certain performance targets.

As at March 31,2023 and March 31,2022, 2,24,924 and 2,65,561 cash settled options were outstanding, respectively. The carrying value of liability towards cash-settled share-based payments was ?4 crore and ?13 crore as at March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 respectively.

The fair value of the awards are estimated using the Black-Scholes Model for time and non-market performance-based options, and Monte Carlo simulation model is used for TSR-based options.

The inputs to the model include the share price at date of grant, exercise price, expected volatility, expected dividends, expected term and the risk-free rate of interest. Expected volatility during the expected term of the options is based on historical volatility of the observed market prices of the Company's publicly traded equity shares during a period equivalent to the expected term of the options. Expected volatility of the comparative company have been modelled based on historical movements in the market prices of their publicly traded equity shares during a period equivalent to the expected term of the options. Correlation coefficient is calculated between each peer entity and the indices as a whole or between each entity in the peer group.

A provision is recognized if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that is reasonably estimable, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

a. Post-sales client support

The Company provides its clients with a fixed-period post-sales support on its fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts. Costs associated with such support services are accrued at the time related revenues are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company estimates such costs based on historical experience and estimates are reviewed on a periodic basis for any material changes in assumptions and likelihood of occurrence.

b. Onerous contracts

Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on incomplete contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the estimated efforts or costs to complete the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected

Provision for post-sales client support and other provisions majorly represents costs associated with providing sales support services which are accrued at the time of recognition of revenues and are expected to be utilized over a period of one year.

2.17 Income taxes Accounting policy

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in equity or other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities, and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. These are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of

changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of subsidiaries and branches where it is expected that the earnings of the subsidiary or branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future.

The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities; deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities; where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

Tax benefits of deductions earned on exercise of employee share options in excess of compensation charged to income are credited to equity.

Income tax expense for the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 includes reversal (net of provisions) of ?116 crore and ?250 crore, respectively. These reversals pertaining to prior periods are primarily on account of adjudication of certain disputed matters, upon filing of tax return and completion of assessments, across various jurisdictions.

The applicable Indian corporate statutory tax rate for the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 is 34.94% each.

The foreign tax expense is due to income taxes payable overseas, principally in the United States. In India, the Company has benefited from certain income tax incentives that the Government of India had provided for export of software and services from the units registered under the Special Economic Zones Act (SEZs), 2005. SEZ units, which began the provision of services on or after April 1,2005 are eligible for a deduction of 100% of profits or gains derived from the export of services for the first five years from the financial year in which the unit commenced the provision of services and 50% of such profits or gains for further five years. Up to 50% of such profits or gains is also available for a further five years subject to creation of a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Re-investment Reserve out of the profit for the eligible SEZ units and utilization of such reserve by the Company for acquiring new plant and machinery for the purpose of its business as per the provisions of the Income-tax Act, 1961.

Deferred income tax for the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 substantially relates to origination and reversal of temporary differences.

Infosys is subject to a 15% Branch Profit Tax (BPT) in the US to the extent its US branch's net profit during the year is greater than the increase in the net assets of the US branch during the year, computed in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code. As at March 31, 2023, Infosys' US branch net assets amounted to approximately ?6,948 crore. As at March 31, 2023, the Company has a deferred tax liability for branch profit tax of ?148 crore (net of credits), as the Company estimates that these branch profits are expected to be distributed in the foreseeable future.

Deferred income tax liabilities have not been recognized on temporary differences amounting to ?10,948 crore and ?9,618 crore as at March 31,2023 and March 31,2022, respectively, associated with investments in subsidiaries and branches as the Company is able to control the timing of reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

The Company majorly intends to repatriate earnings from subsidiaries and branches only to the extent these can be distributed in a tax free manner.

Deferred income tax assets have not been recognized on accumulated losses of ?1,358 crore and ?1,345 crore as at March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, respectively as it is probable that future taxable profit will not be available against which the unused tax losses can be utilized in the foreseeable future. Majority of the accumulated losses as at March 31, 2023 will expire between financial years 2028 to 2030.

When assessing the reliability of deferred income tax assets, the Management considers whether a portion or the entire deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred income tax assets depends on the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. The Management considers the scheduled reversals of deferred income tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Based on the level of historical taxable income and projections for future taxable income over the periods in which the deferred income tax assets are deductible, Management believes that the Company will realize the benefits of those deductible differences. The amount of the deferred income tax assets considered realizable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carry forward period are reduced.

The Company's Advanced Pricing Arrangement (APA) with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for US branch income tax expired in March 2021. The Company has applied for renewal of APA and currently the US taxable income is based on the Company's best estimate determined based on the expected value method.

The Company derives revenues primarily from IT services comprising software development and related services, cloud and infrastructure services, maintenance, consulting and package implementation, licensing of software products and platforms across the Company's core and digital offerings (together called as "software related services"). Contracts with customers are either on a time-and-material, unit of work, fixed-price or on a fixed-timeframe basis.

Revenues from customer contracts are considered for recognition and measurement when the contract has been approved in writing, by the parties to the contract, the parties have committed to perform their obligations under the contract and the contract is legally enforceable. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services ('performance obligations') to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company has received or expects to receive in exchange for these products or services ('transaction price'). When there is uncertainty as to collectability, revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved.

The Company assesses the services promised in a contract and identifies distinct performance obligations in the contract.

The Company allocates the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price. The price that is regularly charged for an item, when sold separately, is the best evidence of its standalone selling price. In the absence of such evidence, the primary method used to estimate standalone selling price is the expected cost plus a margin, under which the Company estimates the cost of satisfying the performance obligation and then adds an appropriate margin based on similar services.

The Company's contracts may include variable consideration including rebates, volume discounts and penalties. The Company includes variable consideration as part of transaction price when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount of the variable consideration and when it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved.

Revenue on time-and-material and unit-of-work-based contracts, are recognized as the related services are performed. Fixed-price maintenance revenue is recognized ratably either on a straightline basis, when services are performed through an indefinite number of repetitive acts over a specified period, or ratably using a percentage of completion method when the pattern of benefits from the services rendered to the customer and Company's costs to fulfil the contract is not even through the period of contract because the services are generally discrete in nature and not repetitive. Revenue from other fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts, where the performance obligations are satisfied over time, is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method. Efforts or costs expended are used to determine progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Progress towards completion is measured as the ratio of costs or efforts incurred to date (representing work performed) to the estimated total costs or efforts. Estimates of transaction price and total costs or efforts are continuously monitored over the term of the contracts and are recognized in net profit in the period when these estimates change or when the estimates are revised. Revenues and the estimated total costs or efforts are subject to revision as the contract progresses. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on incomplete contracts, are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the estimated efforts or costs to complete the contract.

The billing schedules agreed with customers include periodic performance-based billing and / or milestone-based progress billings. Revenues in excess of billing are classified as unbilled revenues, while billing in excess of revenues is classified as contract liabilities (which we refer to as "unearned revenues").

In arrangements for software development and related services and maintenance services, the revenue recognition criteria for each distinct performance obligation is applied and the arrangements with customers generally meet this criteria for considering software development and related service as distinct performance obligations. For allocating the transaction price, the Company measures the revenue in respect of each performance obligation of a contract at its relative standalone selling price. The price that is regularly charged for an item when sold separately is the best evidence of its standalone selling price. In cases where the Company is unable to determine the standalone selling price, the Company uses the expected cost plus margin approach in estimating the standalone selling price. For software development and related services, the performance obligations are satisfied as and when the services are rendered, since the customer generally obtains control of the work as it progresses.

Certain cloud and infrastructure services contracts include multiple elements which may be subject to other specific accounting guidance, such as leasing guidance. These contracts are accounted in accordance with such specific accounting guidance. In such arrangements where the Company is able to determine that hardware and services are distinct performance obligations, it allocates the consideration to these performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. In the absence of standalone selling price, the Company uses the expected cost-plus margin approach in estimating the standalone selling price. When such arrangements are considered as a single performance obligation, revenue is recognized over the period and measure of progress is determined based on promise in the contract.

Revenue from licenses where the customer obtains a "right to use" the licenses is recognized at the time the license is made available to the customer. Revenue from licenses where the customer obtains a "right to access" is recognized over the access period.

Arrangements to deliver software products generally have three elements : license, implementation and Annual Technical Services (ATS). When implementation services are provided in conjunction with the licensing arrangement, and the license and implementation have been identified as two distinct separate performance obligations, the transaction price for such contracts are allocated to each performance obligation of the contract based on their relative standalone selling prices. In the absence of standalone selling price for implementation, the Company uses the expected cost-plus-margin approach in estimating the standalone selling price. Where the license is required to be substantially customized as part of the implementation service, the entire arrangement fee for license and implementation is considered to be a single performance obligation and the revenue is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method while the implementation is performed. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied. ATS revenue is recognized ratably on a straight-line over the period in which the services are rendered.

Contracts with customers includes subcontractor services or third-party vendor equipment or software in certain integrated services arrangements. In these types of arrangements, revenue from sales of third-party vendor products or services is recorded net of costs when the Company is acting as an agent between the customer and the vendor, and gross when the Company is the principal for the transaction. In doing so, the Company first evaluates whether it controls the good or service before it is transferred to the customer. The Company considers whether it has the primary obligation to fulfil the contract, inventory risk, pricing discretion and other factors to determine whether it controls the goods or service and, therefore, is acting as a principal or an agent.

The incremental costs of obtaining a contract (i.e., costs that would not have been incurred if the contract had not been obtained) are recognized as an asset if the Company expects to recover them.

Certain eligible, non-recurring costs (e.g. set-up or transition or transformation costs) that do not represent a separate performance obligation are recognized as an asset when such costs (a) relate directly to the contract; (b) generate or enhance resources of the Company that will be used in satisfying the performance obligation in the future; and (c) are expected to be recovered.

Capitalized contract costs, relating to upfront payments to customers, are amortized to revenue and other capitalized costs are amortized to expenses over the respective contract life on a systematic basis consistent with the transfer of goods or services to customer to which the asset relates. Capitalized costs are monitored regularly for impairment. Impairment losses are recorded when the present value of projected remaining operating cash flows is not sufficient to recover the carrying amount of the capitalized costs.

The Company presents revenues net of indirect taxes in its Statement of Profit and Loss.

Digital services

Digital services comprise of service and solution offerings of the Company that enable our clients to transform their businesses. These include offerings that enhance customer experience, leverage AI-based analytics and Big Data, engineer digital products and IoT, modernize legacy technology systems, migrate to cloud applications and implement advanced cyber security systems.

Core services

Core services comprise traditional offerings of the Company that have scaled and industrialized over a number of years. These primarily include application management services, proprietary application development services, independent validation solutions, product engineering and management, infrastructure management services, traditional enterprise application implementation, support and integration services.

Products and platforms

The Company derives revenues from the sale of products and platforms including Infosys Applied AI which applies next-generation AI and machine learning.

The percentage of revenue from fixed-price contracts for each of the years ended March 31,2023 and March 31, 2022 is approximately 55% and 53%, respectively.

Trade receivables and contract balances

The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in receivables, unbilled revenue, and unearned revenue on the Company's Balance Sheet. Amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, either at periodic intervals (e.g., monthly or quarterly) or upon achievement of contractual milestones.

The Company's receivables are rights to consideration that are unconditional. Unbilled revenues, comprising revenues in excess of billings from time and material contracts and fixed-price maintenance contracts, are classified as financial asset when the right to consideration is unconditional and is due only after a passage of time.

Invoicing to the clients for other fixed-price contracts is based on milestones as defined in the contract and, therefore, the timing of revenue recognition is different from the timing of invoicing to the customers. Therefore, unbilled revenues for other fixed-price contracts (contract asset) are classified as non-financial asset because the right to consideration depends on completion of contractual milestones.

Invoicing in excess of earnings are classified as 'unearned revenue'.

Trade receivables and unbilled revenues are presented net of impairment in the Balance Sheet.

During the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 , the company recognized revenue of ?4,391 crore and ?2,831 crore arising from opening unearned revenue as of April 1, 2022 and April 1, 2021, respectively.

During the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022,

5,378 crore and ?3,711 crore of unbilled revenue pertaining to other fixed price and fixed-timeframe contracts as of April 1, 2022 and April 1, 2021, respectively has been reclassified to Trade receivables upon billing to customers on completion of milestones.

Remaining performance obligation disclosure

The remaining performance obligation disclosure provides the aggregate amount of the transaction price yet to be recognized as at the end of the reporting period, and an explanation as

to when the Company expects to recognize these amounts in revenue. Applying the practical expedient as given in Ind AS 115, the Company has not disclosed the remaining performance obligation related disclosures for contracts where the revenue recognized corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the entity's performance completed to date, typically those contracts where invoicing is on time-and-material and unit of work-based contracts. Remaining performance obligation estimates are subject to change and are affected by several factors, including terminations, changes in the scope of contracts, periodic revalidations, adjustment for revenue that has not materialized and adjustments for currency fluctuations.

The aggregate value of performance obligations that are completely or partially unsatisfied as at March 31, 2023, other than those meeting the exclusion criteria mentioned above, is ?70,680 crore. Out of this, the Company expects to recognize revenue of around 57.7% within the next one year and the remaining thereafter. The aggregate value of performance obligations that are completely or partially unsatisfied as at March 31, 2022 is ?65,748 crore. The contracts can generally be terminated by the customers and typically includes an enforceable termination penalty payable by them. Generally, customers have not terminated contracts without cause.

2.19 Other income, net

2.19.1 Other income Accounting policy

Other income is comprised primarily of interest income, dividend income, gain / loss on investments and exchange gain / loss on forward and options contracts, and on translation of foreign currency assets and liabilities. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

2.19.2 Foreign currency Accounting policy

Functional currency

The functional currency of the Company is the Indian Rupee. These financial statements are presented in Indian Rupees (rounded off to crore; one crore equals ten million).

Transactions and translations

Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss and reported within exchange gains / (losses) on translation of assets and liabilities, net, except when deferred in Other Comprehensive Income as qualifying cash flow hedges. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the transaction. The related revenue and expense are recognized using the same exchange rate.

Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash-flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.

Other Comprehensive Income, net of taxes includes translation differences on non-monetary financial assets measured at fair value at the reporting date, such as equities classified as financial instruments and measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI).

Government grant

The Company recognizes government grants only when there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them will be complied with, and the grants will be received. Government grants related to assets are treated as deferred income and are recognized in the net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a systematic and rational basis over the useful life of the asset. Government grants related to revenue are recognized on a systematic basis in the net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the periods necessary to match them with the related costs which they intend to compensate.

2.21 Employee benefits Accounting policy

2.21.1 Gratuity and pensions

The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan ("the Gratuity Plan") covering eligible Indian employees of Infosys. The Gratuity Plan provides a lumpsum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee's salary and the tenure of employment with the Company.

The Company contributes gratuity liabilities to the Infosys Limited Employees' Gratuity Fund Trust ("the Trust"). Trustees administer contributions made to the Trusts and contributions are invested in a scheme with the Life Insurance Corporation of India as permitted by Indian law.

The Company operates defined benefit pension plan in certain overseas jurisdictions, in accordance with the local laws. These plans are managed by third party fund managers. The plans provide for periodic payouts after retirement and / or a lumpsum payment as set out in rules of each fund and includes death and disability benefits. The defined benefit plans require contributions, which are based on a percentage of salary that varies depending on the age of the respective employees.

Liabilities with regard to these defined benefit plans are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an external actuary, at each Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method. These defined benefit plans expose the Company to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk and market risk.

The Company recognizes the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its Balance Sheet as an asset or liability. Gains and losses through re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability / (asset) are recognized in other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation is recognized in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments is recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.21.2 Provident fund

Eligible employees of Infosys receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the eligible employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee's salary. The Company contributes a portion to the Infosys Limited Employees' Provident Fund Trust. The trust invests in specific designated instruments as permitted by Indian law. The remaining portion is contributed to the government-administered pension fund. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the Government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate.

2.21.3 Superannuation

Certain employees of Infosys are participants in a defined contribution plan. The Company has no further obligations to the plan beyond its monthly contributions, which are periodically contributed to a trust fund, the corpus of which is invested with the Life Insurance Corporation of India.

2.21.4 Compensated absences

The Company has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature.

The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is

determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each Balance Sheet date. This is done using projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid / availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on nonaccumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.

For domestic defined benefit plan in India, assumptions regarding future mortality experience are set in accordance with the published statistics by the Life Insurance Corporation of India. For overseas defined benefit plan, the assumptions regarding future mortality experience are set with regard to the latest statistics in life expectancy, plan experience and other relevant data.

The Company assesses all the above assumptions with its projected long-term plans of growth and prevalent industry standards.

The Company contributes all ascertained liabilities towards gratuity to the Infosys Limited Employees' Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees administer contributions made to the trust.

The plan assets of the overseas defined benefit plan have been primarily invested in insurer managed funds and the asset allocation for plan assets is determined based on the investment criteria prescribed under the relevant regulations applicable to pension funds and the insurer managers. The insurers' investment are well diversified and also provide for guaranteed interest rates arrangements.

Actual return on assets (including remeasurement) of the gratuity plan for the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022 were fill crore and f105 crore, respectively and for the pension plan were (f44) crore and f53 crore, respectively.

The contributions for gratuity are invested in a scheme with the Life Insurance Corporation of India as permitted by Indian law. The details of major plan assets into various categories as at March 3i, 2023 and March 3i, 2022 are as follows :

These defined benefit plans expose the Company to actuarial risk

which are set out below :

Interest rate risk : The present value of the defined benefit plan liability is generally calculated using a discount rate determined with reference to government bond yields and in certain overseas jurisdictions, it is calculated in reference to government bond yield adjusted for a corporate spread.

If bond yields fall, the defined benefit obligation will tend to increase.

Life expectancy and investment risk : The pension fund offers the choice between a lifelong pension and a cash lumpsum upon retirement. The pension fund has defined rates for converting the lumpsum to a pension and there is the risk that the members live longer than implied by these conversion rates and that the pension assets don't achieve the investment return implied by these conversion rates.

Asset volatility : A proportion of the pension fund is held in equities, which is expected to outperform corporate bonds in the long term but give exposure to volatility and risk in the short term. The pension fund board of insurer is responsible for the investment strategy and equity allocation is justified given the long-term investment horizon of the pension fund and the objective to provide a reasonable long term return on members' account balances.

b. Superannuation

The Company contributed ?468 crore and ?342 crore to the Superannuation trust during the years ended March 31,2023 and March 31, 2022 respectively, and the same has been recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss account under the head employee benefit expense.

c. Provident fund

Infosys has an obligation to fund any shortfall on the yield of the trust's investments over the administered interest rates on an annual basis. These administered rates are determined annually, predominantly considering the social rather than economic factors. The actuary has provided a valuation for provident fund liabilities on the basis of guidance issued by Actuarial Society of India.

The asset allocation for plan assets is determined based on the investment criteria prescribed under the relevant regulations.

The actuarial valuation of PF liability exposes the Company to interest rate risk. The defined benefit obligation calculated uses a discount rate based on government bonds. If bond yields fall, the defined benefit obligation will tend to increase.

As at March 31, 2023, the defined benefit obligation would be affected by approximately ?48 crore and ?97 crore on account of a 0.25% increase / decrease in the expected rate of return on plan assets.

The Company contributed ?1,053 crore and ?768 crore to the provident fund during the years ended March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, respectively. The same has been recognized in the net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss under the head, employee benefit expense.

Accounting policy

Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable, had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding equity shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as at the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.

The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented for any share splits and bonus shares issues, for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board.

* Uncalled capital pertaining to investments

(,) As at March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts in respect of income tax matters amounted to ?3,953 crore and ?3,898 crore, respectively.

The claims against the Company primarily represent demands arising on completion of assessment proceedings under the Income-tax Act, 1961. These claims are on account of multiple issues of disallowances, such as disallowance of profits earned from STP Units and SEZ Units, disallowance of deductions in respect of employment of new employees under Section 80JJAA, disallowance of expenditure towards software being held as capital in nature, and payments made to Associated Enterprises held as liable for withholding of taxes. These matters are pending before various Income tax authorities and the Management including its tax advisors expect that its position will likely be upheld on ultimate resolution, and will not have a material adverse effect on the Company's financial position and results of operations.

Amount paid to statutory authorities against the tax claims amounted to ?6,105 crore and ?5,607 crore as at March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, respectively.

(2) Capital contracts primarily comprise commitments for infrastructure facilities and computer equipments.

Legal proceedings

The Company is subject to legal proceedings and claims, which have arisen in the ordinary course of business. The Company's management reasonably expects that these legal actions, when ultimately concluded and determined, will not have a material and adverse effect on the Company's results of operations or financial condition.

(,) Effective January 1, 2022, Infosys Foundation a trust jointly controlled by the KMP of Infosys Limited is a related party. For the year ending March 31, 2023, the Company has made contributions to Infosys foundation to fulfil its corporate social responsibilities. Infosys Foundation supports programs in the areas of education, rural development, healthcare, arts and culture, and destitute care.

(2) Represents contribution to Infosys Science foundation for the year ending March 31, 2022 a controlled trust to support the Infosys Prize program towards contemporary research in the various branches of science as a part of ongoing project.

* The unspent amount will be transferred to unspent CSR account within 30 days from the end of the financial year, in accordance with the Companies Act, 2013 read with the CSR Amendment Rules.

Consequent to the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Amendment Rules, 2021 ("the Rules"), the Company was required to transfer its CSR capital assets created prior to January 2021. Accordingly the Company incorporated a controlled subsidiary , 'Infosys Green Forum' under Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013 and during the year ended March 31, 2022, the Company has completed the transfer of assets upon obtaining the required approvals from regulatory authorities, as applicable.

2.26 Segment reporting

The Company publishes this financial statement along with the consolidated financial statements. In accordance with Ind AS 108, Operating Segments, the Company has disclosed the segment information in the Consolidated Financial Statements.